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  • Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Tjälproblem i lerterrass2018Report (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Design of Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete Bridges: A Comparative Study to Conventional Concrete Bridges2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) in the construction industry started in the 1990s and has since then been used for bridges all over the world. The mechanical properties and the dense matrix result in lower material usage and superior durability compared to conventional concrete, but the implementation of UHPFRC in the Swedish industry has been delayed. The most evident explanation, based on interview with industry representatives, as to why UHPFRC is not commonly used in Sweden are due to the lack of standards and knowledge. UHPFRC also has a high cement content and the cement industry contributes with high carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the total CO2 emissions in the world.

    This MSc Thesis looks into if a UHPFRC bridge is a feasible alternative to a conventional reinforced concrete structure bridge from design and material usage perspectives, regarding reduction of CO2 emissions. The project’s overall goal is to increase the knowledge in Sweden about the material, regarding the production, mechanical properties and behaviour of UHPFRC, and the design, regarding the difference in design between UHPFRC and conventional concrete bridges.

    To examine the material, a UHPFRC mixture with short straight steel fibres was developed. Specimens were tested to see how the different fibre contents affect the mechanical properties and which fibre content that is most favourable. Three different fibre contents were tested: 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% of the total volume of the mixture. The tested and evaluated mechanical properties were workability, flexural strength, tensile strength, fracture energy, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. This study does not contain tests of durability of UHPFRC, however trough the literature review it was investigated to what extent the fibres affect the durability.

    It was concluded that an increase in fibre content results in improved mechanical properties, except for workability and in some cases when using a fibre content of 2.5%. The increase in the mechanical properties is due to the increased cracking resistance and the bond strength between the fibres and the matrix. The decrease in the mechanical properties, e.g. characteristic tensile strength and compressive strength of cylinders, for 2.5% in fibre content can be due to uneven fibre distribution and higher amount of air in the specimens which result in less strength. It was concluded that 2.0% in fibre content is most favourable. It was possible to conclude that the degradation of the fibres takes a long time, however not to what extent the fibres will affect the durability.

    To evaluate if UHPFRC is a viable economical and environmental alternative to regular concrete bridges, three cases of bridge design are considered. Two cases with UHPFRC (different thickness) and one case with conventional concrete. Up to 2017 only technical guidelines and recommendations for design with UHPFRC existed, but in 2017 the first approved standards in the world were published. The French national standards cover material (NF P18-470, 2016) and design (NF P18-710, 2016) and were used for the design process. The material usage regarding the amount of reinforced UHPFRC/concrete and steel reinforcement as well as the amount of CO2 emissions from the production of cement and steel (fibre and steel reinforcement) used for the bridges in the mid-span and at the support were investigated. The design process was also evaluated.

    It was concluded that the UHPFRC bridge with an optimized thickness was 47% lighter than the conventional concrete bridge, but the amount of CO2 emissions was still higher (e.g. 23% from the support). To be able to determine if a UHPFRC bridge is a feasible alternative to a conventional concrete bridge, with regards to the reduction of CO2 emissions, the CO2 emissions have to be observed in a wider perspective than only from the production of cement and steel, e.g. fewer transports and longer lifetime.

  • Fahlén, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Dirigering: en undersökning om hur Tai Chi och imitationer av andra dirigenter kan utveckla kroppsmedvetenhet och gestik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innan genomförandet av detta arbete hade jag svårt att kontrollera långsamma gester när jag dirigerade. Mina gester liknade mina lärares och jag hade inte verktygen för att komma på egna. Syftet med detta arbete var att utveckla min kroppsmedvetenhet och gestik genom träning av Tai Chi och imitation av tre dirigenter. Tai Chi-träningen bestod av fem privatlektioner med instruktör och egen träning utöver det. För imitationerna letade jag upp klipp på Youtube där dirigenten är synlig, övade in dirigentens gestik och filmade mig själv ur liknande kameravinkel. Efter att jag spelat in mina imitationer gjordes en analys där jag jämförde likheter och skillnader mellan mig och dirigenterna. Dirigenterna som jag imiterade är Osmo Vänskä, JoAnn Falletta och Eiji Oue.

    Några rörelser från Tai Chi-träningen och gester från imitationerna använde jag sedan i det konstnärliga arbetet med två orkesterprojekt. I det första projektet leder jag Norrbotten NEO och medvetet tagit in rörelser och gestik från Tai Chi-träningen och imitationerna. Det andra projektet består av två delar. Första delen består av en förberedelse då jag dirigerar Mårten Landström på piano. Andra delen består av att jag leder Norrlandsoperans symfoniorkester. I andra projektet gjorde jag ett val att inte medvetet lägga in rörelser och gestik utan gick mer på intuition.

    Arbetet har lett till att min kroppsmedvetenhet och gestik har utvecklats positivt. Min vänsterhand är mer självständig och gestiken är mer varierande än innan arbetet. Att imitera andra dirigenter visade sig vara en bra metod för att utveckla gestiken.

  • León Zapata, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    An Investigation of Bent-Beam Stress-Corrosion Test for Titanium Alloys2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium alloys are highly resistant to all types of corrosion due to their excellent ability to form an oxide film on the surface. However, under certain circumstances, these alloys may experience an environmental degradation which could potentially, under the application of mechanical stress, lead to a complete failure of the material. One of these cracking processes is stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). SCC has an embrittling effect on otherwise ductile materials under tensile stress. Since titanium alloys are frequently used in the aerospace industry and it is therefore of interest to test these alloys in different environment in order to prevent any future accidents. SCC testing is frequently tested at GKN Aerospace and a new testing method is of interest. The main objective with this work was to gain knowledge of the testing method. Bent-beam testing method has been used to investigate stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of titanium alloys in a laboratory based experiment. The bent-beam testing method was of type 2-point bent beam test, where a saline solution was applied at the apex of the specimen. The specimens were loaded to a range of stresses from 40%, to 95% of the materials yield strength and the salt concentration in the saline solution was 1wt% and 3wt%. By doing so, a relative susceptibility of the different alloys could be established. Three different titanium alloys were tested: Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo. The testing method was able to cause cracking on all titanium alloys, where Ti-6Al-4V was found to be the least susceptible to SCC. Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo showed an overall high susceptibility to SCC as cracking occurred in all testing configurations. Cracking was observed on both the surface of the specimen as well as in the cross sections, where the cracks grew perpendicular to the surface. SEM was also used to evaluate the crack propagation in Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, and it was found that the cracks grew mostly along the grain boundaries.

  • AL-Qes, Abdullah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Ölund, Amina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Upplevelser av depression hos personer som är över 60 år: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Depression hos äldre personer är ett allvarligt sjukdomstillstånd som kan leda till minskad livskvalitet samt ökad mortalitet och morbiditet. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva upplevelsen av depression hos personer över 60 år. En kvalitativ litteraturstudie med en manifest innehållsanalys som baserats på åtta vetenskapliga artiklar genomfördes med hjälp av databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och PsycINFO. Analysen resulterade i fyra kategorier: Att befinna sig i en främmande värld; Att känna sig ensam, övergiven och i behov av stöd; Att inte känna igen den egna kroppen; Att försöka anpassa sig till det sociala livet samt klara av vardagen. Resultatet visade att det finns ett stort behov av stöd till äldre personer med depression för att livskvaliteten ska kunna förbättras. Personer hade även individuella sätt att hantera sin situation och sjukdom. De upplevde känslor som hjälplöshet, hopplöshet, förtvivlan och ensamhet. Slutsatsen av denna litteraturstudie var att det krävs kunskap om vad depression betyder för personen som har drabbats för att kunna ge ett bemötande och god vård som bygger på förståelse.

  • Fast, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Är Instagram orsaken till din låga självkänsla?: En kvantitativ studie för undersökning av korrelation mellan självkänsla och Instagram2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, social media is becoming more and more common in people's everyday lives. Several studies that have shown that connection to social media has a connection with the person's wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a connection between a person's self-esteem and the use of social media Instagram, but also see how it differed between men and women. Instagram was chosen because it is a newer social media and is very unexplored. The hypothesis before the study was that there is a connection between Instagram and self-esteem, and that women use Instagram more than men. A total of 89 participants answered a questionnaire. Correlation was used to investigate relationships and the result showed that there was no correlation between the use of Instagram and self-esteem. T-tests showed that there are differences between men and women when it comes to using Instagram but when it came to self-esteem the answers did not vary. Continued research could be done in other cultures and different age groups

  • Olofsson, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    EU:s nya engångsplastdirektiv: Ett effektivt miljöstyrmedel?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökande kortvariga användningen av plast i kombination med plastens långa nedbrytningstid samt bristande utformning för återanvändning/återvinning har bidragit till att dagens plastanvändande är ineffektivt och ohållbart. För att driva på utvecklingen mot en cirkulär ekonomi har EU-parlamentet röstat fram ett nytt direktiv som särskilt angriper det globalt erkända problemet med plastnedskräpning i marina miljöer. Direktivet, som heter ”minskning av vissa plastprodukters inverkan på miljön”, innehåller bland annat bestämmelser för att minska, alternativt förbjuda, användandet av vissa typer av engångsplast, produktkrav, märkningskrav samt utökat producentansvar. Uppsatsen syftar till att redogöra för plast och plastens negativa effekter på människors hälsa och miljön, fastställa den i framtiden gällande rätten med utgångspunkt i direktivets nuvarande form samt analysera direktivets syfte och huruvida detta sannolikt kommer att uppnås. För att besvara uppsatsens syfte har i huvudsak den rättsdogmatiska metoden använts. Rättskällorna har kompletterats med naturvetenskapliga källor i de delar som rör plastens egenskaper och miljöeffekter. Resultatet visar bland annat att EU inte har presenterat några konkreta förslag på substitut för engångsplasten, vilket gör det svårt att fastställa direktivets totala förväntade effekter på miljön, människors hälsa och arbetet mot en cirkulär ekonomi.

