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  • Mosesson, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Sponsorrelationer: En studie om hur företag och idrottsföreningar arbetar i långvariga sponsorrelationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har sponsring gentemot idrott blivit allt mer populärt då det genererar fördelar. För att sponsring ska generera fördelar krävs en god relation mellan företaget och idrottsföreningen. Tidigare studier menar att relationer ligger till grund för en framgångsrik sponsring och att målet bör vara att skapa en långsiktig relation, dock menar tidigare studier att sponsorrelationer är komplexa och svåra att förstå sig på. Det leder oss till denna studies syfte. Studien syftar till att beskriva hur företag och idrottsföreningar arbetar i en långvarig sponsorrelation, genom att undersöka hur ett förtroende och engagemang skapas. För att uppfylla studiens syfte har författaren studerat hur parterna i en sponsorrelation arbetar med beståndsdelarna byteskostnader, relationsfördelar, delade värderingar, kommunikation och opportunistiskt beteende. Resultatet av studien är att samtliga beståndsdelar tillämpas för att skapa ett förtroende och engagemang i sponsorrelationer. Studien visar även att båda parterna i en sponsorrelation bär ett ansvar men idrottsföreningen har ett större ansvar i arbetet av att skapa långsiktiga sponsorrelationer. 

  • Segelstad, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Layering animation principles on motion capture data: Surpass the limitations of motion capture2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the use of Disney's twelve animation principles in relation to Motion Capture. The purpose of the work was to investigate whether animation principles can be applied to finished motion capture animations to surpass the limitations of motion capture  by using animation layers, where each added layer is a new principle. To investigate this, motion capture data was retrieved with various movements from Mixamo, which was then imported into Maya where various animation principles were applied with the help of Maya animation layers. The result of this research will answer the following…

    • Is it possible to surpass the limitations of motion capture by layering disney's animation principles on motion captured animations in Maya with the use of animation layers?

  • Samuelsson, Markus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Utveckling av testmetod för lastbilsdäck i olika dimensioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Saks, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Kan optioner förbättra den riskjusterade avkastningen i en aktieportfölj?: En studie om optionsstrategin covered call på stockholmsbörsen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Författarens syfte med studien är att undersöka om optionsstrategin covered call, kan generera bättre riskjusterad avkastning än jämförelseindex. Författaren bygger den kvantitativa undersökningen på sekundärdata som inhämtats från flera leverantörer av finansiell datahistorik. Ekonomisk teori som tillämpas är teorin om effektiva marknader, finansiell beteendevetenskap samt prospektteorin. Resultatet påvisar en riskjusterad högre avkastning för covered call-strategin. Adderas uppskattade transaktionskostnader visar resultatet att covered call har lägre standardavvikelse medan avkastningen är densamma som index.

  • Marklund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Östlund, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hjälpsystem inom revision: En kvalitativ studie om fördelar och risker2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag kan ha olika motiv till att lämna felaktig redovisning, men oftast uppstår felen pågrund av misstag. Det är revisorns uppgift att i sin revision se till att redovisningen inte ärmissvisande. Till sin hjälp använder sig revisorer allt mer av hjälpsystem i revisionsarbetet.En revision inleds alltid med en planering, där revisorn bestämmer hur revisionen ska gå till.Men det hör mer till regel än undantag att det i en revision idag ingår att köra in data frånkunden i ett program som analyserar datan på olika sätt, för att sedan få en checklista på vadsom bör kontrolleras mer noggrant. Ett problem med detta kan vara att användarens möjlighettill få erfarenhet av manuellt arbete begränsas. Syftet med studien är att beskriva fördelarnamed de hjälpsystem som används inom revisionsbranschen och försöka identifiera eventuellarisker med användandet av dessa. Detta leder oss till forskningsfrågan: Vilka fördelar medförhjälpsystem inom revisionsbranschen och finns det några risker? Den litteratur denna studieanvänder sig av är i huvudsak forskning om de positiva effekterna av hjälpsystem, men detfinns även en del litteratur om risker med användandet. Dessa risker beskrivs i litteraturensom att revisionsarbetet simplifieras av hjälpsystemen vilket medför att kunskapen om dettraditionella revisionsarbetet riskerar att dö ut. En kvalitativ studie användes i denna studiebestående av sex stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra auktoriserade revisorer ochtvå revisorsassistenter. Resultatet av studien var att hjälpsystemen har effektiviseratrevisionsarbetet avsevärt. Den risk som studien har identifierat är att användaren avhjälpsystem riskerar att “schimpansifieras”, det vill säga att personen endast utför detarbetsuppgifter som hjälpsystemet rekommenderar. Enligt studien är revisorerna medvetnaom denna risk och motarbetar den med att coacha assistenterna att tänka kritiskt och inte stirrasig blind på rekommendationer. Förslag på fortsatt forskning: en bredare kvantitativ studie föratt få ett bättre underlag att dra en slutsats från.

  • Lundbäck, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Polisens arbetssituation: Upplever poliser stress?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polices working in tough working conditions with high workload and high demands, that can result in various stressconditions. The purpose of this essay were to investtigate polices experiences of stress related factors wich is connected to the demands in work and how this is handled. To get a more deep insight in polices working situation, used a qualitative approach were nine polices was interviewed, from two different municipalities in Sweden. The questions of the essay were how the police’s demands, control and support is. The other was how the demands and stress are handled. The result showed that the polices feel a stress in their work due to the high demands and the shortfall of polices, high workload and the knowledge of maybe need to use weapon. Three-shift shows have an impact on the health at the individuals, because of the irregular times they have during the work. The leaderships have high demands that all the tasks are completed, wich is difficult because of the shortfall of police’s. All have control opportunities by being able to make decisions, while the tasks in work cannot be controlled. Long emergency routes made a stress, were the distance to strengthening is far away. How all handle this factors is firstly with help of colleagues. The peer support is something everyone emphasizes like a big importance, at the same time they wished a bigger support from the leadership in more difficult events. One conclusion of this is that the police authority has shown deficiencies in preventing these cause factors wich the informants highlighted.

  • Abbas, Maisaa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Elisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av att överleva ett hjärtstopp - ett litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hjärtstopp drabbar cirka 10 000 personer årligen i Sverige. Antalet personer som överlever ett hjärtstopp har ökat stadigt de sista åren, men fortfarande är det den vanligaste orsaken till plötslig död utanför sjukhus. För de personen som överlever innebär det att livet plötsligt förändras och fokus i det dagliga livet blir på händelsen och dess konsekvenser. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva de drabbades upplevelser av ett hjärtstopp. En kvalitativ design användes och nio vetenskapliga studier analyserades systematiskt med innehållsanalys. Analysen resulterade i fem kategorier: Att känna oro, att få ett nytt livsperspektiv, att kroppsliga begränsningar leder till känslor av rädsla och maktlöshet, att känna tacksamhet men vara i behov av stödsamtal, att vara i behov av information. Resultatet visade att personer som överlevt ett hjärtstopp hade många frågor och funderingar kring det inträffade men upplevde att de fick bristande information från sjukvården. Känslor som otrygghet, ångest och osäkerhet var vanligt samt oro inför framtiden. Resultatet från denna litteraturstudie kan användas för att öka kunskapen om hur personerna mår psykiskt och fysiskt, samt vilka behov de har för att hantera livet. Det behövs mer omvårdnadsforskning inom området med fokus på sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda de drabbade personerna. Målet är att skapa trygghet hos sjukvårdspersonal så att de kan stötta dessa personer på bästa sätt och främja en läkning hos dem och anhöriga.

  • Andersson, Andrew
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lagom kontroversiellt eller kränkande?: En kvantitativ studie om kontroversiell reklam och konsumenter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was inspired from observing ads that stirredup controversy and thereby got a lot of attention from consumers.The purpose of this study was to investigate how factors like gender and age may affectconsumers impression of controversial advertisements, but also to investigate how controversial advertisements may affect consumers attitudes towards brands that have used advertisements that were deemed as controversial. Lastly,the study investigates the probability that consumers will spread word of mouth/electronicword of mouth about the brands.

    The study was conducted through a survey with standardized answers and the data was analyzed with a Chi2 test, bivariate correlation analysis,and multiple regression analysis. The analysis indicated that women were more negative and less positive towards controversial advertisement than men were, atleastwithin the categories that were tested in the study. Furthermore, the study indicated that consumers attitudes towards a brand will be affected in the same way as the consumers impression of the controversial ad. Finally, results indicated that the probability for WOM is also affected in the same way as the consumers impression of the controversial advertisement.

  • Lundberg, Oscar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Switching behavior på Instagram: Vad påverkar svenska millennials att följa och avfölja influencers på Instagram?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of what makes Swedish millennials follow and unfollow influencers on Instagram.

     

    Metod: This study had a deductive and qualitative approach and has collected data through twelve semi-structured interviews.

