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  • Carlsson, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lidemyr, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Identifying customer value in the new 5G ecosystem: A case study on Ericsson2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to enhance the understanding of how a companies in the ICT industry can increase customer value in the new environment enabled by 5G. Furthermore, the study concretizes the interactions and experiences between different actors on the market, with focus on the subjective values, or as we call them, the non-functional differentiators. To be able to fulfil the purpose, the study explored the routines regarding the non-functional differentiators in the environment of 5G.

    In order to conduct this study, an exploratory research with an inductive qualitative approach was used. A single case-study design was chosen on the company of Ericsson. In total 25 interviews were held within five different business areas at Ericsson. The interviews were of semi-structured character and the data was analysed through a thematic analysis. The findings from the study revealed five different themes. The first two represent the new ecosystem with the key actors and the new environment. The next two themes illustrate the most important routines in this new environment. Lastly, the findings present the importance of relationship experience and which of the non-functional differentiators that has the most impact.

    The study has enhanced the understanding of how customer value could be increased by identifying the routines of the interactions between different actors and how they should be acclimatized in the new environment. This study contributes to the literature regarding the environment of the ecosystem, the routines of the co-creation process and experiences of the relationship in it. Furthermore, the study concretizes the routines in the co-creation process which will assist the managers in their work of generating customer value. However, the study is limited due its single case-study were only one of the key-actors was investigated. A suggestion for future research is to do a multi-case study, which includes the perspectives of not just one key-actor, but the other key-actors as well, i.e. Ericsson’s customers. An approach like this could validate our findings and thereby ensure the findings transferability.

  • Atlegard, Lorraine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Grönlund, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Kommunikation av intern ekonomiinformation: en fallstudie av kommunikationsbarriärer i ett större företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time it has beenestablished that internal communication is of great importance for business success. The purpose of communicating internal financial information is to describe the financial situation and to give a picture of the company's future development. An important factor with internal financial information is to create goal congruence. Companies often experience communication problems and difficulties in reaching out with internal information. It occurs barriers in communication between the sender and the receiver, causing the message not getting through. Companies with hierarchical structure with multiple management layers tend to show poorer communication compared to smaller companies. The purpose of the study is to identify organizational barriers that may arise in the communication of internal financial information between the CEO -middle manager -employees in a largehierarchicalcompany. Through examination of the communication process, the study intends to distinguish the barriers and give suggestions on how these can be bridged. The study also intends to determine what is required for internal financial information to have a goal congruence effect. To answer the purpose, a case study of qualitative character was performed. Interviews were conducted on the basis of a theoretical communication model which formed the base for the analysis. The result shows that insufficient financial knowledge, different financial knowledge between sender and receiver, lack of timeandtoo much or too little financial information are barriers that can arise. The result also shows that the information which is communicated should necessarily be adapted to become relevant and easy to understand for the receiver in order to work goal congruently. To overcome these barriers, it is recommended that companies provide competence development and that the sender of the information creates an understandingof boththe receiver’s knowledge level and information needs in order to adapt the information accordingly. Finally, it is important to prioritize how working hours should be distributed, so sufficient time is provided for communication of financial information. A proposal for further research is to focus the study on individual-related barriers that may arise in the communication of internal financial information.

  • Bajaj, Jaidev Singh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hjelm, Hugo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress och juniora revisorers psykologiska välbefinnande: En kvantitativ studie inom Big Four2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study derives from the fact that the auditing sector is characterized by excessive workload, psychological ill-health and high staff turnover. Prior research emphasizes the effects on chartered accountants, auditing quality and organizational consequences. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine junior auditor’s individual well-being, hence the research question: What is the relationship between workload, role conflict and role ambiguity together with psychological well-being of junior auditors? Cooper and Marshalls theory of occupational sources of stress is the basis for this study and the research model originates from Jones, Norman and Wier. A survey was sent to 201 junior auditors in Stockholm working within Big Four, furthermore, to answer the research question at hand, hypothesis testing is applied. Results of this study shows that work overload is the most prominent of the examined variables, but psychological ill-health could possibly derive from other non-studied factors. Conclusively, the study shows that junior auditors neither experience role conflict or role ambiguity, and therefore, solely workload has a negative effect on occupational stress and psychological illhealth. Further researchers should conduct a qualitative study in order to gain greater understanding of the individuals, but also to examine whether other variables can affect junior auditors.

  • Holmqvist, Maja
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Elevers syn på naturen och dess relation till lärande för hållbar utveckling2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att få kunskap om elevers natursyn och relatera deras natursyn till lärande för hållbar utveckling. En kvalitativ undersökning genomfördes där eleverna genom bildskapande och i samtal fick uttrycka sin natursyn. Inledningsvis fick 38 elever i två klasser i årskurs 6 skapa individuella bilder där de illustrerade sin syn på naturen och sedan komplettera bilderna med skriftliga kommentarer. Därefter valdes tio elever ut för intervjusamtal, utifrån de bilder de ritat. I dessa samtal synliggjordes elevernas natursyn ytterligare. Natursynerna synliggjordes i elevernas sätt att relatera sig till naturen och i de miljö moraliska uttalanden och miljö etiska ställningstaganden som eleverna uttryckte. De natursyner som eleverna uppvisade var människan är en del av naturen, människan är delvis en del av naturen och människan är utanför naturen.