  • Svensson, Christoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Recrystallization mapping of Ni-base alloys2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Superalloys such as alloy 718 and 925 possesses superior properties at elevated temperatures and corrosive environments. They are commonly found in application such as oil and gas extraction, turbine engines and in the chemistry industry. These alloys were developed during the 1950s but the demand of tubes and pipes of these alloys has rapidly increased. Sandvik has recently started produce these products and faces new challenges within the production.There are several studies within the area of superalloys but the hot working behavior and flow softening mechanism are not fully understood.The goal with this master thesis is to analyze two different steel grades, alloy 718 and 925 and correlate different process parameters that will influence the recrystallization initiation and nucleation.Two ingots manufactured through electric arc furnace, argon oxygen decarburization and refined by vacuum arc remelting were analyzed followed by a homogenization heat treatment. Samples were extracted from three positions, bottom, center, top and from half the radius in the ingot. The chemical composition was analyzed and the mechanical properties was tested trough hot compression testing (Gleeble). From Gleeble testing, the true strain, stress curves were analyzed in order to determine flow softening effects. The microstructure were studied trough light optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction.The results reveal that discontinuous dynamic recystallization is the dominant flow softening mechanism. There was no significant difference between the three positioning within the ingot.To maximize the recrystallized area fraction higher strain and temperatures must be provided or lower strain rates.

  • Tärnroth, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Få gehör för ditt gehör: En alternativ studie i gehörsinlärning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har ägnat mig åt en studie i gehörsinlärning där cellorepertoar instuderas bara med hjälp av inspelningar och medmusikers guidning, där jag även spelar utan hjälp av synen med hjälp av en ögonbindel. Resultatet är anmärkningsvärt då jag fick erfara många upplevelser i min inlärning, både i positiv och negativ bemärkelse. Intonation var en av sakerna som blev belyst och som också förbättrades, samt hur man färdigställer ett stycke utan att alls sett noterna.

  • Westblad, Aron
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Wannabe Haeffner!: Nya koralarr för roligare psalmspel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur jag genom att använda kompmallar för brukspiano kan utveckla nya sorters orgelackompanjemang till äldre psalmmelodier. Jag undersöker också hur jag kan skapa nya sorters koralackompanjemangsstilar för orgel som jag får användning av i mitt kommande arbete som kyrkomusiker. Min utgångspunkt i arbetet och som titeln avslöjar är Johann Christian Fredrich Haeffner (1759–1833) som genom sitt arbete med sin koralbok under det tidiga 1800-talet har haft en stor inverkan på hur koralsättningen är utformad idag. Resultatet av mitt arbete blev fyra olika koralarrangemang där jag har parat ihop en psalmmelodi med en brukspianokompmodell. Mina förhoppningar är att arbetet leder till användbara koralarrangemang men också ger svar på hur jag som kyrkomusiker ska förhålla mig till de nya musikaliska influenserna i kyrkan

  • Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lindgren, Owe
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Ocean Operations and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Söderström, Ove
    c Professor Emeritus of Building Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Real-time wood moisture-content determination using dual-energy X-ray computed tomography scanning2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of the pixel-wise distribution of the moisture content (MC) in wood using X-ray computed tomography (CT) requires two scans of the same wood specimen at different MCs, one of which is known. Image-processing algorithms are needed to compensate for the anisotropic distortion that wood undergoes as it dries. An alternative technique based on dual-energy CT (DECT) to determine MC in wood has been suggested by several authors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DECT can be used for the determination of MC in real time. A method based on the use of the quotient between the linear attenuation coefficients (μ) at different acceleration voltages (the so-called quotient method) was used. A statistical model was created to estimate the MC in solid sapwood of Scots pine, Norway spruce and brittle willow. The results show a regression model with R2 > 0.97 that can predict the MC in these species with a RMSE of prediction of 0.07, 0.04 and 0.11 (MC in decimal format) respectively and at MC levels ranging from the green to the totally dry condition. Individual measurements of MC show an uncertainty of up to ±0.4. It is concluded that under the conditions prevailing in this study, and in studies referred to in this paper, it is not possible to measure MC with DECT.

  • Sollén, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Pettersson, Jennifer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Experimental investigation of a de-icing system for wind turbine blades based on infrared radiation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is one of the fastest growing production methods of electric energy. The expansion of wind power in Sweden are focused to northern counties. There are advantages as good wind conditions and large unexploited areas to build wind farms in the north, but there are also problems caused by the long winters. Due to the long periods of cold climate, ice and snow accumulation on blades are a safety risk, induces production losses and causes wear at wind turbine components.

    The commercial de-icing systems are not fulfilling the demands of being cost effective and are mainly focusing the heating to the leading edge. Therefore a new de-icing system based on infrared radiation has been investigated. This system is supposed to be placed at the wind turbine tower and de-ice one blade at a time. Experiments with this new de-icing system has been performed in small and full scale at a section of a real wind turbine blade. The experiments were carried out in facilities of Arctic Falls in Piteå. Different parameters as power demand of the heaters, distance between blade and heaters, wavelength of the radiation, influence by the surrounding temperature and total de-icing time were evaluated.

    Results showed that the largest impact of the efficiency and de-icing time were induced by the distance and width of the radiation spectrum for the heaters. Three types of filaments with different peaks of wavelengths were investigated and the most efficient de-icing was achieved when using a combination of heaters. Measurements of intensity together with de-icing experiments showed that the optimal distance from the blade was 1.5 m for heaters with standard reflectors.

    The main conclusion from the experiments with an infrared de-icing system is that it works. But not efficient enough to compete with the commercial systems of today even though it manage to de-ice the whole blade instead of just the leading edge. But this de-icing system has good potential if the heaters first of all are developed to radiate a more concentrated beam of radiation that is only focusing at the blades. The new method is estimated to be an lower investment due to that the techniques of infrared heaters are already well implemented in other areas. But more economic calculations has to be done to further motivate the work.

  • Svedjeholm, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Inverkan av nordliga solinstrålningsförhållanden på utbytet från solcellspaneler2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, international standard tests are performed on solar panels that represent the conditions of irradiation of a clear day. The irradiation conditions in the north of Sweden is different from more southern latitudes. At northern latitudes, the sun’s path is closer to the horizon, which results in a larger air mass ratio, less irradiation and a larger amount of diffuse light. This can affect the type of module that is best suited for use. At northen latitudes, additional tests might be needed that are not covered by the standard tests.

    An irradiation analysis, production analysis and a simulation in the photovoltaic system software PVsyst were performed. The data for the irradiation analysis were retrieved for Kiruna, Luleå, Norrköping, Visby and Piteå. Measured data from SMHI and a local weather station in Piteå were compared with results from the solar irradiation model STRÅNG. Measured data for the different locations were compared. The production analysis was preformed for two tracking systems, the Kempersystem and the Degersystem in Piteå 2017. The production per type of module was compared within each system. The trackingsystems production for 2017 was simulated and compared with the measured production.

    The result of the comparison between the irradiation of the different locations showed that the proportion of diffuse light in Luleå is more similar to Norrköping than Kiruna, even though Kiruna is located closer. STRÅNG often seems to underestimate the irradiation and appears to be better at modeling a clear day. The local weather station’s global horizontal irradiation matched well with measured irradiation from SMHI for Luleå 2017.

    The production analysis showed that the solar panel CIGS QSmart produced the most in Wh/Wp during periods with high total production, while the solar panel Yingli Panda produced the least. For periods with low total production, the result was the opposite. The textured ITS ARC module had the highest production during 2017. According to the results, most suitable module for use at northern latitudes seems to vary depending on period studied. The simulated production of the Kemper system was approximately 1600kWh/kWp more than the measured production, while the Deger system had around 140kWh/kWp more. This may indicate that the Kemper system’s measured production was lower than expected in 2017.

    The module’s temperature and efficiency are affected by the irradiation and the size of the shunt resistance that influences the amount of energy that the module can deliver. The modules installed at northern latitudes should be good at diffuse light, have low temperature coefficients and the result indicates that a textured surface may be preferable. The modules information should primarily be available in the data sheets, producers and retailers should be able to contribute with the information. To complement current standard test, another test should be introduced which corresponds to a cloudy day with less irradiation.

  • Filipsson, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Prata meänkieli: Hur grafisk design kan bryta traditioner kring meänkieli2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different perspectives has been explored with the intention that the project will lead to innovation for the language culture. Traditions need to be developed over time and language modernized, for youth to be able to identify themselfs with language and therefore pass on meänkieli to the next generation of speakers.

    The project means to break with tradition around the minority-language meänkieli through graphic design. The range of litterature for youth is thin, today are most books for children or adults. The culture around meänkieli is often build with old traditions, which contributes to the lack of innovations. To understand how graphic design can raise language the background and relevant theories about graphic design needs to be explained.