     

    Conclusion: This study concludes that millennials mainly follow influencers on Instagram to get inspiration for their own lives. One of the most common reasons why millennials are unfollowing influncers on Instagram is that influencers tend to publish too much content, which leads to information overload. Millennials also unfollow influencers due to the fact that their posts no longer appeal to them because they changed preferences or because influencers shift the focus of their content. This study also concluded that there is nothing that inhibits a millennial from unfollowing an influencer on Instagram other than the fact that it takes a little bit of effort to visit the account and press the unfollow button.

  • Sjöström, Michaela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Match Moving: En analys av olika arbetsmetoder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Match moving is one of the steps within a vfx production pipeline that decides how filmed material and 3D effects will intergrate with each other. Already on set preparations and documentations are made to make the match moving process less problematic later in the pipeline. It is essential that the filmed material match the virtual created camera from the match moving process to make the intergration happen. This report discusses the problems that can arise when needed preparations on set are missing and how they can be solved by studying different methods for match moving. The report focuses on these methods compared to the filmed material and how a vfx artist can choose a method to work with depending on that material. The methods that are discussed in this report are automatic tracking, tracking with feature points only and planar tracking. The results also show that different methods should be treated differently from each other by the vfx artist and that the result can differ depending on how the filmed material looks. Clarifying these methods and filmed material with tests will make it easier to choose a method to work with while match moving.

  • Lindgren, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Framställningen av ett perfekt liv: En kvalitativ studie om sociala mediers påverkan på unga kvinnors identitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to increase the knowledge of how young women between the ages of 20 and 25 experience their use of social media. The problem formulation is based on social media being able to influence the self-image of young women. Within these frames, a multitude of images and videos that people post are often flowing in the best possible way. This, in turn, can help many people believe that the people behind have a perfect life. The empirical material has been collected through seven qualitative interviews with young women aged 20-25. The empirical study was analyzed with the help of Erving Goffman's theory of impression control and Anthony Gidden's theory of identity and was then analyzed by a thematic analysis. The main themes of the study are "identity" and "control of impressions", "comparison and requirements in relation to social media"The quotes from the empirical material have been analyzed using the above-mentioned theories.

    The essay results show that the use of social media can adversely affect the interviewees. Young women's self-image can be influenced by all images published on social media, they are compared with this and furthermore it can lead to them feeling inadequate. There is a norm on social media that means that the flow should appear as a "perfect life". The result also shows that the interviewees create a certain identity on social media that can be different from the one they have in real life.

    The essay shows that the interviewees' way of presenting themselves on social media is in line with the other members who use social media, which means that everyone together creates these standards and maintains them.

  • Larsson, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Kan vi bara få jobba?: En kvalitativ studie om anställdas upplevelser av återkommande organisationsförändringar på arbetsplatsen.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present society is characterized by an ever-increasing rate of change where organizations continually need to make changes to maintain market competitiveness, resulting in recurring organizational changes becoming a common feature. The purpose of this study is to investigate how recurrent organizational changes are perceived from an employee perspective. By answering the following research questions, the purpose has been answered: How do employees experience that the demands of the work have been affected by recurrent organizational changes? How do employees experience that their control over the work situation has been affected by recurrent organizational changes? What is the significance of social support for the employee during regular organizational changes? The method used is qualitative, where eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with employees within a telecom company for collecting the empirical data. The theories used for analyzing the empirical data are Karasek & Theorell's demand-control-support model. The result shows that employees feel that their work demands have increased while their control and participation has decreased in connection with recurrent organizational changes, and that social support fulfills an important function in this imbalance. A proposal for change for the studied organization is to set aside time and resources to create participation, so that employees receive a more even balance between work requirements and control.

  • Kurkinen, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science. 1985.
    Förhandlingar runt köksbordet: en studie om strategier och förhandling kring nyttjande av föräldrapenning  ur ett familjesociologiskt perspektiv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1974, the Swedish parental insurance, which includes remuneration in the form of parental benefit, has been statutory, and has thus existed for over 40 years. The issue of parental benefit and parental leave has to a large extent been the basis for the discussion on gender equality (Försäkringskassan, 2019). The issue of gender equality is a complex political issue, which can be described in the family sphere and how gender equality lives. It is problematic that women still take out more of parental leave than men. Who should take responsibility for the care of and households entails consequences far beyond the family sphere, especially for women's opportunities in the labor market (Statens offentliga utredningar, 2014). The purpose of this study is to examine a group's mother's reflections and experiences regarding the regulation and distribution of parental benefit in the parental insurance. What negotiations and strategies are behind the own distribution of parental benefit in their family. Women's conditions and the unequal power relations in the family sphere, ties in with how work in the home is distributed, how different tasks go to different family members, based on gender, based on different roles (Giddens & Sutton, 2014). There is a picture of the family that is constantly negotiating. An explicit negotiation is an open debate with a discussion and an active and conscious decision-making, while an implicit negotiation is concealed and unspoken. The majority of everyday decisions are unspoken, implicit (Grönlund & Halleröd, 2008). The study was conducted with a qualitative interview method, in order to best capture the interviewees' subjective experiences and thoughts. Then the material has been analyzed through thematic analysis, and interpreted through the theoretical framework. The study's results showed that the distribution of parental benefit in the parental insurance among the surveyed mothers is usually based on an experience that "it just became so". Their descriptions can be interpreted as saying that the distribution has mainly been created by so-called implicit negotiations, non-decisions (Grönlund & Halleröd, 2008; Ahrne & Roman, 1997). Based on routines and rituals, learned behaviors and expectations that can often be linked to notions of gender (Grönlund & Halleröd, 2008). The most prominent problem that the study's results showed was the women's experience of being in a position of dependence on their partner, and a reluctance to do so.

  • Hietala, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Åberg, Marlene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Mäklares och besiktningsmäns ansvar vid fastighetsöverlåtelser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att undersöka mäklarnas och besiktningsmännens ansvar gentemot en fastighetsköpare. Både frågan om ansvaret för fel i fastigheter och för uppdragets utförande har utretts. Utöver det har en redogörelse också gjorts för vilket ansvar som föreligger när uppgifter vidarebefordras från en säljare samt för de påföljder som kan aktualiseras vid brister i utförandet av uppdraget. Den rättsdogmatiska metoden har använts för att besvara syftet. Metoden innebär att studera rättskällorna för att fastställa gällande rätt. Det har konstaterats att både mäklare och besiktningsmän har ett professionsansvar. I professionsansvaret ingår bland annat en informations- och omsorgsplikt som kan leda till ett skadeståndsansvar vid brister i utförandet av uppdraget. Den slutsats som har dragits är dock att rättsläget är oklart på grund av att det finns en brist på prejudikat som behandlar mäklarnas ansvar samt att det saknas lagreglering för besiktningsmännens uppdrag.

  • Johansson, Robin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    En jämförelse, armering av hakupplag: Utifrån teori från PRE-Stress jämfört med föreskrifterna i BBK-97/BBK-942019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är ett examensarbete som kommer avhandla en jämförelse mellan datorprogrammet PRE-Stress förlag av dimensionering av armeringsareor för en balk med FB/F-tvärsnitt. Emot beräkningar från ett internt beräkningsdokument för dimensionering av hakupplag.  Beräkningarna grundar sig utifrån gemensamma förutsättningar som omfattar tvärsnittets geometri, hakupplagets utformning samt den dimensionerade upplagskraften.  Beräkningarna har skett via datorprogrammet PRE-Stress samt det interna beräkningsdokumentet i Excel-format. Datorprogrammet PRE-Stress ger generellt en större mängd armering jämt emot det interna beräkningsdokumentet. 

  • Johansson, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Invasiva främmande arter: försiktighetsprincipen som förutsättning för effektiva åtgärder2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biological diversity is an essential prerequisite for life on earth and for the function of its ecosystems. Without biological diversity the ecosystems will eventually collapse, and it is thus necessary to maintain a healthy level of variation at ecological-, species- and genetic- level. Invasive alien species (IAS) are now recognized as the second highest threat to biological diversity. As a result, new legislation aiming to counteract the increasing issues with IAS are introduced e.g. in the EU. The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the function and importance of the precautionary principle regarding the control of IAS, using legal analysis. The legal analysis is complemented by an analysis of other scientific sources e.g. in order to describe biological diversity in general as well as the real and potential the ecosystem-consequences of the introduction of species. EU environmental law is based on the precautionary principle and so is thus the newly established IAS Regulation. The IAS Regulation requires an extensive riskassessment before a species will be encompassed by the regulation. The risk-assessment process does however not entirely correspond with the (strong version of the) precautionary principle, as actions in accordance with this principle requires an assumed risk, which must not necessarily be scientifically established. This results in a discrepancy between the legal definition and the actual definition of an IAS; species which have undergone the risk-assessment process can obtain the status of IAS (legally) whilst others, which has not yet been assessed or do not fulfil all criteria, do not have this status and are thus not covered by the legislation. There are 12 000 alien species within the EU, of which 1800 are considered invasive. However, only 49 different species are currently covered by the IAS-regulation. This cannot be considered to be in keeping with the (strong version of the) precautionary principle.