  • Persson, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Elevers argumentativa diskussioner om klimatförändringar: En kvalitativ studie om hur fotografier kan användas för att utveckla elevers argumentation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utveckla kunskap om hur samtal med utgångspunkt i fotografier, kan hjälpa elever i de lägre årskurserna att utveckla sin förmåga att argumentera  i frågor rörande klimatförändringar. De frågeställningar som låg till grund för studien var följande: Vilka möjligheter till lärande erbjöds i samtalsinteraktionen mellan bild, lärare och elev? Hur utvecklades elevernas sätt att argumentera under samtalsserien? Samt hur kan läraren stödja eleverna för att utveckla deras förmåga att argumentera? Hela studien grundade sig på de argumentativa diskussioner som iscensattes med utgångspunkt i fyra skilda samlingar av fotografier. Resultatet visade att fotografierna erbjöd möjligheter till lärande genom att synliggöra likheter och skillnader, ge berördhet samt möjlighet till att ifrågasätta tidigare förgivettagna uppfattningar rörande klimatfrågor. Vidare visade resultatet en tydlig utveckling av elevernas argumentation från att i första skedet endast framföra påståenden av värderande eller konstaterande karaktär till att utvecklas till ett fulländat argument genom att framföra belägg för sitt påstående. Resultatet visade även att läraren hade en avgörande roll för att stödja eleverna i sin argumentation genom att vidga bildens budskap, ställa frågor av utvecklande eller kontrasterande karaktär samt att tillföra ny kunskap vid behov.

  • Ek, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Gymnasieelevers skriftspråk i nationella prov i svenska 1999, 2007 och 20152019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har under många år funnits en diskurs i samhället om huruvida ungdomar skriver sämre nu än vad de gjorde förr i tiden. Det har även funnits en diskurs om ungdomars sätt att skriva har förändrats i och med ökade internetvanor och nya tekniska hjälpmedel som slagit igenom under de senaste 20 åren. Ansatsen till denna studie har därför varit att försöka bidra med kunskap i ämnet ungdomars skriftspråk genom att studera om svenskelever har förändrat sitt skriftspråk. För att kunna se om en förändring skett valdes därför elevtexter skrivna i nationella proven i svenska ut som analysobjekt. Avgränsningen gjordes på grund av att alla elever som läser svenska på gymnasiet någon gång skriver nationella prov i svenska. För att studien skulle representera elever från olika gymnasieprogram och olika svenskkurser gjordes ett slumpmässigt urval, där elevtexter från olika gymnasieprogram och olika gymnasieskolor valdes ut som studieobjekt. Elevtexterna är hämtade från tre olika årtal 1999, 2007 och 2015 för att dels kunna ge ett så trovärdigt resultat som möjligt, dels kunna se om en förändring i elevers skriftspråk hade skett från det att internet började användas av fler personer till nutid när näst intill alla använder internet på en daglig basis. Studien har använt sig av en kvalitativ textanalys med kvantitativa inslag. Detta har gett studien ett mer övergripande resultat där både skriftliga företeelser som exempelvis elevernas användning av versal men också ordföljden i texterna har analyserats. Studiens resultat visar att elevernas skriftspråk inte har förändrats särskilt mycket, utan att skriftspråket i det stora hela är detsamma under alla tre årtalen som studerats. Det finns dock tendenser i skriftspråket som visar på att vissa delar kan komma att förändras, men att man inte kan dra några större slutsatser av det resultat som framkommit.

  • Karlsson, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Kroon, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Investeringsmötet mellan analytiker och fondförvaltare: En kvalitativ studie om analytikernas medverkan och dess betydelse för investeringsunderlaget2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The investment meeting between analysts and fund managers has previouslyreceived too little attention. That analysts participate in investment meetings with fund managers can be seen as paradoxical as there are lots of information to be obtained elsewhere. At first this information can be seen as more accessible, detailed and comprehensive. Thus, this study aims to create an understanding of why analysts choose to participate in investment meetings with fund managers and how their participation can affect their investment base. The empirical data consists of qualitative interviews with seven analysts from financial institutions and a participatory observation of an investment meeting. Based on this study, three conclusions can be drawn in the form of reasons why analysts chooseto participate and its consequencefor the investment base. The first conclusion is that meeting face-to-face means that the analystsreceive more information compared to other information sources. The second conclusion is that analysts receive more decision-making information that they cannot obtain to the same extent from other sources. The last conclusion is that analysts can ensure that previously obtained information is correct and also interweave information from several different sources when they create their investment base.