  • Grönlund, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Corporate Social Responsibility som en del av arbetsgivarvarumärket: Anställdas uppfattning av arbetsgivarvarumärket, med CSR som en integrerad del, samt avsikter att stanna kvar inom företaget2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens läge med ökad konkurrens om att dels attrahera men också behålla en kompetent arbetskraft, så står företag inför stora utmaningar. Att behålla anställda inom företaget är idag en hög prioritet då kostnaderna för att ersätta anställda är stora. Få studier har undersökt hur olika aspekter av arbetsgivarvarumärket och personliga värderingar påverkar anställdas avsikter att stanna kvar hos arbetsgivaren.

    Syftet för denna fallstudie är att skapa större förståelse för vilka aspekter som är attraktiva i ett arbetsgivarvarumärke, med CSR som en integrerad del, samt vad som påverkar anställda att stanna kvar hos arbetsgivaren. Forskningsansatsen för denna studie är förklarande med en deduktiv och kvantitativ ansats. Datainsamlingen har skett i samarbetet med företaget BDX i Luleå i form av en enkätundersökning med 97 respondenter.

    Resultatet indikerar på att företag bör fokusera på vilket innovationsvärde och ledarskapsvärde som de kan erbjuda sina anställda för att öka attraktiviteten till företaget. När anställdas personliga värderingar stämmer överens med företagets värderingar så påverkar det positivt deras avsikter att stanna kvar hos arbetsgivaren. Studien har bidragit teoretiskt till litteraturen i form av en djupare förståelse av vilka aspekter som anses attraktiva i ett arbetsgivarvarumärke samt vad som påverkar anställdas avsikter att stanna hos arbetsgivaren inom entreprenad- och logistiksektorn.

  • Jelleryd, Hampus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Jelleryd, Felix
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Betongdigitalisering: Produktionsplanering av betong med hjälp av 4D-simulering2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A well-implemented production planning improves and facilitates the production of site-built constructions. The construction industry has in recent years had a reduced productivity, despite the fact that several new programs have been developed that can improve the production planning process.

    The report investigate whether 4D-modeling can be used as a planning tool to accelerate and optimize the operation of site-built concrete frameworks, as well as to determine if the casting system is optimal and / or improved. To investigate this, four research questions have been answered. These questions are: Can 4D-modeling be used to improve the planning of concrete-built frameworks, Can 4D-modeling be used to optimize workplace activities, How to measure the concrete's strength before formwork is removed and How can 4D-simulation support production follow-up?

    In order to achieve the purpose and answer the research questions, literature in the field has been gathered together with data collection from a case study obtained from study visits at the construction site.

    The result shows that the estimated strength obtained from the temperature sensors in Vema Distant are relatively equal to the calculated strength from the planning production software PPB. Using 4D to visualize the concrete curing process the site manager can easily plan and follow-up when the formwork for the concrete walls and the shoring of the concrete slabs can be removed.

    The conclusion is that 4D-simulation will lead to a better overview of the project where a company can optimize production activities such as reinforcement, formwork, concrete casting and removl of formwork. This can lead to a shortened construction time, however, the curing time of the concrete must be taken into consideration to shorten the construction time further. 4D-simulation at the planning stage, together with steam-hardened concrete and heat exchanger / heat fans, can shorten the construction time considerably during the winter. Higher strength classes may also be an option to speed up the curing rate.

    As the model remains after a project, it is easy to go back and investigate how the final time schedule is in line with the planned time schedule. If the difference is large, a company can detect bottlenecks and find solutions for the next project.

  • Kroén, Johannes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    The Price of Uranium: an Econometric Analysis and Scenario Simulations2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze: (a) the determinants of the global price of uranium; and (b) how this price could be affected by different nuclear power generation scenarios for 2030. To do this a multivariable regression analysis will be used. Within the model, the price of uranium is the dependent variable and the independent variables are generated nuclear power electricity representing demand (GWh), price of coal as a substitute to generated nuclear power electricity, and the price of oil representing uranium production costs. The empirical results show that generated nuclear electricity and the oil price, to be statistically significant at the 5 percent level. The coal price was not however a statistically significant. The scenarios for 2030 are three possible nuclear power generation demand cases; high, medium and low demand. The results for the high demand generated a price of 255 US$/kg and the medium demand 72US$/kg.

  • Salén, Filip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Visualization of Dynamic Memory in C++ Applications2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Optimized memory management is important for a demanding application to achieve high-performance results. But un-optimized or unwanted memory behaviors can usually be difficult to detect without an overview of how memory is structured during run-time.

    This thesis explores real-time visualization of dynamic memory allocation for applications using the memory pool allocation technique. In the thesis, technical and graphical challenges are described together with their solutions and the design choices that were made.

    The final result is a program that can visualize dynamic memory management in real time, with the focus on displaying a detailed and comprehensive memory overview that preserves the level of detail over time.

  • Mellberg, Ester
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    I nöd och lust: Att bearbeta material för jazzpiano i duosättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som pianist får jag väldigt ofta interpretera låtar för piano- och sångduo, låtar som inte alltid är helt anpassade för det. Problem som handlar om vem som ansvarar för rytmiken, pulsen och uttrycket kan uppstå och kan ta mycket tid att reda ut. Jag har därför valt att söka efter sätt att skapa arrangemang som passar duo-sättning genom att utgå från något speciellt som finns i respektive låt. Jag utgick både från det första jag hörde vid en genomlyssning men också från vad jag hörde i originalen efter fler genomlyssningar, såsom instrument eller rytmer som fanns långt bak i ljudbilden. För att skapa mer variation använde jag mig av vanligt förekommande element ur jazzgenren och applicerade några av idéerna på de utvalda låtarna. Resultatet blev versioner på fyra låtar från olika genrer som nu som skiljer sig mer eller mindre från originalen, och har antingen fått jazzinfluenser eller till och med kan räknas till jazzgenren. Jag har kommit fram till att det ofta finns mer att använda i egna arrangemang i en låt än vad en hör vid första genomlyssningen, att det är bra att ha en lista där du sparar arrangemangsidéer för framtida arrangemang och att användandet av jazzelement inte alltid innebär att arrangemanget kommer bli jazzinfluerat.

  • Brandt, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Engert, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Managing Business Processes when stakes are high: Analyzing risks in the Homologation process at Scania Korea Group2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: South Korea is one of the countries currently enforcing more strict emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles, as a result of the global push to restrict pollution. In addition, there has been recent scandals involving several well-established automotive companies manipulating emissions tests and not fulfilling regulations. This has resulted in the government increasing the pressure for companies to apply the correct certifications even further. For companies to sell vehicles on the South Korean market, the vehicles must be certified and approved by the government, known as homologation. This process partly involves self-certification, meaning that companies are responsible for applying the correct certification themselves. It is therefore of great importance to have structured and clear processes to mitigate risks of error-making, in order to avoid financial and legal repercussions.

    Purpose: The study aims to identify and analyze the risks in error-making. Therefore, the purpose is to understand and propose improvement actions to the current homologation processes at Scania Korea Group.

    Method: The thesis utilized a case study strategy with a descriptive approach to illustrate the process. An exploratory approach was used in combination to identify risks and provide improvement actions. Qualitative data in conjunction with theory around business process improvement were utilized to fulfill the purpose. Firstly, interviews and focus groups were conducted to map the process. Thereafter, a failure mode and effect criticality analysis(FMECA) was used to analyze the process. Lastly, improvement actions were decided based on best practices and benchmarking.

    Findings and recommendations: The homologation process contain many high severity risks such as certifying the incorrect truck specifications or not complying with regulations, due to not updating the certifications when product changes occur. Furthermore, government approvals incorporate a substantial part of the process lead-time. As such, it is concluded that quality is of utmost importance, both to decrease lead-time and minimize risks with detrimental consequences. The analysis showed evidence of lacking controls/gates in the process, which enables errors and incorrect applications to move through. Improvements regarding increased project structure, planning and communication within SKG were suggested. Further improvement points were an increased number of controls and more clear delegation of responsibility.

    Recommendations for future studies: We propose to further investigate the root-causes of the inherent risks in the process. Future studies should also look to gather additional data from other heavy-duty automotive companies in South Korea, since it could provide deeper and more generalizable results. Lastly, we recommend future research to utilize a quantitative research approach, providing more statistical evidence.

  • Domeij, Jonatan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Janérs, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Design Study and Concept Development of Structural Components in a Turbofan Aero Engine2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis was performed within Research & Technology at GKN Aerospace, Trollhättan. GKN Aerospace is participating in the Clean Sky 2 program, delivering the ICC to the UltraFan demonstrator. On this demonstrator, the split and load paths of three components in the compressor module are similar to earlier engine configurations, but GKN wanted to investigate if there are other, more efficient ways of building this structure.

    The aim of this thesis was therefore to investigate if there is a more efficient architecture and design of the static components in the compressor module for the UltraFan engine. Utilizing a more efficient architecture and design GKN can, in exchange of undertaking a larger part of the engine, provide engine manufacturers a more lightweight solution. This goes accordingly with GKN’s aim to undertake a larger total share of aero engines.

    The approach for concept development during this thesis has been based on a five-step concept generation method. First knowledge about different engine architectures and component designs was gathered through qualitative interviews with experts. This was followed by the creating of a simplified baseline, or reference, model based on the UltraFan compressor module. A Finite Element Analysis, FEA, of the baseline was performed which generated further understanding about the current design.

    The knowledge gathered, both in the interviews and by evaluating the baseline, was used as a basis when generating concepts. Four concepts were evaluated using a screening matrix, where the concept that best satisfied the set requirements was further developed. The refined concept was then compared to the baseline, by analyzing stiffness and ovalization for both designs.