  • Johansen, Amanda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Konsumerar vi för att leva, eller lever vi för att konsumera?: En kvalitativ studie om unga individers konsumtionsvanor och miljömedvetenhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption has today become a large part of human life. Especially for young individuals there is a tendency to consume more to achieve a higher social status and create an identity through consumption. It was therefore interesting to investigate why young individuals consume despite the fact that they today has a high environmental awareness. The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption habits of young individuals and how their feelings are towards their consumption habits in relation to the current environmental problem. In addition three questions were stated to fulfill the aim of the study, these were stated as followed: “How do the interviewees understand their consumption habits?”, “How do the interviewees understand the environment?” and “How do the interviewees experience their consumption habits in relation to the environment?”. The theoretical framework consists of theories of consumption and consumption society in which individuals create an identity with the product they consume. The empire was collected through semi-structured interviews with eight people aged 18-25. The interview questions were based on different themes which referred to the interviewees consumption habits, environmental awareness and the relationship between them. The result showed that the interviewees consumption habits varies but that consumption is a big part of their lives. The majority of the interviewees consume things they found to be trendy, as they to some extent are affected by the opinions of others and what they see other people consume. The interviewees experience positive emotions while consuming initially, and then experienced anxiety about having spent money and thus have less money to consume further. All interviewees considered that a better economy had made it possible for a desired increased consumption. The environmental awareness of the interviewees also varies widely, all of which were aware of the current environmental problem and most of them feel anxiety about the future. However, there was a hopelessness amongst the interviewees as they feel that their involvement do not help in the grand scheme of things, which results in inactivity even for those who have environmental knowledge. Awareness of the impact of their consumption habits on the environment is low, and all believed that bad habits are difficult to break. The interviewees feel a strong desire to consume new goods and there is a constant fear of not fitting in because of a lack of consumption and that therefore outweighs their awareness of the negative impact of consumption on the environment.

  • Johansson, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Rättsliga förutsättningar för gruvverksamhet: Tillståndsprövningen av gruvan i Kaunisvaara2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis surveys Swedish law governing mining operations in Sweden and then examines the application of Swedish law specifically to the mining industry in Kaunisvaara, Sweden. The standard procedure is for the Land and Environmental Court to review mining permits, but other legally and duly qualified government and non-government organisations may also be granted this authority. Such was the case in Kaunisvaara when in 2010 the Finnish-Swedish Border River Commission, a legally qualified non-government organisation, reviewed and granted a mining permit to Northland Resources AB. The permit did not contain detailed conditions on how the operations should be conducted in order to avoid environmental damage. In 2014 the County Administrative Board of Norrbotten (within whose jurisdictions Kaunisvaara lies) filed several police reports against Northland Resources for environmental infractions claiming that the company failed to abide by the conditions of their mining permit. Shortly thereafter Northland Resources declared bankrupcy. In 2018 a new mining company, Kaunis Iron AB, obtained mineral rights to the same mine in Kaunisvaara formerly operated by Northland Resources with the intent of conducting mining operations in the same manner as the previous owner and operating under the original permit granted to Northland Resoures. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency petitioned the Land and Environmental Court for a partial withdrawal of the original mining permit arguing that Northland Resources violated the original terms of the permit and that Kaunis Iron AB, by conducting mining operations in the same manner, would be similarily violating the terms of original permit.

  • Jerome, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Att vara relevant på sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om hur människor presenterar sig själva på sociala medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier som datorförmedlad kommunikationsform online har 83 procent av den svenska befolkningen tagit sig an. Denna kommunikationsform har förändrat sättet som individer inte-ragerar med varandra samt hur de väljer att presentera sig själva. Att visa ”vem man är” har blivit en central del i människors liv då deinte lägre föds in i en gemenskap eller klass. I och med att vara uppkopplad på sociala medier och ständigt presentera sig själv genom inlägg i form av text eller bild kan individer förkroppsliga självet, som i sin tur gör att personer kan hitta gemenskaper med likasinnade presentationer. Med dessa gemenskaper och grupperingar som skapas på dessa plattformar följer både positivitet och negativitet genom exempelvis att ständigt jämföra sig själv med övriga ”gruppmedlemmar” och på så sätt möjligen känna att vem man är eller det man gör inte duger till eller måste ändrats på. Denna uppsats har för avsikt att påvisa hur sociala medier skapar möjligheter till ett identitetsskapande och varför är det viktigt för många av dagens yngre människor att presentera sig själva på ett tillrättalagt sätt genom dessa plattformar.För att ta reda på detta användes ett kvalitativt angreppssätt med fyra respondenter, två tjejer respektive två killar. Gemensamt för alla respondenter var att de studerade på Luleå Tekniska Universitet samt att personerna var mellan åldrarna 20 –30år. Ur intervjuerna tematiserades jämförelse, kommunikation, kultur, fasad och grupptryckfram, dessa har i sin tur fungerat som övergripande teman som vidare beskrivs och fördjupas i resultatet. Trots att fenomenet är en individuell tolkning visade resultatet och analysen att det finns en rödtråd i hur personerna valde att konstruera deras online-identitet genom att vara noggrann med iscensättningen av inläggens struktur. Det vill säga att texten eller bilderna var väl planerade hur de skulle utformas för att förmedla rätt mening som i sin tur ska reflektera tillbaka på individen själv. Samt genom att presentera sig själv med sociala medier som verktyg och på detta sätt kunde individer mäta sin egen relevans när de befann sig inom en grupp, vilket visades vara oerhört viktigt för alla re-spondenter–att vara relevant som individ i dagens samhälle.Vad detta grundar sig i och hur detta tolkas av mig som författare presenteras i den slutgiltiga diskussionen

  • Jakobsson, Pontus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Proceduralism, the Automated Artist2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ingström, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Att uttrycka sin identitet genom klädval: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnors klädkonsumtion i relation till identitetsskapande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur kvinnor i åldersspannet 18 -25 år upplever sin klädkonsumtion i relation till sin identitet samt hur deras kläders kommunikativa förmåga är en del i deras identitetsskapandet.För att besvara syftet formulerades tre forskningsfrågor; ”Hur använder och betraktar unga kvinnor kläder som en del av deras identitetsskapande?”,”Hur upplever unga kvinnor att de identifierar sig själva med sina kläder?”och ”Hur upplever unga kvinnor att de behöver konsumera kläder för att framställa sig själva?”.Studien grundades på en kvalitativ metod med sju stycken semi-strukturerade intervjuer.Det teoretiska ramverket som låg till grund för uppsatsen var i huvudsak identitetsformationsteori av Côté och Levine (2016), det dramaturgiska perspektivet av Goffman (2014), konsumtionsteori av Östberg ochKaijser(2010)samt tidigare forskning i form av vetenskapliga artiklar.Resultatet visade på att de deltagande intervjupersonerna experimenterat med olika klädstilar i yngre åldrar för att arbeta fram relativt stabila klädstilar som de förknippar med dem själva. De framarbetade klädstilarna förändras dock fortfarande till viss mån,framförallt baserat på trender. Intervjupersonerna identifierade sig med sin kläder genom att de klär sig inom ramen för deras klädstilar. Vidare visade resultatet på att själva konsumtionen av kläder var en betydande del i intervjupersonernas framställning av självet. Eftersom både kläder i sig och konsumtionen av kläder ansågs vara betydande komponenter i intervjupersonernas identiteter ansågs de ha en samverkande effekt på varandra.Avslutningsvis konkluderades att kläder tenderar att ha en kommunikativ förmåga som kan berätta en hel del om vilka intervjupersonerna är samt hur de bedömer andra.

  • Halbakken, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Berggren, Alicia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    ”Alltså det beror ju på hur mycket vi som vuxna jobbar, det beror på hur inkluderande vi är”: Förskollärares tankar om huruvida förskolan är en plats för alla barn2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med vår studie är att undersöka hur några förskollärare arbetar för att möta alla barn, även de i behov av särskilt stöd. Syftet är vidare att undersöka om kompetensen och verktygen finns för att inkludera barn i behov av särskilt stöd, och hur dessa verktyg i så fall används i dessa verksamheter. I vår studie använder vi oss av kvalitativ metod, i form av kvalitativa intervjuer för att besvara studiens forskningsfrågor. Resultatet visar att de intervjuade förskollärarna anser att alla barn inkluderas i deras verksamheter, även de i behov av särskilt stöd. De intervjuade förskollärarna betonar att det som är avgörande i denna strävan är förskollärares kompetens och förhållningssätt, specialpedagogens stöd samt resursfördelningen i verksamheterna. Komplexiteten med att skapa en förskola för alla barn framkommer genom att förskollärarna som deltagit i studien uttrycker att det är en fin linje mellan inkludering och exkludering. De anser att många faktorer spelar in för att nå målsättningen om en förskola för alla barn.

  • Johansson, Jessika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Berg, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    “Det är inte barnet det är fel på utan det är våra förväntningar som är fel”: Pedagogers användning av lågaffektivt bemötande för att stödja barn som har problemskapande beteende i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att belysa hur pedagogerna beskrev att de använde lågaffektivt bemötande på förskolan. Syftet var vidare att synliggöra i vilka situationer de använde strategin i arbetet med barn som har problemskapande beteende. Vi använde en kvalitativ metod för att besvara våra forskningsfrågor och intervju som datainsamlingsmetod. Resultatet i studien visade att pedagogerna som deltagit i studien uttryckte att de medvetet arbetade utifrån ett lågaffektivt förhållningssätt, både med barn som har problemskapande beteende, men även generellt i hela barngruppen. De använde liknande strategier och anpassade strategierna efter barnens individuella behov och förutsättningar. Pedagogerna anklagade inte barnen för att vara problematiska, utan poängterade att det var förskolans miljö och undervisning som behövde utvecklas. Pedagogerna utgick från det relationella perspektivet i sitt arbete med lågaffektivt bemötande och lade stor vikt vid att relationen till barnen skulle vara gynnsamma för båda parter. Pedagogerna synliggjorde problemen som uppkom genom att koppla dem till miljö och organisation, och beskrev att kritisk granskning av professionen och verksamheten var central, för att undervisningen skulle kunna utvecklas på bästa sätt. Pedagogerna betonade även att det var grundläggande att barn inte fick skuldbeläggas och att de borde bemötas där de var, utifrån deras enskilda kompetenser och behov.

  • Korsby, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Att inte se skogen för alla träd: Hur kön och könsmönster omedvetet skapas, upprätthålls och förändras inom produktionen i ett skogsindustriföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although Sweden is considered to have one of the world's most equal labor markets, it is presented as one of the world's most gender-segregated horizontally and vertically. This study is carried out at BillerudKorsnäs Karlsborg, which is a Swedish forest industry company that manufactures both pulp and paper. In consultation with BillerudKorsnäs, I have been commissioned to describe the production operators' experience of gender equality and whether there are any organizational explanations for the gender distribution as it does. The purpose of the study is to examine and analyze how gender patterns and gender are created, maintained and changed within production using the issues; What notions of gender express the interviewees? What significance do the interviewees see that the gender has for the workplace today? If and in what way are signs of the change in gender pattern illustrated? A qualitative method is used with semi-structured interviews as a method of collecting the empirical data. The theoretical framework consists of West and Zimmerman's (1987) theory of making gender and Acker's (1990) theory of gender and organizations. The result shows that gender patterns and gender in production are not felt to have any significance for the workplace. The explanations lie in the fact that the work is no longer considered physically heavy and can therefore be carried out by both men and women. Despite this, it appears that perceptions of differences between women and men occur, that women and men are different, where the differences are largely about what women and men's properties are considered to contribute to the workplace. Women are considered to be accurate in nature, which gives an indication that the men would not. The result also shows that the explanations are both exiled in the surrounding society and into the organization. The result thus shows that the social construction of the sex and its gender labeling in and outside the organization forms the basis for the low proportion of women in production.

  • Göthe, Christoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    E-sport, E-atleter och fysisk träning: -En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Inom e-sport tävlar e-atleter som enskilda deltagare eller i ett lag från olika länder som möter varandra i samma datorspel. Dessa matcher/turneringar ses av miljontals personer över hela världen. Skador som inträffar inom e-sport kan vara så pass allvarliga att utövarna behöver avsluta sin karriär, ofta handlar det om överbelastningsskador i rygg, nacke, skuldra, hand och handled. Syfte: Syftet var att genom en litteraturstudie, studera kunskapsläget gällande E-sport och fysisk träning.  Metod: För att svara på frågeställningarna har en beskrivande litteraturöversikt genomförts i databaserna Sportdiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed och DiVA. Resultat: Totalt inkluderades fem studier. Två av dessa var interventionsstudier där en hade kontrollgrupp. Två studier var enkätstudier varav en även inkluderade en intervjudel. Den femte studien var en tvärsnittsstudie.  Konklusion: Från de inkluderade studierna kunde inget samband hittas mellan fysisk träning och e-atleters prestation. E-atleter upplevde dock att deras prestation blir bättre av att träna fysiskt. Målet med fysisk träning för e-atleter är till störst del för att få en bättre allmän hälsa och bara en lite del av e-atleter tränar för att prestera bättre. De risker som e-atleter utsätter sig för är långvarigt stillasittande, ögonutmattning och muskuloskeletala besvär i rygg, nacke, hand och handled.

  • Segerstedt, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Nå alla elever: ett aktionsforskningsprojekt om läsning och motivation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of including the students' interests in thechoice of fiction and what effect this has on their motivation for reading. Based on the purpose,three questions were formulated which were intended to answer the purpose. These were:- How can I, as a teacher, see a development of students' reading motivation about theliterature chosen based on their interests?- What working methods promote students' motivation for reading?- How do I as a teacher measure the students' increased motivation for reading?The study was carried out with the help of action research in own classroom in a year 1 andwith the help of a questionnaire of efferent character and a survey to measure the students'motivation for reading. This was supported by observations and reflections on the students'response to the reading. The study also included a period where the students were helped tofind literature that suited their interests and then a reading project was carried out, which wasalso analyzed.The result shows that it is not the method that is central to increasing the students' motivation.In addition to the interest increasing the motivation of the student, the teacher's presence andsupport as a listening adult is a contributing part to the students' increased interest in reading.The study shows that as interest increases, the motivation for other reading also increases. Thestudy also suggests that if the teacher is not there as an interested adult, the students' motivationfor reading falls considerably

  • Söderberg, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Biocarbon production from biomass based energy plant forapplication in high-value materials2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Natural graphite, a type of carbon, is used in most battery driven electronic devices around the world as it serves as the anode in Li-ion batteries. Since 67\% of global production of graphite originates from a single country the EU has classified it as a critical raw material with a high supply risk. If graphite can be produced locally from biomass not only would it potentially make batteries cheaper it could be a huge boon to the Swedish bio industry. In this thesis carbonization of pure lignin is done through hydrothermal carbonization and slow pyrolysis with peak temperature of 900\degree C. The type of carbon needed for these applications involves a high degree of crystallization and large surface areas and pore volumes. Analysis of the samples was done through X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, CHNO- and specific surface analysis. Results show a D/G ratio of 0.85, full width half maximum (FWHM) values of 7.7, which points toward a hard carbon with nano crystalline graphite present in the samples. SSA results show a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of around 350 $m^2/g$ and CHNO show a carbon content of about 90\%. The results are promising for use as an anode in hard carbon sodium-ion batteries or for $CO_2$ separation. Techno-economical analysis show that integrated biocarbon production in a bio-ethanol plant is a much more profitable solution than selling the lignin as biofuel or burning it for electricity production.

  • Fagerlönn, Sandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Föräldraskap och karriär: En studie om kvinnors upplevelser av föräldraskapets påverkan på karriären2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förutsättningen för ett jämställt samhälle är att varje individ ges möjlighet att försörja sig genom förvärvsarbete. För att kvinnor ska ha samma möjligheter som män innebär det att ansvaret för omsorg av barn och det obetalda hemarbetet måste delas jämlikt. En förutsättning för att både kvinnor och män ska ha möjlighet att göra karriär, få jämlika löner samt en bättre pension är att föräldraledigheten delas lika, detta då frånvaro från arbetet påverkar förutsättningarna. Ekonomiska orsaker, traditionella rollförväntningar på kön samt attityder på arbetsplatser och i hemmen påverkar uppdelningen av föräldraledigheten. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka kvinnors upplevelser av föräldraskapets påverkan på karriären genom att besvara frågeställningarna: Hur upplever kvinnor omgivningens förväntningar på dem som kvinnor och mödrar? Hur upplever kvinnor att föräldraskapet påverkat deras karriärer? Vad är orsakerna till att män tar ut mindre föräldraledighet än kvinnor? Metoden som använts för att besvara dessa är kvalitativ, semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med sju kvinnor som varit föräldralediga och återgått i arbete. Insamling av empirin har analyserats med hjälp av det teoretiska ramverket innehållande tidigare forskning avseende familjeliv, arbetsliv och jämställdhet. Samt teori om könsroller av Connell och Pearse (2015), modernitet och självidentitet av Giddens (2008) och teori om arbetsliv, familjeliv och kön av Nordenmark (2004). Resultatet visar att kvinnorna upplever att förväntningarna på dem är högre när barnen är yngre samt att det är stora skillnader mellan förväntningar på kvinnor och män. Föräldraskapet, inkluderat föräldraledigheten, påverkar möjligheterna till karriär, studiens resultat visar att föräldraskapet har en påverkan för både kvinnor och män. Studiens resultat visar att uppdelningen av föräldraledigheten påverkas av traditionella könsroller, omgivningens förväntningar samt av biologiska och ekonomiska orsaker. Sammanfattningsvis är det av vikt för individen, samhället och organisationer att arbeta mot ett mer jämställt samhälle. Denna studie kan bidra till ökad medvetenhet, vilket är en förutsättning för att skapa jämställdhet.