    The results from the concept evaluation indicated that possible weight savings can be made, but further investigation and refinements are required to ensure fulfillment of the set stiffness and deformation requirements. A further refined version of the baseline simulation model and associated methods could be used to evaluate how different designs affect the performance in terms of weight, stiffness and ovalization.

  • Edlund, Johanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hellström, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    The future of maintenance work at a Swedish steel producer: Effective and Attractive workplaces through Industry 4.02019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is being investigated all around the world and it brings an entire arsenal of new tech-nology. It is during major technological changes where we have the chance to change old pat-terns. It is through knowledge of the future and discussion that SSAB and IF Metall will be able to steer the technological changes into the desired direction; A direction which promotes economic and environmental sustainability as well as creating an attractive workplace.There were three objectives with this project. The first objective was to map the current state of maintenance work at SSAB. The second was to develop a future vision within the concept Indus-try 4.0, which promotes attractive workplaces. The last objective was to evaluate the method used to develop the vision. The mapping of the current state of maintenance at SSAB is based on interviews and obser-vations. We decided to delimitate us to shift maintenance. The reason to focus on the shift main-tenance unit of SSAB was that because contain many competences and work all over the pro-duction area. The result of the mapping is that the work is characterized by variating tasks, personal development and pride. It is also male-dominated and characterized by old traditions, tough jargon and macho culture. In general, we conclude that it is an attractive workplace for those who belong to the current homogeneous group.The future vision was developed using personas and workshops. Three personas were created to represent the target group. They were used as a basis of discussion for us and for the participants in the three workshops. The goal of the workshops was to generate a high quantity of futuristic and abstract ideas. The ideas were then combined with theories regarding Industry 4.0 and at-tractive workplaces to form a future vision. To create attractive work content, the future vision focused on placing the worker in the centre of decision-making as a problem solver. This was ac-complished by using new technology to provide information to the worker so he or she can make an informed decision: a digital assistant. To enhance the learning capability of workers the vision contained a VR world where the worker can practise different scenarios. The VR can also be used for marketing to attract people from outside the company. The futuristic vision also presented crowdsourcing of experts and tutors to improve the troubleshooting process and shorten the learning period. If an error is too complicated, the worker has the opportunity to connect to an expert using AR to get their guidance. At the beginning of an employment, every worker is enti-tled to a tutor who will assist you on your missions. To make the workplace more attractive and to change the old picture of the steel industry the vision presented three improvement areas. Firstly, clean & bright facilities which will attract a wider range of people. Secondly, centralised office where employees can meet, work and network. Thirdly, new working roles focusing on troubleshooting and sustainable solutions.Our recommendation is to explore the other maintenance divisions at SSAB and other industries to see if maintenance of acute problems can be centralised over the borders of industries. We also recommend future projects to use participation of managers and workers throughout the implementation process to create higher acceptance and understanding, but also to reduce fear, resistance and promote ownership to the change process.

  • Hedkvist, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Throughflow Study on Bleeding for Part Load Compressor Operation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of the European energy grid to renewable energy sources is increasing the demand for back-up capacity with high flexibility. Current fossil fuel plants are continuously being forced into part load operation, where they are limited by pollution regulations that dictate their minimum environmental load, MEL. The power plants need to shut down when they no longer can comply to pollution regulations, but shutting down means that they can't act as quick back-up for the energy grid. Thus the EU project Turbo-Reflex aims to retrofit existing power plants in order to improve MEL by extending it to lower loads and, by doing so, meeting some of the back-up capacity that is needed.

    One method of improving MEL in a gas turbine power plants is reducing the mass flow from the compressor to the combustor. This study aims to investigate the stability and performance changes in a compressor as a function of intermediate mass extraction through bleeding lines. The study was made using a 2D throughflow model of a 15 stage axial compressor. Three different bleeding lines, positioned along the length of the compressor, were used for flow reduction. A design of experiments was made to get a structured data collection, combining different configurations of bleeding levels through the three lines, with up to 20% flow reduction. The influence of lowering the ambient temperature was also studied.

    Results detail the aerodynamic influence of intermediate mass extraction. The loading at the last stage increases with flow reduction, as evaluated by the diffusion factor, and stator 15 becomes the highest aerodynamically loaded position in the compressor. The increased loading is significantly dependent on the bleeding configuration, where upstream extraction is advantageous. The compressor power requirement has the same behavior, where extracting upstream has a 10% advantage. However, bleeding reduces efficiency, and in this regard it is better to use a bleed line further downstream. This combines into a trade off between these three parameters that needs to be made by the operator. Lowering the ambient temperature changes the interplay between these parameters.

    These research's results are part of the TURBO-REFLEX project, which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 764545.

  • Johansson, Pontus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    New piston ring solution for Stirling engines2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Miefalk, Julia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hur utvecklas förslagsystemet i en konsultverksamhet?: En studie av förbättringsarbete på PlantVision2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att generera ständig förbättring kan en organisation vara konkurrenskraftig och fortsätta anpassa sig till en föränderlig värld. Förslagsystem är ett sätt att involvera hela organisationen i arbetet med ständiga förbättringar. Genom medarbetarna uppdagas idéer och förslag som är relevanta för den dagliga verksamheten och genererar inkrementella förbättringar som resulterar i utveckling och innovation.

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur förslagsystemet i ett konsultbolag kunde utvecklas för att hantera och organisera förbättring. Tidigare studier visar hur förslagsystem byggs på två organisatoriska pelare, företagskultur och företagsstruktur. För att kunna skapa en ändamålsenlig hantering och organisering av förbättringsförslag behövde därför både strukturella och kulturella aspekter av förslagsystemet undersökas.

    Studien initierades med att kartlägga fallföretagets förslagsprocess för att skapa en övergripande bild av den befintliga strukturen. Därefter togs de kulturella aspekterna i beaktning genom medarbetarnas uppfattningar av förbättringsarbetet och förslagsprocessen. Genom tematisk analys upprättades koder, faktorer och teman som redogör centrala områden för ett förslagsystem och dess framgång. De identifierade kulturella och strukturella aspekterna av förbättringsförslag användes sedan för att beskriva förslagsarbete i en ny modell.

    De rekommendationer som togs fram för fallföretagets fortsatta arbete ansågs till stor del påverka strukturen för förslagsystemet. Genom att formulera en målsättning som på ett enkelt sätt redogör syftet med organisationens förbättringsarbete skapas en förståelse för vad förbättringsarbetet önskar uppnå. Att reflektera kring organisatoriska förutsättningar samt hur engagemanget från ledning och medarbetare fungerar genererar förståelse för kulturella och strukturella aspekter som företaget har att förhålla sig till. Fallföretaget PlantVision, som konsultbolag, behöver särskilt undersöka hur de ska hantera timdebitering kontra förbättringsarbete för att medarbetarna ska motiveras att arbeta med båda. Timdebiteringen visade sig påverka medarbetarna i deras arbete med förbättringar då konsulter förväntas debitera arbetade timmar till kund och inte fokusera på interna förbättringar. Samtidigt måste organisationen fortsätta förbättras för att vara konkurrenskraftiga, och i en konsultverksamhet bör konsulterna involveras i förbättringsarbetet eftersom de har kontakten med kunden. Medarbetarna bör därför motiveras till att arbeta med en kombination av timdebitering och förbättringsarbete. Det är även värdefullt att analysera engagemanget för förbättringsarbete, både bland ledning och medarbetare för att kunna avgöra hur de ska fortsätta motiveras till att engagera sig i ständig förbättring. För att skapa ytterligare struktur i förbättringsarbetet upprättades ett nytt förslagsystem online som ett förslag på hur PlantVision kan hantera förbättringsförslag på ett effektivare sätt. Ett förslagsystem som främjar transparens och struktur samt ökar den interna kommunikationen mellan medarbetare och ledning antas medföra ett förbättringsarbete som drivs av medarbetarna.

    Studien visar på att konsultbolag har specifika förutsättningar som bör tas i beaktning vid upprättande och utvecklande av förslagsystem. I övrigt redogör studien hur målsättning, engagemang, transparens och struktur samt kommunikation bygger ett framgångsrikt förslagsystem och lägger grunden för inkrementellt förbättringsarbete.

  • Wikström, Jakob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Eldorado Borealis: En kostnads-nyttoanalys av ett ökat inslag av sibirisk lärk i Norrbotten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har effekterna av att öka inslaget av sibirisk lärk i det norrbottniska skogslandskapet studerats. Detta har undersökts genom en kostnads-nyttoanalys där konsekvenserna av att komplementera delar av de bestånd som idag beskogas av referensträdslagen tall och gran med sibirisk lärk. För att testa resultatets känslighet har tre diskonteringsräntor tillämpats: 1,5 procent, 2 procent samt 2,5 procent. Studien fann att det är en marginell skillnad i lönsamhet när sibirisk lärk jämförs med tall, gentemot gran så var dock de ekonomiska incitamenten starka för markägare att välja sibirisk lärk vid föryngring på granmark. Det samhällsekonomiska värdet av detta projekt har i de flesta scenarion vara positivt, det är dock möjligt att projektet skulle komma att visa sig vara förlustbringande om sibirisk lärks naturvärde och dess massaved bedöms vara av lågt värde och det går därmed inte att entydigt hävda att en subventionering av sibirisk lärk är samhällsekonomiskt rationell.

  • Léonard, Pauline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sustainability assessment of composites in aero-engine components2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues such as climate change are leading to important sustainability challenges in the aerospace industry. Composites are light materials that are extensively used to replace metals and reduce the aircraft weight, the goal being to decrease the fuel consumption in flight and limit the emission of greenhouse gases. However, these high performance materials are associated with a complex supply chain including energy-consuming processes. Most of the decommissioned composite products are currently landfilled and nothing proves that the weight reduction allowed by these materials compensates those negative aspects.

    The purpose of this master thesis is to determine if the introduction of composites in aero-engines can be sustainable and how it can be achieved. To do so, three polymer-matrix composite components from GKN Aerospace have been studied and compared with their metallic baseline from environmental, social and economic perspectives. Several options for materials selection, manufacturing processes and recycling possibilities have been investigated in the same way.

    The assessment on GKN Aerospace’s components showed that the weight savings provided by composites have a strong and positive influence on their sustainability. Component B shows the best results: with 16% of weight savings with composites versus the titanium baseline, it appears clearly that the composite version is the most sustainable one. Component A2 composite version also provides interesting weight savings (14%) but has an aluminum baseline, which makes the composite component more sustainable in some aspects but not all of them, especially economically speaking. Finally, for component A1, the composite version, which does not provide weight savings, is more economically feasible, but quite tight with the titanium baseline on environmental and social aspects. Therefore, it appears that composite components are more likely to be sustainable if they provide significant weight reduction and if the baseline is titanium.

    A few strategies would merit attention to make future composite components more sustainable. On the one hand, using thermoplastic composites have potential to reduce the environmental, social and economic impact. In fact, these materials can be fully recycled and reused, present less risks to handle and can be produced for a lower cost. Nevertheless, the knowledge on these materials is more limited than on thermoset composite and the implementation of such a solution will take time. On the second hand, introducing composite recycling processes in the products lifecycle can increase a lot the sustainability of composite components. The manufacturing scrap and the decommissioned products can both be recycled in order to reduce the environmental impact and generate benefits by re-using or selling the recycled material.

  • Sjödin, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Veronika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    SMASK!: Mot matsvinn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Did you know that one third of all the produced food gets thrown away? (Globalamalen, u.å). You might as well throw away the third grocery bag you purchased right away, because that is what you will do in the end. This phenomenon is called food waste, meaning the food that is thrown away unnecessarily. In Sweden, households account for the majority of the country's total food waste. According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (2018), 1.3 million tonnes of food waste arose in Sweden in 2016, which corresponds to 129 kilos per person, of which one third is classified as pure food waste.

    The world faces a major challenge of dealing with the growing environmental crisis. If everyone lived like us in Sweden, we would need four planets to be able to supply the whole world with natural resources (WWF, 2018). We need to change our consumption behavior, because material consumption goes hand in hand with our ecological footprint. According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (2018), food waste in Sweden accounts for 20-25 percent of the country's total climate impact. At the same time, approximately 870 million people in the world are estimated to be malnourished (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2018).

    One contributing factor is the consumer's attitude towards food; we do not appreciate the food like we used to and we have forgotten where it comes from. Media and designers has a huge part in this phenomenon, who promote and encourage us to consume more and more. According to a study from Popia (2012), 76 percent of all purchasing decisions are made in the store; Therefore, as designers, we have an important role in the design of packaging, advertising and signs.

    Food waste is a major contributing factor to the environmental crisis, and we have therefore chosen to highlight this area. In our work we have chosen to explore the area of ​​food waste and see how we through graphic design can influence, illuminate and change behaviors and attitudes of consumers.

    We believe that as designers, we have a social responsibility in shaping the future. In this work, we will examine two issues: Is it possible to encourage consumers in a positive way to change their behavior towards food waste in the long term? How can design methods break consumer behavior and attitudes to achieve reduced food waste?

    Our work has resulted in a packaging concept called SMASK!, where we have applied behavioral design methods on graphic form. Our challenge is to change consumers behavior and create new ones through graphic design. A great initiative for a sustainable future. Our home, our country, our mission.

  • Sköld, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Employee perspective on communication and engagement: A case study in a manufacturing organisation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how supervisor-employee communication affects the employee engagement on the shop floor of manufacturing organisations. To achieve this purpose, the two below research objectives were developed:

    • To identify how supervisor-employee communication impacts employee engagement
    • To identify any barriers to supervisor-employee communication


    The study had a deductive, qualitative research approach as a conceptual framework was developed from literature and then verified with empirical data collected through semi-structured interviews. The research strategy was holistic and single case as all eight interviews were conducted with respondents from a single organisation. The interviewees were selected using a maximum variation, purposive sampling technique. Lastly, the collected data was analysed using a form of thematic analysis.


    The main finding was that supervisor-employee communication was proven to have a significant impact on the employee engagement among the shop floor workers in the manufacturing organisation. In addition, supervisor-employee communication was proven to affect the employee engagement in a similar way that literature suggested. Furthermore, the findings supported the definition of employee engagement as a shared responsibility between the employee and the supervisor.

    Theoretical implications

    This study provided additional data to the existing literature on supervisor-employee communication and employee engagement while investigating the relationship between these two concepts in a new setting. Not only did this study contribute with rather unique data from the manufacturing industry, but it also adopted the employee perspective of the phenomenon. Previous research has predominantly consisted of studies with the perspective of management rather than the employees. Therefore, this study offers a foundation upon which further, both qualitative and quantitative research within this area can be conducted.

    Practical implications

    The main practical implication that this study has offered is highlighting the importance of supervisor-employee communication when it comes to generating and maintaining employee engagement on the shop floor of manufacturing organisations. The supervisor’s role and way of communicating has been identified as crucial for the employees’ level of engagement and this study has provided some guidance for supervisors in this matter.

  • Sroka, Angelica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    The IKEA Industry way of ergonomic risk assessment: Development of a global standard for ergonomic risk assessment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018 IKEA Industry, the largest producer of wood-based furniture for IKEA customers presented their sustainability strategy for Financial Year 2025. In Health & Safety, they want to minimize ergonomic risks at their factories. To be able to understand what risks the factories contain, the first step is a common ergonomic risk assessment methodology. Because of a lack of knowledge in ergonomics at IKEA Industry, the responsibility was laid on this master thesis project.

    This project has with the help of interviews, surveys and observations found what needs the factories have in ergonomic risk assessment. A literature review also found things that the factories should have but haven´t asked for. Using benchmarking, several common methods used on the market has been summarized and analyzed by the requirements. Three methods, KIM, RAMP and HARM were chosen to be tested by the factories. In a user test, it was clear that KIM was easiest to use. HARM was eliminated because of the lack of evaluating lifting and pushing movements. To choose between KIM and RAMP they were evaluated in terms of the requirements. The results showed that KIM was the best method for IKEA Industry factories.

    At some places RAMP had good assessment methods. In order to not ignore these, they have been implemented into KIM to make it suit the factories even better. The result ended up in a document called Global standard of ergonomic risk assessment. The method is divided into three different methods depending on if you have lifting/ carrying work, pushing work or repetitive work. The results are then summarized in a chart that shows what needs to be investigated. This project has also with the help of the literature and the analysis of the factory, decided which roles that will participate in the assessment. The suggestions are manager, ergonomist and a production co-worker.

    With the help of this method, the factories will be able to understand what ergonomic risks they have. They will only need to evaluate the work tasks with the help of this method and will then be presented all high, medium or low ergonomic risks in the factories to minimize these before FY2025.

  • Lövgren Pouncette, Albin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nielsen, Edith
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Kundbaserat varumärkeskapital: En deskriptiv studie med syftet att undersöka hur generation Z värderar varumärkeskapitalet hos en konsumentprodukt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate how generation Z values ​​the customer-based brand equity of a consumer product. Generation Z is an interesting generation to study since they have shown to differ in a variety of aspects from previous generations. To answer the purpose, a model has been constructed, which is based on previous research. The model consists of the components; brand awareness, brand associations/image, perceived quality and brand loyalty. Together the components form the cornerstones of the customer-based brand equity. Eight hypotheses were tested with the purpose of measuring the interrelationship between the components, and the relationship between the various components and the customer-based brand equity. Six of these eight hypotheses could be accepted. The result showed that the components brand association/image and brand loyalty have a positive impact on the customer-based brand equity, while brand awareness and perceived quality showed a non-significant result. The non-significant results were then further examined through t-test, with the purpose of trying to find possible reasons for the outcome. Moreover, the results showed that brand awareness has a positive correlation with both brand associations/image and perceived quality. Finally, the result showed that brand loyalty was positively correlated to both brand associations/image and perceived quality. For further research, it is proposed that a more comprehensive study consisting of more respondents from generation Z should be conducted. In addition, further research could be based on other consumer products and also examine whether there could be more or other components that should be considered when measuring customer-based brand equity.

  • Paez, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Vilken utrikespolitik för Donald Trump?: En ideologianalys2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since Donald Trump took office there has been split opinions about which foreign policy is led by the President. From his candidacy to his first 2 years in office he has made remarks that can be categorized as falling within the theory of realism, liberalism and populism. This study has been based from the two classical IR-theories realism, liberalism and populism as an unconventional theory aside from IR-theory through an ideology analysis to make sense of which foreign policy is being driven by Trump. The study focuses on two cases: The Middle East and North Korea with security policy in focus. This particular ideology analysis has focused on Trump Twitter account, statements and interviews from news channels and official documents from the White House. This material has been analyzed through ideal types within the two IR-theories and the theory of populism. The results of this study show that Donald Trump falls in within the bounds of realism for the most part based on these cases two cases. But attention is paid to his populist tone and rhetoric and that there is no coherent foreign policy driven in these cases. This much to Trumps outrageous remarks on Twitter and to the media but most of all the contradiction between the president and his own administration.