  • Greek, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Korrelation mellan betyg och kön kopplat till textuellt användande av adjektiv, handlingsinriktade verb och pronomen i årskurs 6.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Det är sedan länge känt att pojkar presterar sämre än flickor vilket även forsknings- och PISA- resultat enstämmigt bekräftar. I nuläget vet man inte vad det beror på att pojkar presterar 90% av flickors resultat. Studien ämnar undersöka vilka korrelationer som finns mellan betyg och elever i årskurs 6 användande av adjektiv, handlingsinriktade verb och pronomen. Dessutom ämnar studien utröna vilka korrelationer som återfinns mellan pojkar och flickor i relation till betyg. I studien kartläggs pojkar och flickors ordklassanvändande, textomfång, kön och betyg. De ordklasser som analyseras är adjektiv, handlingsinriktade verb och pronomen. Även ett ordvariationsindex genomförs utifrån handlingsinriktade verb.

     

    En kvantitativ metod har använts för att analysera 94 nationella prov i svenska för årskurs 6. Materialet var samtliga elevtexter från en mindre skola, skrivna åren 2012 – 2014. Resultatet visar på små variationer mellan pojkar och flickors ordklassanvändande, textomfång samt betyg. Flickor som kategori visade sig prestera mer inom kategorierna textomfång, adjektiv och handlingsinriktade verb och hade också högre betyg än pojkar. Pojkar presterade marginellt bättre inom kategorin pronomen.

     

    Slutsatserna som framkommer i studien är att höga andelar av tidigare beskrivna ordklasser, textomfång eller ordvariationsindex inte per automatik resulterar i höga betyg. Sammanfattningsvis kan analyser med hjälp av ordvariationsindex visa bredden på elevens ordförråd.

  • Bergström, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Karlson, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Risk management in a business ecosystem2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of risk exposure and management for different roles in business ecosystems. The following research questions have been derived to fulfill this purpose: RQ1: Which risks are different business ecosystem roles exposed to, and in what way? RQ2: How can business ecosystem actors mitigate risks?

    Method – A single case study has been conducted on a business ecosystem surrounding the development of autonomous cars in the EU. An abductive and qualitative approach has been applied, which allowed the combination of existing literature and new empirical findings as to the foundation for building new theory. Data was collected through 21 semi-structured interviews and analyzed through comparison between codes on risks, roles, and risk mitigation strategies.

    Findings – The already existing literature on business ecosystem risks was confirmed and nuanced. On top of this, two new risks were found, disintermediation risk (the risk of being fully or partially excluded from the ecosystem) and accountability risk (the risk of being responsible for other business ecosystem actors output to a third party). The findings also declare that risks vary between actors, but also due to other factors such as investment in the ecosystem and an actor's relative size to other actors. Finally, suggested risk response strategies for each risk were derived.

    Theoretical implications - We have contributed to the literature on risks within business ecosystems by adding two new risks: disintermediation risk and accountability risk. We have also contributed to the overall literature on business ecosystems by combining the two sub-streams risks in business ecosystems and roles in business ecosystems. In addition to the theoretical implications for the business ecosystem literature, we have contributed to the risk management literature by applying it in the new context of business ecosystemsto extend the applicability of the risk management literature.

    Practical implications - Our findings shed light on how risks are distributed between different roles and can therefore provide guidance in this issue. The current study also contributes to the understanding of how risks vary with respect to other factors than roles, which could be valuable knowledge for managers. Finally, practical guidance on how risks can be mitigated is presented which is valuable for any actor in a Business ecosystem.

  • Göras Stenberg, Anki
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av patienters balansförmåga efter 8 veckors träningsintervention samt efter 4 månader med egenträning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: En Hälsocentral i Region Gävleborg har sedan februari 2016 bedrivit gruppverksamhet med syfte balansträning för patienter med olika grundsjukdomar.  Träningsgruppen kallas Balansgruppen. Detta är en utvärdering av verksamheten från februari 2016 till oktober 2018. Bakgrund: Balansträning hos äldre kan vara viktig för upplevelsen av säkerhet i vardagen och för att förebygga fall. Träningen bör utmana balansen och kan inkludera gång, funktionella övningar och koordinationsövningar. När balansträning kombineras så att flera sinnen används samtidigt så förbättras balansförmågan mer. Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka patienters balansförmåga före och efter en träningsintervention på 8 veckor (Fas 1) och efter en påföljande hemträningsperiod på 4 månader (Fas 2). Metod: Den svenska versionen av balanstestet Short Physical Balance Battery (SPPB-S) har använts i verksamheten för att utvärdera balansträningen. Berörda patienter och verksamhetschef har godkänt att resultat inhämtats från journalsystemet. Resultat: 56 patienter ingick i utvärderingen. För hela gruppen uppnåddes en förbättring efter Fas 1 från 7,1 till 9,0 poäng på SPPB-S. Hälften, 29 personer, genomförde enbart Fas 1. Resultatet för dessa var vid start 7,1 och vid träningsinterventionens avslut 8,4 poäng. För de 27 personer som kom tillbaka för uppföljande mätning efter hemträning i Fas 2 var medelvärdet vid start 8,9 och vid träningsinterventionens avslut 9,6 poäng. Vid uppföljning efter Fas 2 kvarstod förbättringen på 9,6 poäng. Sammanfattningsvis visar utvärderingen att en träningsintervention på 8 veckor med riktad balansträning ger ett positivt resultat och att resultatet kvarstår efter 4 månader. Klinisk reflektion: Utvärdering av befintlig verksamhet ger en ”bild av verkligheten”, men resultaten kan påverkas av många faktorer.   

  • Pekkari, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    ”Att vara lärare är roligt – men man känner aldrig att man räcker till!”: En kartläggning av gymnasielärares uppfattningar om sitt yrke2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the year of 2015, a research group at Luleå University of Technology conducted a nationwide survey of upper secondary school teachers' working conditions. The study consisted of 57 quantitative- and two qualitative sub-questions (Parding, et al., 2018). This study is based on qualitative interpretation of 1,443 upper secondary school teachers' open answers to the two open qualitative sub-questions. The study intends to identify factors that public- and private sector employed upper secondary school teachers consider to be opportunities, obstacles and challenges in their profession, in regards of work environment and working conditions. The study also intends to study whether there are differences and/or similarities between public- and private sector employed upper secondary school teachers' perceptions about their work situation. Moreover the study intends to study what factors affect the upper secondary school teachers' decision to stay or leave the profession. In order to better understand and explain the study's results, Robert Karasek and Töres Theorells (1990) two- and three dimensional models regarding psychosocial work environment are used.

    The result suggests that there is widespread consensus among the public- and the private sector employed upper secondary school teachers’ perceptions of the profession. The result shows that the majority of upper secondary school teachers experience the municipalization, the free-school reform, the high demands, the administrative tasks and the lack of staff in the school as the greatest obstacle to the profession. Furthermore, most of the upper secondary school teachers in this study consider that the salary level, the profession's status and lack of support from school leaders constitute obstacles in their work. They also consider that it is in these areas that the most important improvement opportunities exist, but also constitute reasons for leaving the profession. The upper secondary school teachers also demand more skill development and collaboration in general and within their own teaching subject in particular. Most of the upper secondary school teachers indicate that teaching is the part of the profession that is the profession's main merit and is the reason why they stay in the profession. In the result, no clear differences can be discerned between public and private sector upper secondary school teachers' perceptions of the profession. The differences that can be discerned in the result can rather be interpreted due to the specific work situation of the individual upper secondary school teacher than to the management. The result supports Karasek and Theorells (1990) theories that the psychosocial work environment is influenced by the upper secondary school teachers' experience of demand and control at work and social support from leaders and colleagues.

    During the year of 2015, a research group at Luleå University of Technology conducted a nationwide survey of upper secondary school teachers' working conditions. The study consisted of 57 quantitative- and two qualitative sub-questions (Parding, et al., 2018). This study is based on qualitative interpretation of 1,443 upper secondary school teachers' open answers to the two open qualitative sub-questions. The study intends to identify factors that public- and private sector employed upper secondary school teachers consider to be opportunities, obstacles and challenges in their profession, in regards of work environment and working conditions. The study also intends to study whether there are differences and/or similarities between public- and private sector employed upper secondary school teachers' perceptions about their work situation. Moreover the study intends to study what factors affect the upper secondary school teachers' decision to stay or leave the profession. In order to better understand and explain the study's results, Robert Karasek and Töres Theorells (1990) two- and three dimensional models regarding psychosocial work environment are used.

    The result suggests that there is widespread consensus among the public- and the private sector employed upper secondary school teachers’ perceptions of the profession. The result shows that the majority of upper secondary school teachers experience the municipalization, the free-school reform, the high demands, the administrative tasks and the lack of staff in the school as the greatest obstacle to the profession. Furthermore, most of the upper secondary school teachers in this study consider that the salary level, the profession's status and lack of support from school leaders constitute obstacles in their work. They also consider that it is in these areas that the most important improvement opportunities exist, but also constitute reasons for leaving the profession. The upper secondary school teachers also demand more skill development and collaboration in general and within their own teaching subject in particular. Most of the upper secondary school teachers indicate that teaching is the part of the profession that is the profession's main merit and is the reason why they stay in the profession. In the result, no clear differences can be discerned between public and private sector upper secondary school teachers' perceptions of the profession. The differences that can be discerned in the result can rather be interpreted due to the specific work situation of the individual upper secondary school teacher than to the management. The result supports Karasek and Theorells (1990) theories that the psychosocial work environment is influenced by the upper secondary school teachers' experience of demand and control at work and social support from leaders and colleagues.