  • Standar, Matilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Resecentrum i perifera lägen: Ett konceptförslag för resecentrum i Piteå kopplat till Norrbotniabanan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, a large part of the products from the north is transported on the main line through upper Norrland, which handles all railway transports through Norrland. The track does not meet today´s requirements for freight transport because of its curvy and hilly traction, its only track and the fact that it is located far from the coast where most industries are situated. In 2002, the investigation of a new coastal railway began, which can relieve the main line from freight traffic, but also promote passenger transport by dimidiated travel times and increased communication between the cities. The new railway was named Norrbotniabanan and is planned to pass through the larger cities along the coast. Piteå is the city that has the most possible route options and potential locations for the railway station. After a number of investigations, only two alternative tractions through Piteå remains, alternatives P1 and P2. In alternative P1, or the Coastal route, Norrbotniabanan is supposed to run parallel with E4. A travel center is planned to be located south of Lomtjärn and west of E4. In the other alternative P2, or the Central route, the track would pass through the center of Piteå where the travel center would be located also.

    The purpose of this work has been to investigate the potential of Lomtjärn Travel Center in the alternative coastal route of the Norrbotniabanan railway. The aim was to be able to specify which features that should be implemented to achieve the best design for the Lomtjärn Travel Center in its peripheral position, with regard to social and ecological sustainability, to promote passenger transport. In order to achieve the aim information was obtained by a literature study linked to the railway station's basic properties and importance to the city. Furthermore, a study was conducted of existing peripheral stations to gather inspiration and see how others had solved various functions connected to the station. A site analysis was also conducted where the travel centers location previously determined by the municipality was analyzed to find out if it really was the best location in the area. The above studies and analyzes resulted in a concept proposal for the design of the Lomtjärn Travel Center.

    Early on, accessibility proved to be one of the most important success of the location of a railway station. The passage over the railway tracks and E4 is seen as the most important accessibility action because it breaks the barrier created by E4 and creates access to the station from two directions. Other measures that contribute to increased accessibility are the division of the car and cycle parking lots to each side of E4 and the connection between the station and the grocery store at Backen. Another action that is connected to both accessibility and ecological sustainability is the transport between the station and the center, as it strengthens the connection between them at the same time as it is fossil-free.

    Good personal security is also seen as important. The decision to choose a raised glazed walkway as a passage instead of a tunnel under the ground is considered to be a positive action for the proposal. Another security action was to add a kiosk, this creates security by adding someone who can oversee the station. Other measures that increase security are the choice to keep the passage open and not add anything that obscures the visibility and the fact that the entire passage is a waiting room, because it allows excellent view of the tracks.

    A solution that does not have much to do with either social or ecological sustainability, but which is nevertheless believed to be significant for Piteå city is the height of the passage. The height enables it to appear from a longer distance and form a landmark in the northwest while forming an entrance to Piteå.

  • Steinholtz, Linus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Digitalisering av kulturscenen: Interaktionen mellan kulturscenen och den teknikvana generationen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten sammanfattar ett examensarbete inom produktutveckling för Högskoleingenjör Teknisk Design på Luleå Tekniska Universitet. Arbetet är utfört hos Osynlig AB i Sundsvall för kunden Scenkonst Västernorrland. Syftet med arbetet har varit att ta fram koncept kring hur Scenkonst Västernorrland kan nyttja den digitala utvecklingen på ett sådant sätt att de enklare kan nå ut till och interagera med den yngre och mer teknikvana generationen.

    Scenkonst Västernorrland är verksamma inom marknadsföring av kulturevenemang så som dans, film, teater och musik. Kulturscenen står inför en förändring i och med den digitala framfarten och Scenkonst Västernorrland är därför ute efter att hitta nya sätt att förmedla evenemang och atti nteragera med sina målgrupper.

    Under projektets start handlade det om att sätta sig in i hur Scenkonst Västernorrland arbetar med interaktionen med den teknikvana generationen idag, samt vilka olika typer av utmaningar som finns. Med detta som grund gjordes sedan en benchmarking för att se hur liknande branscher interagerar med sina målgrupper. Intervjuer med både målgruppen och företag som är verksamma inom kulturscenen gjordes för att säkerhetsställa att det som kulturscenen uppleversom ett behov faktiskt också är det.

    I den andra fasen av projektet sammanställdes all data från intervjuer, enkäter och benchmarking i en effektkarta. Detta för att få en enklare överblick över projektet och se till att alla beslut som tas alltid stämmer överens med användarnas behov. Effektkartan innehåller problemformulering och specifika behov för målgrupperna.

    Utifrån detta genererades ett antal idéer som sedan gallrades ut till tre mer konkreta koncept. Koncepten utvärderades i form av prototyper gjorda i Adobe XD, enklare 3D-ytmodelleringar och mer fysiska modeller. Koncepten testades därefter på användare och bearbetades sedan ytterligare. Två av dessa koncept togs sedan vidare för mer bearbetning och utvärdering med användare, dessa koncept var Applikation och Interaktiv Display. Slutligen utfördes ett konceptval där konceptet Applikation valdes ut för mer detaljerad bearbetning innan den slutliga presentationen för Osynlig AB och kunden Scenkonst Västernorrland.

    Med hjälp av det koncept som togs fram blir informationen mer tillgänglig för spridning, samt att informationen blir mer närvarande i målgruppernas dagliga informationsflöden. På så sätt kan Scenkonst Västernorrland lättare interagera med den yngre och mer teknikvana generationen.

    Samtidigt som projektet har handlat om att undersöka och tillfredsställa kundens och deras målgruppers behov så handlar det även om att nå upp till uppdragsgivarens förväntningar för att upprätthålla en bra kundrelation.

  • Sundström, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Control 4.0: Creating a vision for the future of industrial control rooms under Industry 4.02019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s industries are facing what some may call a new industrial revolution. Technological developments are heading towards more internet-based system solutions. This movement is often referred to as Industry 4.0 and is said to have the potential for more flexible, autonomous productions capable of managing themselves. With new technologies, however, there is also a demand for new competences and qualification requirements on the workforce. Furthermore, industries of today often have problems with recruiting new competent employees, especially younger people. Industries looking to implement Industry 4.0 would therefore have to manage the education and development of existing employees while also attracting new employees.

    As part of a larger research project at Luleå University of Technology, this thesis project aims to describe how the control rooms in Swedish metallurgic industries will be affected by Industry 4.0. Furthermore, the project aims to describe what changes that are desirable for achieving a sustainable, effective and equal industry. To better achieve this goal, the project was done in collaboration with the metallurgic industry SSAB, specifically the steel production in Luleå. Through visits, interviews and observations at the control rooms in SSAB’s steel production, the context of today’s control room work was detailed. This context was compared to and analyzed using reviewed literature regarding future technologies under Industry 4.0 along with my own speculations on future possibilities. The analyses consists of my reflections on what problems that existed, what could be improved and what worked well in the control rooms. Furthermore, my analyses included the positive and negative effects that the implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies could have on the control room work. The analyses were utilized as the basis for creating a vision of how control rooms can develop under Industry 4.0, and the changes that are desirable.

    The resulting vision compiled from my analyses consists of two scenarios; a dystopian and a utopian scenario. Each scenario depicts exaggerated depictions of the potential results of implementing Industry 4.0. The dystopian scenario depicts the few operators not made obsolete by an autonomous production and how they’ve been affected. They are constantly tracked and have their health monitored during their work, their equipment isn’t designed with the user in mind and the job no longer feels like qualified work. As a contrast, the utopian operators instead utilize the increased capabilities for communication and data gathering from systems and machines to work with tests, development work and optimization. Furthermore, instead of constant monitoring, tracking sensors are instead used to notify emergency personnel if the operator hurts themselves while out working. With these scenarios I also included recommendations for how the utopian vision can be achieved and the dystopian one avoided. These recommendations include involving operators in development of work tasks and instructions to promote employee involvement and control. Furthermore, their involvement allows for the better utilization of their knowledge and experiences, while also potentially helping with making the control room work better adapted to the operators’ needs. According to the results of this project, this will help improve and support efforts to create more attractive workplaces and promote qualifications development. By following the recommendations made, it is my hope that Swedish metallurgic industries like SSAB can better strive for an implementation of Industry 4.0 that is beneficial for both employer and employees.

  • Söderberg, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Förbättrad arbetsmiljö genom digital dokumentation: Ett projekt om hur ett digitaliserat dokumentationsverktyg kan öka arbetskvalitén för städare2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Support from colleagues and managers are two important factors to a good work environment. Another important support is documentation. Finding answers and information that is documented in cases of uncertainty can lead to reduced concern and a sense of security. Documentation can be carried out in different ways depending on the need and prerequisites. During this project the need of documentation at a cleaning unit have been investigated and analyzed. This report is the result of a master thesis project that took place during spring of 2019 at the Master of Science program in Industrial Design Engineering at Luleå University of Technology.

    The municipal cleaning unit carries out cleaning and floor cleaning in most premises where municipal activities are conducted in the municipality of Piteå. The cleaning unit currently has 85 permanent and 8 temporary cleaners in the organization who perform cleaning in four different geographical areas in the municipality. To get the required working hours several of the cleaners are schedule in more than one workplace. At the moment it is the cleaners task to assemble schedules when different types of cleaning are to be performed on their workplace. The documentation usually takes place in paper form and the design of the schedule varies from appearance to content between workplaces. Since these schedules are in paper form it is also difficult for workplaces to take inspiration from each other regarding the content and structure of the schedule. The fact that the variation on these schedules is so great even though they contain the same type of information leads to an uncertainty among the cleaners.

    During the project, the cleaners had to answer a survey that contained a wide range of questions to get an understanding on their thoughts regarding support, motivation, workloads among others. These questions were used to map how the cleaners experienced different topics within the organization. Observations have also been made on the cleaners where they have carried out major cleaning and allergy cleaning. The cleaning unit also had workplace meetings and an education for new cleaners during the project, which made it possible to also observe these occasions. A workshop where the cleaners had to reflect and answer various discussion issues related to documentation and information was carried out at the end of the project to collect the cleaners thoughts to use for idea and concept generation.

    The project has resulted in a solution proposal for a digitized documentation tool that the cleaning unit can carry on to development work. The solution proposal moves the now closed and locked documentation in paper format to a more open and easily accessible digitized documentation tool. The tool gives the cleaners the opportunity to, among others, learn from each other independently of workplace, get a support in case of uncertainty and get a common structure and routine within the whole cleaning unit that could improve the uncertainty that currently exists regarding documentation. Implementing a documentation tool for the cleaners would contribute with structure, uniformity, improve work environment and an opportunity to maintain knowledge within the organization. The knowledge and information that now is locked to people and workplaces could be preserved and help the cleaning unit grow and maintain status and competitiveness if documented. A digitized documentation tool could be the solution to that need.

  • Stark, Tina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Machine learning for condition monitoring in hydropower plants using a neural network2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hydro power industry stands for new challenges due to a more fluctuating production fromwind and solar power. This requires more regulation of the production in the hydro powerstations, which increases maintenance demands. An oil leakage has not only consequencessuch as downtimes and maintenance costs, but also an environmental impact. Skellefte ̊aKraft is working towards reaching a condition based maintenance. Therefore, the purpose ofthis master thesis is to develop a model using a feedforward neural network to predict the oillevel in the control system of a Kaplan turbine and map which sensor signals that are required.The thesis will cover data from two hydro power stations, Grytfors and B ̊atfors, each ofwhich has two units, G1 and G2. Due to limitations of the database Skellefte ̊a Kraft areusing, the data has minute resolution and covers two months, December and January. Themodel is developed in MATLAB using their Deep Learning toolbox and the neural networkfeedforwardnet. Before training and testing the model, an optimization was done. Grytforshas a full range of sensor signals while B ̊atfors has half the amount and therefore, the datafor Grytfors was used in the optimization. A grid search was done to optimize the hyperpa-rameters using cross validation. To map which input parameters that are required a featureselection was done.From the result of the feature selection, power, accumulator levels 1 and 2 and pressurewere chosen as the input parameters for Grytfors. For B ̊atfors, all of the the existing sensorsignals were used instead. The model is then trained and tested for the two different powerstations. For Grytfors, the predicted oil level follows the pattern of the real oil level but thetest error is around 15-20 liter. Four different tests were done for B ̊atfors. The two firstfor unit 1, the third for unit 2 and the fourth on both units to investigate the potential of ageneral model for one power station. For B ̊atfors, the first two tests have test errors of around4-6 liters. The third and fourth tests have test errors of around 1.5 liter. In the first twotests, the December data contains a potential refill sequence and in the third test, for unit2, the data contains start and stop sequences. The results showed the importance of havingcomprehensive training data.

  • Berbäck, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Varför har vi läsläxa?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att synliggöra vad ett urval av lärare i årskurserna 1–3 anser vara avsikten med att ge eleverna läsläxa, samt att ta reda på om dessa lärares elever är medvetna om lärarnas avsikter. Denna kunskap kan bidra till att öka medvetenheten om syftet med läsläxa både hos lärare och elever och på så sätt göra läsläxan mer meningsfull för dem.

    För att ta reda på detta intervjuades tre lärare och sex elever i årskurserna 1–3, från samma kommun. Efter att intervjuerna var genomförda framkom det att de tre lärarna har överensstämmande avsikt med att ge sina elever läsläxa samt att de intervjuade eleverna var medvetna om lärarnas avsikt med läsläxan. Resultatet av denna studie visar att såväl lärarna som eleverna anser att läsläxan finns till för att eleverna ska träna på sin läsning. I denna undersökning framkom ytterligare ett intressant resultat, nämligen att eleverna inte förstod varför de jobbar med läsförståelsefrågor i tillhörande arbetsbok. Syftet med att svara på läsförståelsefrågor i tillhörande arbetsböcker var för eleverna oklart.

    Nyckelord: läsläxa, lärare, elever

  • Boström, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Roterande applikation för smutsig miljö.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Brandemyr, Gabriella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Powder bed additive manufacturing using waste products from LKAB's pelletization process: A pre-study2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a bachelor thesis project executed at Luleå University of Technology(LTU). The purpose of the project was to investigate the possibility to use the metal powder wasteproducts from LKAB’s pelletizing process for additive manufacturing as this would meaneconomic benefits for the sake of LKAB as well as environmental benefits.Two different powders were used in the experiments and were referred to as crush and dust. Theexperiments were made through the selective laser melting (SLM) method with varying laserparameters to observe their effect. These included the laser power and laser speed. Scanningelectron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and opticalmicroscopy were used for the analysis of the samples.The analysis of the chemical compositions showed that the powders were inhomogeneous anddiffered from each other. The crush powder contained phosphor and carbon which was lacking inthe dust and also had higher amounts of silicon and potassium. In spite of the inhomogeneouspowder and getting some agglomerations of half-melted grains on the tracks, the tracks tended tobe mostly homogenous. It was also observed that the tracks have a higher amount of carboncompared to the powder which probably derives from the substrate plate.The adherence of the tracks was greatest at a laser power between 200-300 W and a laser scanningspeed 0.5-1.75 m/min.The metal powder waste products from LKAB’s pelletization process could likely be used inadditive manufacturing, however, more work is needed in order to ensure the obtained results andcontinue with further experiments.

  • Carlson, Hampus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lejon, Isak
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Blockchain business networks: Understanding the value proposal within centralized and decentralized governance structures2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose increasing the understanding of what distinguish a decentralized from a centralized blockchain business network and identify its value creating mechanisms. To fulfill this research purpose, three research questions have been derived, RQ1: What distinguishes a decentralized from a centralized blockchain business network?, RQ2: How are the blockchain business network values affected by a decentralized vs centralized network model? and RQ3: Which value creating mechanisms exists within decentralized blockchain networks?

    Method – This study was conducted as an abductive explorative study with interviews of actors that works with their own blockchain or is an expert in the subject, respondents from 9 different industries were participating. In total 25 interviews were held in two phases and they were together with a workshop analyzed through a thematic analysis.

    Findings – The findings from the study resulted in a framework including four separate areas, namely, Governance models, Blockchain values, Business network values and Value creating mechanisms. There were three governance modes, Lead organization, Network administrative organization and Participant owned organization. Furthermore, this study has resulted in 12 blockchain values, 11 network values and 9 value creating mechanisms.

    Theoretical and practical implications – This study gives an answer to the question what distinguish the decentralized and centralized nature of a blockchain business network, stating that the most value critical factor is the choice of network governance model. Furthermore, additional examples of blockchain and network values have been presented and those values have been analyzed through three different governance models. Also, the 9 value creating mechanisms have been described and analyzed from a decentralized blockchain network perspective. The practical implications give managers insight of which value creating mechanisms that exists for a decentralized blockchain business network, an understanding that could help them decide on if blockchain fits their business needs or not. Lastly, by providing an overview of which the strengths and weaknesses are of different governance models for a blockchain business network, managers could better align their network governance.

    Limitations and future research – Due to the explorative nature of this study these frameworks and relationships are built from our research and will need future validation from similar study to test its applicability in a larger extent. Hence, future studies with these frameworks and matrixes as reference point would be interesting.

  • Han, Lei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Reduction of Set-recovery of Surface densified Scots Pine by Furfuryl Alcohol2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     For wood products such as flooring and worktop, only one surface is normally exposed in their use, and the mechanical properties like hardness and wearing resistance of that surface is then important. Since mechanical properties are strongly related to the density, surface densification, i.e. transverse compression of the wood cells beneath the surface of a piece of wood with the aim to increase the density of that region, may be a method for improving hardness and wearing resistance when low-density species are used for such products. The set-recovery, i.e. the moisture-induced swelling of the densified wood cells back to their original shape, is the main obstacle in the use of densified wood products. Although there are several methods reported in literature, such as post heat-treatment, that can almost eliminate the set-recovery, but such methods are either time consuming or difficult to implement into an industrial continuous process which may do densification competitive to techniques or materials that can achieve at least the same hardness.