  • Eldstål, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Generating Procedural Environments using Masks: Layered Image Document to Real-time environment2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore the possibilities of using an automated self-made procedural tool to create real-time environments based on simple image masks. The purpose of this is to enable a concept artist or level designer to quickly get out results in a game engine and to be able to explore ideas. The goal of this thesis was to better understand how you can break down simple ideas and shapes into more complex details and assets.

    In the first part of this thesis, I go over the traditional workflow of creating a real-time environment. I then go on and break down my tool, what it does and how it works. I start off with a Photoshop file, make tools in Houdini and then utilize those in Unreal for the end result. I also argument about the time-saving possibilities with these tools. From the work, I draw the conclusion that these kinds of tools save a lot of time for repeating tasks and the creation of similar environments.

  • Borg, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Invandrares etablering på arbetsmarknaden: En kvalitativ studie om möjligheter och hinder ur ett arbetsgivarperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Invandringen har på senare år varit den största bidragande orsaken till den befolkningsökning som nu sker i landet. Det finns samtidigt en problematik med att invandrare har svårt att etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden. Invandrares arbetsmarknadsetablering är av central betydelse att studeraför att kunna urskilja arbetsgivares synsätt kring detta och utifråndet kunna arbeta för en snabbare arbetsmarknadsetablering, vilket är nödvändigt för att kunna åtgärda den arbetskraftsbrist som finns i landet. Vård-och omsorgsbranschen är inget undantag, branschen står inför stora utmaningar där det finns ett stort behov av att rekrytera nya medarbetare. I Luleå kommun är behovet av personal med rätt kompetens stort inom vård-och omsorgssektorn och de beräknar att det kommer krävas många nya medarbetare till år 2025. Utifrån detta har jag i denna studie undersökt arbetsgivares syn på invandrares arbetsmarknadsetablering.Undersökningen har tillämpat en kvalitativ metod där sju intervjuer har genomförts med arbetsgivare som är verksamma inom Luleå kommun och som bedriver verksamheter som innefattar vård-och omsorg. Ämnesområdet har undersökts utifrån tre olika aspekter som är; Kommunikation, normer och värderingar och sociala nätverk. Utifrån dessa tre aspekter har jag identifierat möjligheter och hinder för invandrares arbetsmarknadsetablering.Resultatet av undersökningen visar att språket är den mest betydelsefulla faktorn för invandrares arbetsmarknadsetablering,i synnerhet för en snabb etablering. I takt med att språkkunskaperna ökar finns det en möjlighet till ett bredare socialt nätverk. Detta ökar dina chanser till att erhålla en anställning, då nätverksrekrytering är vanligt förekommande bland de arbetsgivare jag har intervjuat. Olika kulturella tillhörigheter ser arbetsgivarna som något positivt inom verksamheterna och således inget hinder. Däremot har det framkommit misstankar om att det kan förekomma fördomar gällande kulturell tillhörighetsomkan utgöra ett hinder för invandrare att etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden.

  • Ekman, Ann-Sofie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Tänk om - tänk rätt: en kvalitativ uppsats om att vara en attraktiv arbetsgivare för den yngre generationens medarbetare 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the technical development, employers will face tough challenges in recruiting the right staff. It is important that employers succeed in employing employees who possess the skills that may be of relevance to the future transformation of working life. When it comes to technical knowledge, the younger generation is at the forefront, as these employees have grown up with the internet and other technical tools. In order to be an attractive employer for today's young people, employers must thus adopt new working methods regarding communication, technology, motivation and corporate culture. The purpose of this essay is therefore to examine what makes an employer attractive at the labor market for young people born 1989-1999. The method has been a qualitative method in which nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with people aged 20 to 30 years. In order to analyze the collected empirical data, coding has been carried out to then be linked to theory and previous research. 

    The result shows a number of different factors that are of relevance to being an attractive employer. The most important factor in attracting and retaining younger employees is the opportunity to develop their competence. By offering employees the opportunity to grow at work, they will not seek another employer. Furthermore, the result shows that good relations with colleagues, as well as fun and varied tasks, are of great importance for attracting and retaining younger employees. In jobs where the employer has the opportunity to offer flexibility, the result shows that the employer should allow the employees to choose when and where the work should be performed. It is something that matters for both the choice of employer but also for staying in the workplace. It is also important to invest time and resources on both the physical and psychosocial work environment, since the working environment is something that is highly valued both in the choice of workplace but also to stay with an employer.

  • Sedig, Emmelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    ”Jag hade kunnat fortsätta jobba dygnet runt och jag hade säkert inte blivit färdig i alla fall”: En studie om enhetschefers arbetsmiljö i kvinnodominerad kommunal verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the recent decades, managers’ working conditions in the Swedish women dominated public sector have undergone important changes. For example, managers’ responsibilities have been expanded to contain more responsibilities of costs and efficiency. Later, it has been found that managers in professions dominated by women have a lack of sustainable working environment, caused by high job demands and a high degree of work strains. In consultation with a dominated municipal function in northern Sweden, I have been commissioned to investigate how first line managers experience their organizational and social work environment (psychosocial work environment) in this study, based on job demands, job control and social support. This study also investigates the work environment out of a gender perspective. The study has an abductive approach and the empiricism have been collected with qualitative semi structured interviews, where the number of interviews was seven. Thematic analysis has been devoted and the results have been analyzed by using Karasek and Theorell’s (1999) job demand-control-support model, Connell and Pearse’s (2015) idea of gender as socially constructed, and Ackers (1990) idea that gender is created in organizations through gender creating processes. The result shows that the first line managers are working in a municipal function that are boundless, which means that the work tasks never run out. Within the frames of the managers’ work there are variations in the experiences of the work environment. The result shows that the ability and possibility of setting boundaries in their work are important. The imagination of differences between male and female behavior are important for how the first line managers experience their work environment. The results also show that the first line managers experience that women are not as god as men to set boundaries in their work, and that women are not respected by the employer equally as men when it comes to set boundaries.

  • Muotka Pettersson, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    "Hoppjerka" inte längre ett skällsord: En kvalitativ studie om varför ledare väljer att stanna kvar i en organisation.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization's accompanying mobility culture poses a challenge for employers as it is of great importance for a company to retain employees in order for the company to develop (Shanker, 2014). Survey results have shown that 39 percent of managers in Sweden want to leave their current employer, of which 10 percent of them no longer want to work as a manager at all (Ledarna, 2015). This study aims to contribute with increased insight into how organizations, in a working life characterized by mobility, can work to get leaders to remain in the organizations. The purpose of this study is to seek knowledge about why leaders choose to remain in an organization. To fulfill the purpose, the study is based on the following research questions: Which factors motivate managers and leaders to remain in the organization? If so, how do these factors differ between the male and female leaders? The method is qualitative and the empirical data is collected through eight semi-structured interviews. The study was conducted in a public organization that expressed a need for the current study. The theoretical framework consists of the two- factor theory created by Herzberg (Herzberg, Mausner & Bloch, 1993), the demand-control-support model created by Karasek och Theorell (1990), social role theory created by Eagly (1987) and role congruity theory created by Eagly och Karau (2002). The result indicates that the factors that are important for leaders to remain in the organization are leadership, workplace relations, fair pay, autonomy, feedback, focus on results and goals, contributing to society, the subordinate employees, development opportunities and balance between labour requirements and labour resources. These factors are significant for both the female and male leaders, but the result indicates that there is some discrepancy between the requirements imposed on male and female leaders. The demands on the female leaders are partly higher and of a different nature.

  • Olsson, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Så här gör pojkarna var de går, och var de sitter och var de står.: Om flickors och pojkars olika sätt att konstruera sig som svenskämneselever i år 4.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I have researched how pupils behave in the classroom during their Swedish lessons and how their behaviour differ on the basis of their gender. Research show that boys, to a greater extent than girls, demand more attention in the way they express themselves, both physiologically and orally.  It is proved that already from birth we have different expectations on boys and girls and this influences how they construct themselves as gender.

     

    During the spring of 2019 I have observed 19 primary school pupils whilst in their Swedish lessons. I watched and listened for patterns of behaviour in the classroom; if the boys talked more than the girls and if so; in what way? I was also curious to find out if there were pupils who chose to never speak, and if so; why?

     

    The result of my study showed that the boys had a more vigorous body language than the girls and therefore claimed more attention in the classroom by putting their opinion across, often uninvited. The girls were more likely to sit in their places and raised their hands when they wanted to speak. Recognising that pupils, depending on their gender, conduct themselves differently in the classroom could be used as a tool not just for myself but for other teachers in order to give both boys and girls equal opportunity to expressing themselves and to create a gender equal classroom environment.