        In the present study, furfuryl alcohol was used as pre-treatment to fix the set-recovery of surface-densified Scots pine sapwood. The main effect and interactive influence of four process parameter (impregnation time, press temperature, press time and compression ratio) on set-recovery and Brinell hardness after two wet-dry cycles were studied by a two-level full factorial design of experiments. The characterizing variables of the density profile after the surface densification and set-recovery test were carried out as a supplementary tool to learn the mechanism of this two-step modification process. According to the result, the surface densified wood with furfuryl alcohol pre-treatment can retain their dimension and keep hardness at a very high level after two wet-dry cycles. The set-recovery and hardens after two wet-dry cycles were about 20 % and 30 N/mm2, respectively. The Pearson correlation analysis shows that the correlation coefficients between set-recovery with impregnation time, press temperature, press temperature, compression ratio were -0.35, -0.52, -0.37, and 0.16, respectively. That means that for the specimens with furfuryl alcohol pre-treatment, the higher press temperature can reduce the set-recovery significantly. The longer press time and impregnation time can also reduce the set-recovery in some extent, but the influence was  low. As expected, the hardness improvement was retained with low set-recovery. The lowest set-recovery value was 14% with the corresponding hardness of 41 N/mm2 was achieved by specimens processed with 120 minutes of impregnation, 10% compression ratio, 210℃ pressing temperature, and 15 minutes of pressing time. With 20 minutes of impregnation time, 10% compression ratio, 210℃ pressing temperature, and 5 minutes of pressing time, the sample still owns twofold hardness after the set-recovery test.

  • Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Spatial total load rating curve for a large river: A Case study of the Tigris River at Baghdad2019In: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River in Baghdad is a large sand-bed river, supply-limited because of the implementation of a water flow regulation scheme comprising a series of reservoirs and barrages.  The significant reduction in the water discharge has affected the hydraulic performance of the river and turned it into an under-fit river of complicated morphology where many islands and bank deposits have been showed up across an 18km reach in addition to the essential sinuosity. Measuring sediment load at individual cross-sections in the river gives misleading estimates and the corresponding sediment rating curve has a locally limited using. A spatially sediment rating by investigating sediment loads over the complicated reach is required to overcome the local limitations. Sediment transport rates have been investigated at 16 cross-sections along the study reach by collecting suspended load, bed load and bed material samples. Velocity profiles were measured at the sampling stations using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The measurement results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode of transport (93.5%). However, bedloads were considered in determining the total loads. A spatial total load rating curve in the form of a power function was established and examined against the sediment measurements. Twenty-two previously published total load formulae where applied at the same sections and of these the Colby1964 formula gave the closest fit to the measured loads. Based on the results from this study a recommended procedure is established for using a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment transport rates for similar morphologically complicated rivers. Average annual transport rates during the period 2009-13 was estimated at 3.21 million tons.

  • Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Reactive Problem Solving and Proactive Development in Infrastructure Projects2019In: Current Trends in Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 2643-6876, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Naji, Laith A.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Jassam, Salim H.
    Department of Building and Construction Technology Engineering, Technical College Baghdad, Middle Technical University.
    Yaseen, Mohammed J.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Faisal, Ayad A. H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Modification of Langmuir model for simulating initial pH and temperature effects on sorption process2019In: Separation science and technology (Print), ISSN 0149-6395, E-ISSN 1520-5754, Separation Science and Technology, ISSN 0149-6395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study modifies the sorption isothermfor simulating the influences of initial pH and temperature variations on thecadmium sorption from contaminated water using waste foundry sand based on Langmuir,Freundlich and Temkin models. Results proved that the Langmuir expression is ableto adopt these effects by relating sorption capacity and affinity constantswith pH and temperature of aqueous solution through exponential relationships (determinationcoefficient = 0.9375). The present model is assumed that the sorption process occursthrough acidic functional groups and this is consistent with FTIR outputs. Interactionof cadmium/WFS is found to be exothermic by thermodynamic analysis.

  • Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Rahimi, Abbas
    ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gayler, Ross W.
    Melbourne, Australia.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Autoscaling Bloom filter: Controlling trade-off between true and false positives2019In: Neural computing & applications (Print), ISSN 0941-0643, E-ISSN 1433-3058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Bloom filter is a special case of an artificial neural network with two layers. Traditionally, it is seen as a simple data structure supporting membership queries on a set. The standard Bloom filter does not support the delete operation, and therefore, many applications use a counting Bloom filter to enable deletion. This paper proposes a generalization of the counting Bloom filter approach, called “autoscaling Bloom filters”, which allows adjustment of its capacity with probabilistic bounds on false positives and true positives. Thus, by relaxing the requirement on perfect true positive rate, the proposed autoscaling Bloom filter addresses the major difficulty of Bloom filters with respect to their scalability. In essence, the autoscaling Bloom filter is a binarized counting Bloom filter with an adjustable binarization threshold. We present the mathematical analysis of its performance and provide a procedure for minimizing its false positive rate.

  • Granlund, Cajsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Prick, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    A study of viral marketing on Youtube: Evidence: Nike Dream Crazy and Nike Dream Crazier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to answer the question “What components in Nike’s viral ads on Youtube trigger emotions?”. The data was collected through a qualitative and descriptive research approach and the method was a combination of a poetic film analysis and Ducoffe’s Model of Advertising Value. The model includes three components that were to be analyzed: informativeness, entertainment and irritation. The video ads were analyzed together with the comments posted. The comments were seen as electronic word of mouth and they were analyzed in order to understand if the viewer felt positive or negative emotions towards the ads. The findings showed that Ducoffe’s Model of Advertising Value was applicable on social media networks such as Youtube. Informativeness and entertainment were the most important components triggering emotions. Since marketing events nowadays are digitalized, it is important to adapt previous models and research to new platforms.

  • Adelbrun, Alina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Vad innebär lagreformen för organdonation?: En studie av de rättsliga följderna av den statliga utredningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med den statliga donationsutredningen förväntades en lagreform som skulle öka donationsfrekvensen. En sådan reform uteblev dock och det finns anledning att ifrågasätta varför det blev på det sättet. Arbetets syfte har varit att ta reda på orsaken till den uteblivna lagreformen i donationsfrågor efter donationsutredningens slut, samt att uppmärksamma de ändringar som trots allt har införlivats. För att kunna besvara frågeställningarna har den rättsdogmatiska metoden använts, med rättskälleläran som grund, för att fastställa gällande rätt före och efter den statliga utredningen om organdonationer. Utredningen visar att efter att utredningsbetänkandet och de dithörande remissvaren hade analyserats kunde det konstateras att lagförslagen inte kunde införas på grund av oförenlighet med grundlagen. Vissa av donationsutredningens förslag har dock ändå införlivats och beslut om en ny förordning gällande donationsregistret har fattats.

  • Isaksson, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Waara, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hur påverkar fysisk aktivitet mentalt välmående hos universitetsstudenter?: En kvantitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the mental well-being and physical activity among university students. And to examine whether it is possible to determine whether there is a significant correlation between these.The sample of the research consists of 55 volunteering students (n=37 female and n=18 male) who study at a state university in Sweden. A quantitative method in the form of a questionnaire has been used in this study in order to gather data regarding mental health and physical activity. the questionnaire contained 14 questions with different types of questions such as self-scaling and open questions. The result indicated that most of the participants of this study is quite active and is generally quite healthy-minded. The programme SPSS was used for the statistical analysis of the data collected for the present research. According to the findings of the statistical analysis is that there is a weak positive correlation between the variable’s mental health and physical activity. 

  • Lindvall, Emelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Täta hus: en litterturstudie om lufttäthet samt en tolkning av samband mellan lufttäthet och brandtryck2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 60’s and 70’s the population grew steadily in Sweden. Due to industrialization many people made the decision to move from the countryside to the city. This led to a housing shortage and the so called million program was adopted by the Swedish governmentone million dwellings had to be built within a short amount of time. 

    The building process had to be effective, leading to the introduction of prefabricated building components. The dwellings were heated using oil since it was economically favorable at that time. When the oil crisis unfolded in 1973, energy rationing actions were introduced, and the buildings had to be additionally insulated.

    The million program dwellings are today in need of extensive renovations since the buildings are damaged by damp. There have been considerable changes in the building regulations as well, mainly regarding energy, insulation and airtightness.

    The building regulations says that a building construction should have as fair airtightness as possible to prevent damage by damp and moisture, as well as to minimize the use of energy and the climatic influence. Fair airtightness is a good thing, but with airtightness being too good there might arise problems when evacuating due to fire, especially if the door opens inward. An airtight construction may cause higher fire pressures which in turn act as an additional opening force needing to be transcended when evacuating.

    To analyze the correlation between airtightness and fire pressure a parameter analysis has been conducted using the simulation program FDS. Simulations do validate previously conducted fire experiments where difficulties to transcend an inwards opening door emerged. For the parameter analysis the airtightness has been changed, from 0,73 to 0,30 l/sm2. The ventilation figuration has been varied between open and closed.

    The result demonstrated the fire pressure rising when the airtightness improved. The maximum pressure of 6 100 Pa occurred with a combination of airtightness 0,30 l/sm2and closed ventilation. The lowest fire pressure of 700 Pa occurred when the airtightness was set to 0,73 l/sm2and the ventilation was open.

    Maximum door opening forces are according to the Swedish building regulations, Boverkets byggregler,25 N and 150 N, depending on whether the door is constructed to be opened by a person with disabilities or not. Door used for evacuation should be opened outwards, but an inward opening door may be used in dwellings, hotels and smaller workplaces. The rule of thumb says that an operating opening force of 150 N can transcend a back pressure of 150 Pa. 

    To be able to transcend a door effected by fire pressure between 700 Pa and 6 100 Pa, whilst using the regulated opening forces, evacuation must be carried out within seconds. People being asleep, intoxicated or experiencing difficulties moving due to old age or disability, risk being affected by fire pressure in the sense of a delayed evacuation resulting in higher fire pressures, thus implying greater openings forces.