  • Spoong, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Tvångsomhändertagande av barn: till föräldrar med funktionsnedsättningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det huvudsakliga syftet med studien har varit att undersöka om föräldrars funktionsnedsättning kan vara en förutsättning för tvångsomhändertagande av barn. Studien har visat att tvångsomhändertagande kan bli aktuellt om funktionsnedsättningen påverkar föräldrarnas förmåga att ge sitt barn den omsorg som barnet behöver. Det sätts emellertid hellre in en mängd större frivilliga insatser än insatser via tvångsvårdslagstiftning. Undersökningen bekräftar vikten av att alltid se till barnperspektivet och barnets bästa i samtliga beslut som rör barn. Studien har genomförts genom att studera lagstiftning, förarbeten, praxis och doktrin enligt den rättsdogmatiska metoden.

  • Svensson, Tord
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Den inbyggda pedagogiken i Anonyma Alkoholisters sociala praktik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The integrated pedagogy in Alcoholics Anonymous as a community of practice In this paper I have studied the integrated pedagogy in Alcoholics Anonymous using Wenger’s theoretical model of communities of practice and from a point of view of situated learning. Focus has been on recovery from alcohol addiction as a process of social identity change where learning is seen as an appropriation of artefacts by an interaction between participation and reification which leads to a higher level of competence and a change in identity. A diversity of methods has been used such as text analysis of printed material from AA in combination with direct observations at AA-meetings and qualitative interviews with long-time, high intensity participants in the AA-community. The results indicate that Alcoholics Anonymous has a powerful pedagogic system in which a whole of norms, principles and stories are represented in all its parts. The interviewed participants report similar changes in identity and capacity to function in life, despite the differences between them in background as well as in which part of the specific activities in AA they focused on during their trajectory in AA. The study has limitations though all the participants are long-time sober members with a strong identification as members of AA and consequently not representative for the cohort of attenders at AA. The background search for literature makes it clear that the phenomenon of Alcoholics Anonymous is practically not studied from a pedagogical perspective which opens possibilities for future research.

  • Wide, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Wide Karlsson, Alice
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    How Women’s Economic Empowerment program affects financial literacy: A qualitative study from the Philippines2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s empowerment and gender equality contribute to the achievement of a sustainable world according to United Nations and Agenda 2030. Previous research highlights the impact of microfinance program on women’s empowerment. Through a lack in previous research, the aim of this report emerged. The aim is to describe and analyse women’s experience of how a microfinance program focused on women’s economic empowerment in the Philippines affect their financial literacy and in what ways financial literacy can be related to their empowerment. The study consists of a qualitative methodology and elements of a deductive approach. The collected empirical data consist of documents, observations and interviews. The results show that, through seminars and participation, the women got increased their knowledge in economics. Women’s participation in the microfinance program also lead to empowerment. The result shows that the women bring the knowledge from the program home to their personal finances and affects the individual’s environment. The impact of the microfinance program has larger effects for many women, not only the one participating in the program. Therefore, to understand the phenomena in this study, it is necessary to include experiences from outside the microfinance program. Because on the result in this report, the suggestions for future research is to investigate the correlation between the microfinance program and women’s personal finances.

  • Adolfsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hannercrantz, André
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Optimering av orderstorlek ur ett kostnads- och produktivitetsperspektiv: en kvantitativ fallstudie på Zoégas i Helsingborg2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate optimal order quantities at the coffee producer Zoéga’s packaging lines in Helsingborg. The company is currently unaware of how order quantities affect their production; with regards to productivity as well as setup- and holding costs. With a long-term vision of incorporating “pull planning”, the case company also needs to evaluate the capabilities of their current production system.

    The case study mainly addresses two areas; one comparing historical productivity in relation to order quantity, and one determining optimal order quantity with the scheduling-tool known as “Economic lot scheduling problem”. One of the packaging lines results in a classic case of “Basic period approach”, a problem frequently reviewed in ELSP-literature. The other lines have sequence dependent setup times, which required a more complex model. The primarily data collection has been from internal production- and management systems.

    The ELSP-results generated optimal order quantities and production schedules for all packaging lines. The study also found statistically significant correlations between order quantity and productivity for Zoéga’s. These correlations compiled upper and lower limits for the most productive order quantities; where most of the ELSP-quantities placed inside these limits. Finally, the study shows that by implementing these suggestions, Zoéga’s could speed up their product turnover and be better prepared for “pull planning” implementation in the future.

  • Aksnes, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Alternative Test Methods for Mine Trucks and Loaders to Reduce Environmental Impact, Improve Lead Time and Productivity2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Epiroc manufactures and develops equipment for the mining and infrastructure industry. This thesis has been performed at Epiroc Underground Rock Excavation (URE) in Örebro, the company’s largest production unit for underground machines. In this project MH machines (material handling) have been investigated, i.e loaders and trucks. These machines are currently being built at the factory area in central Örebro and subsequently quality controlled in the Kvarntorp mine before they are finally delivered to the customer.

    The project aims to evaluate how current test methods in the mine could be minimized and, in the future, removed for certain machine types. Today the machines passes six steps between final assembly and delivery, which results in an extended lead time. The machines are started up at the pressurizing station before they are ready for the quality control, i.e testing. The machines are then transported to Kvarntorp, about 20 kilometers from the factory, before the test operators from Epiroc conducts the testing. Each machine type has machine-specific checklists which means that the test operator performs both visual inspection as well as test drive in order to verify the machine’s overall quality and performance. The current test procedure causes machine damages and the mining environment makes it necessary to perform both re-painting and washing. Summarized, the current test procedure leads to increased costs, increased amount of rework and extended lead times. In addition, the machine handling between the factory area and Kvarntorp involves logistical challenges.

    The work began with a literature study where the focus was on change management, flow efficiency and total quality management. Subsequently, a current state analysis was carried out in order to map the current structure and it’s problem areas. Identified problems included extended lead time, machine damages (paint, tires, bucket, snow) and work environment. All together, these areas lead to increased costs for the afterflow. These problems were categorized into three main problems; test procedure, environment and economy. To seek for improvements, three study visits were carried out; Volvo CE Arvika, Komatsu Forest Umeå and Epiroc SED Örebro. The inspiration was used to create an optimized test facility at the factory area.

    The work resulted in a solution where all areas are improved, i.e lead time, machine damages and work environment. A new test procedure based on an improved visual inspection, new bucket test and a succeeding test drive on a chassis dynamometer has eliminated the need for the Kvarntorp mine. With the new test facility the machine damages have been eliminated and the working environment for the affected people has improved considerably. Furthermore, the lead time is also heavily reduced. All together, the improvements results in large annual savings, which in turn gives relatively short pay back time. Epiroc is recommended to invest in both short and long term solutions where the short term can be implemented before the new test facility is finalized. In a short term perspective it is important to create a good dialogue between test operators and assemblers, switch to digital checklists and to remove the currently mandatory drag test. In longer term, Epiroc should implement a quality team, invest to increase data access and finally invest in the test facility.

  • Andersson, Sofie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    I left my scat in San Francisco: Strategier för att stärka förmågan att improvisera vokalt inom jazzgenren.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka olika övningsstrategier för attutveckla improvisationsförmågan inom jazzgenren. Jag har idag förmågan attimprovisera över låtar, men det jag eftersträvar är att utveckla den föratt få improvisationerna mer varierade. Avsikten med arbetet är attutveckla förmågan att improvisera i form av fler rytmiska och harmoniskaidéer.Jag har använt mig av ett flertal olika gehör- samt notläsningsövningar somjag tror kan påverka ens improvisationsförmåga positivt. Jag har spelat innär jag improviserar före, under samt efter övningsperioden. Jag har äventranskriberat och analyserat mina improvisationer för att undersöka meringående vad jag gör melodiskt och rytmiskt.Undersökningen har resulterat i att jag är mer medveten i minaimprovisationer och gör enligt mig mer intressanta och friaimprovisationer. Förmågan att improvisera har påverkats positivt med hjälpav dessa gehörs- och notläsningsövningar.

  • Borhidai, András
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Models for Life Cycle Cost Estimation of Spare and Wear Parts for Urban Gondola Lift Systems: A Case Study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban gondola lift systems are becoming a regular sight rather than a rarity throughout the globe. Authors attribute their increasing popularity to factors such as environmental sustainability, operational reliability and cost efficiency compared to other right-of-way transit solutions. Replacing conventional modes of transit with urban gondolas cannot however be achieved without tackling several operational challenges. As potential new operators often lack the human resources and knowledge base required to successfully man, operate and maintain systems, they turn to manufacturers for increased after-sale support. Companies of the Doppelmayr Garaventa Group, the world’s largest manufacturer of gondola lifts, responded to these demand patterns by offering complete operations & maintenance contracts which, among other services, include the delivery and installation of reserve components. Calculating the total cost of such components for the life cycle of a system however still proves to be demanding and requires new computational models to increase its efficiency. The applicative purpose of this paper was thus set to formulate a model that is capable of performing life cycle cost calculations for components of urban gondola lift systems, according to a set of criterion defined by industrial entities. Its research aim is accordingly to answer questions about how concurrent instruments are set up, what models does contemporary research regard as efficient in similar industries and whether these models are able to enhance life cycle cost calculation capability within the urban gondola lift market. These aims were achieved through an analysis of current company practices, followed by the formulation of two new model alternatives based on a review of contemporary scientific literature, and concluded by an iterative process wherein the two alternatives were compared to each other in terms of performance and then merged to combine the best performing features of each version. Through a second iteration, the merged model was then compared to current instruments and established as the superior choice, using industry criteria. The paper concludes by resolving the research questions it set out to answer and making further recommendations for the direction of future research and studies.

  • Brandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Is there a correlation between the natural reverberation in a critical listening environment and adjustments of an artificial reverb?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the mixing engineers most important tool when listening, analyzing and taking decisions is the physical space in which the reproduction system and the monitors are placed. The space needs to fulfill certain aspects to be able to qualify as a control room considered good for taking these decisions. In this study an active listening test was conducted to investigate if the RT60 of the natural reverberation in the room affected a mixing engineers’ decisions when adjusting parameters on an artificial reverb. 16 subjects participated, the subjects adjusted reverb level and reverb time of an artificial reverb in two different acoustical environments, with two different values of RT60. The environments were based on a professional control room made for mixing and mastering. The two values for RT60 was achieved through manipulating the room with diffusors and absorbing material. It was found that the subjects were able to adapt to the different acoustical environments, although other differences were found. The order of the which of the environments the subjects started in and which parameter the subject started adjusting, showed a considerable impact on the result. As well as what kind of factors the subjects considered when adjusting the artificial reverb.

  • Brunström, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Effektiviserad inlagring för ökat kapacitetsutnyttjande: En fallstudie vid Piteå Hamn2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under första kvartalet 2018 ökade industrins totala lager med 8,2 miljarder kronor, vilket motsvarar en uppgång med 3,5 volymprocent. Statistik gällande pappersindustrin visar också en tydlig produktionsökning under 2018. Den ökade lagervolymen kan därför förklaras av en ökad efterfrågan. Den andra möjliga orsaken till en ökning av lager kan bero på att företaget vill ge slutkunden bättre service och tillgodose kundens behov när efterfrågan inträffar. I Europa går utvecklingen mot en ökad centraliseringsgrad gällande antal lager vilket kan ses som ett arbete i att effektivisera ett företags verksamhet. Genom att använda sig av få lager kan företag samla större volymer gods på ett och samma ställe, vilket medför att investeringar kan göras i syfte att effektivisera lagerhållningen.

    Piteå Hamn är ett bolag som äger, förvaltar och utvecklar infrastrukturen inom Piteå Port & Hub. Infrastrukturen består av kajer för godslastning och ett flertal magasin för mellanlagring av gods. År 2005 investerade Piteå Hamn 34 800 000 kr föratt bygga ett nytt magasin. Det nybyggda magasinet har en area på 11 000 m2 och för närvarandeär cirka 61 procent av den totala ytan uthyrd till tre olika aktörer. Piteå Hamn upplever dock att ytan inte används effektivt och vill därför ta reda på vad den faktiska nyttjandegraden är i magasinet. Studien syftar därför till att besvara forskningsfrågan ”Vilka förbättringar kan genomföras i lagerlayouten för att öka kapacitetsutnyttjandet?”.

    Nyttjandegraden har beräknats på det gods som upptar den största andelen lagringsyta i magasinet, vilket utgörs av Kraftliner på rulle. Kraftliner är stora pappersrullar som slutligen ska användas för att göra wellpapp och olika kartonger. Rullarna produceras i tre olika diametrar och höjden på rullarna varierar beroende på kundorder. För att kunna beräkna nyttjandegraden behövde lokalen först mätas upp, vilket resulterade i en CAD-ritning. Vidare gjordes ett flertal intervjuer för att erhålla information om godset och vilka krav som finns ställda gällande hanteringen av godset.

    Resultatet visade att nuvarande layout medför en låg nyttjandegrad och orsaken till den låga nyttjandegraden visade sig bero på att lagringsfacken är feldimensionerade samt att lokalens höjd inte används effektivt. Nuvarande areautnyttjande ligger på under 79 procent och volymutnyttjande ligger under 55 procent. Rekommendationerna som presenterades för Piteå Hamn är bland annat att skapa djupare fack samt dimensionera om facken så att de är anpassade efter diametern på rullarna. Att skapa fack som är dimensionerade efter diametern på rullarna leder till att lagret blir mer zonindelat. Om facken dimensioneras om bidrar det till ett bättre areautnyttjande. För att förbättra volymutnyttjandet bör antalet rullar som staplas på varandra öka.

    Generaliserbarheten av studiens resultat kan ses som en begränsning. Studiens forskningskaraktär är fallstudie och baseras endast på ett företag, vilket medför lägre validitet. För att skapa mer generaliserbara resultat bör fler företag med liknande verksamhet studeras. Trots att generaliserbarheten anses låg på grund av enfallsdesign, kan resultatet av studien ändå användas och inspirera företag med liknande förutsättningar. Att använda sig av djupinlagring och en större del zonindelning visade trots allt att lagringsutnyttjandet ökade.

  • Eliasson, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Anomaly Detection in Industrial Networks using a Resource-Constrained Edge Device2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of false data-injection attacks in industrial networks is a growing challenge in the industry because it requires knowledge of application and protocol specific behaviors. Profinet is a common communication standard currently used in the industry, which has the potential to encounter this type of attack. This motivates an examination on whether a solution based on machine learning with a focus on anomaly detection can be implemented and used to detect abnormal data in Profinet packets. Previous work has investigated this topic; however, a solution is not available in the market yet. Any solution that aims to be adopted by the industry requires the detection of abnormal data at the application level and to run the analytics on a resource-constrained device. This thesis presents an implementation, which aims to detect abnormal data in Profinet packets represented as online data streams generated in real-time. The implemented unsupervised learning approach is validated on data from a simulated industrial use-case scenario. The results indicate that the method manages to detect all abnormal behaviors in an industrial network. 

  • Hanna, Johannes
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Ali, Moe André
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Variationen i användningen av hård och mjuk information inom vård- och omsorgsbranschen: - En fallstudie om offensiva och defensiva beslutssituationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic decisions are important for companies because it is about creating future competitiveness or for surviving in the market. According to previous studies, there are two different decision situations that companies can face which are offensive decisions that involve increasing the company's market shares and defensive decisions which implies that the company reduces their current capacity. In the previous studies, the researchers mention that there is hard (numerical) and soft (opinions, visions, ideas and emotions) information that decisions can be based on. The purpose of this study is to create an understanding of how hard and soft information is used in strategic decisions by identifying offensive and defensive decision situations. Furthermore, the study aims to analyze how the knowledge of means and goals of the staff in a privately-owned company in the health and care sector initiates the use of hard and soft information at different phases in the decision-making process. This study was done through a case study based on semi-structured interviews with qualitative elements. The case company operates in the healthcare industry and has a staff consisting of four members who are responsible for the strategic decisions. The results of this study show the knowledge of the means and goals of the case company staff initiated the use of soft information at all stages of the decision-making process in offensive and defensive decision situations. The results also show that hard information was used in the middle phase of the decision-making process to legitimize the staff members' arguments.

  • Hellander, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hellander, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Varför väljer små aktiebolag revision trots den avskaffade revisionsplikten?: En jämförande studie mellan fyra små aktiebolag och deras val av frivillig revision2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2010 infördes en lagändring som innebar att små aktiebolag i Sverige inte längre omfattas av revisionsplikt. Detta innebär att revisionen är frivillig för de aktiebolag som under två räkenskapsår inte överstiger två av gränsvärdena för revisionsplikt, 3 miljoner kronor i nettoomsättning, 1,5 miljoner kronor i balansomslutning och medelantal tre anställda. Trots detta väljer ändå små företag att bli reviderade av revisorer. Detta antyder på att små företag upplever fördelar med revisionstjänsten. Syften med studien var därmed att skapa förståelse till varför ägare i små företag väljer revision. Genom en analysmodell med de teoretiska begreppen trygghet, säkerhet, kvalitet, rådgivning och förtroende har studiens frågeställning och syfte kunnat besvaras. Resultatet bygger på en kvalitativ metod som utgår från ett ägarperspektiv där fyra stycken enmansföretag som bedriver olika konsultverksamheter har intervjuats för att identifiera och jämföra deras upplevda fördelar med revision. Resultatet visar att det finns ett antal drivkrafter som driver ägare i små företag till att använda sig av revision. Det har visat sig att det främst är ägarnas egna känsla av trygghet som motiverat deras val. Tryggheten som ägarna erhåller från revisorns rådgivning har även varit i fokus då ägarna, enligt dem själva, besitter en begränsad kunskap inom ekonomi och redovisning. Studien har även kunnat visa att endast Skatteverket är en intressent som påverkat ägarnas val. Resultatet visar att små företag vill visa trygghet och tillförlitlighet gentemot Skatteverket främst för att hålla dem på avstånd. Studiens slutsats är att det framförallt är en inneboende känsla av trygghet hos ägaren själv som driver små företag till att använda sig av revision, trots den avskaffade revisionsplikten.