  • Eriksson, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Förutsättningar för musikundervisning i årskurs 4-62019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att synliggöra vilka förutsättningar som finns för musikundervisning i den för studien valda kommunen i norra Sverige. Dessutom ska den belysa hur verksamma rektorer och lärare ser på dessa och arbetar med dem för att eleverna ska ha möjlighet att nå målen för musikämnet. Fokus ligger på årskurs 4-6, men tankar och erfarenheter från lärare som även undervisar i andra årskurser finns med. Intervjuer med totalt åtta verksamma lärare och rektorer vid fyra olika skolor som kan anses vara representativa för kommunen har ägt rum och har vid intervjutillfället spelats in. Svaren har sedan analyserats utifrån Vygotskijs sociokulturella teori samt ett antal musikpedagogiska traditioner. Informanterna har beskrivit hur de arbetar, vilka förutsättningar som finns och vad de önskar såg annorlunda ut för att undervisningen ska kunna bedrivas på ett bättre sätt. Resultaten skiljer sig något mellan skolorna, men en gemensam faktor är att ingen känner sig helt nöjd. En skola saknar helt musiksal och musikinstrument, en annan har instrument men anser att tiden helt enkelt inte räcker till på grund av för stora grupper. Detta arbete beskriver hur lärarna får lektionerna att gå ihop trots bristande förutsättningar, och hur rektorerna har löst det organisatoriskt med stora elevgrupper och lärare som har tjänster på fler än deras skola. Resultatet av att en lärare bara finns på plats en till två dagar i veckan blir att elevgrupperna ofta blir större då det inte finns plats inom schemat att dela upp grupperna, vilket lärarna hävdar påverkar undervisningssituationen samt elevernas måluppfyllelse negativt.

    Andra återkommande lösningar för att få givande lektioner är att låta eleverna spela flera på ett instrument, trumma på stolar istället för trumset och att låta appar på surfplattor agera instrument för att fylla ut en bristande instrumentbank.

     

    Summan av detta arbete är att även skolor som vid en första anblick kan tyckas ha det som krävs för att bedriva musikundervisning på bästa sätt, inte alltid har det. En genomgående trend är att förutsättningarna är bristfälliga, och nödlösningarna många.

  • Berglund, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Högläsning: som metod för språk och kommunikation2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka vilka olika metoder förskollärare använder sig av vid högläsning och vilken betydelse dessa har för barns språkutveckling. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkt är det poststrukturalistiska perspektivet. I studien genomfördes kvalitativa intervjuer med sju förskollärare som dokumenterades med ljudinspelning, samt sju observationer som dokumenterades med anteckningar. Intervjuerna transkriberades i en kontinuerlig arbetsprocess efter varje intervjutillfälle, ljudinspelningarna lyssnades igenom och förskollärarnas svar skrevs ner ord för ord i separata dokument. Både intervjuerna och observationerna analyserades därefter med hjälp av en egenkonstruerad tabell där centrala och återkommande begrepp plockades ut under varje fråga. Resultatet visade att förskollärarna använder sig av olika metoder vid högläsning, men att dessa varierar beroende på vilket syfte lästillfället ska ha och vilket typ av möte som ska ske. Den mest dominerande metoden var dialogiskt läsande, utifrån resultatet av observationerna visades det att denna metod till stor del kombinerades med de andra metoderna. Gemensamt för alla förskollärare i studien var att högläsningen uttrycktes ha en betydande roll i barnens språkutveckling och stimulerar olika aspekter av språket beroende på vilken metod som används. Förskollärarna lyfte att de är vitalt att ha inlevelse och arbeta på ett interaktivt arbetssätt med högläsningen. För att förskollärarna ska skapa en god läsmiljö och vara läsande förebilder ska deras roll i läsundervisningen vara stöttande, aktiv och inspirerande. Slutsatsen utifrån resultatet visar att förskollärarna genomför högläsningen på ett aktivt och utmanande sätt. Läsundervisning bidrar till att barnen får utforska, utvärdera, reflektera, erfara och analysera som omvärld samt olika typer av dilemman tillsammans med sin omgivning och själva. Resultatet pekar även på att det finns ett mönster i vilken metod som är mest förekommande och dominant i nuläget.

  • Brundin, Pontus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Djurberg, Ludwig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Riktlinjer för transformationen av en manuellt utförd process till automatisk med hjälp av RPA2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är utveckla riktlinjer som stöd till utvecklare under förarbetet till att automatisera en process med hjälp av RPA. Det framtagna teoretiska ramverket består av designprinciper för tjänster och interaktiva system, samt av verksamhetsutveckling och mer specifikt hur verksamheter behöver utveckla sina processer och rutiner när automatiserade system som RPA implementeras. En fallstudie utfördes hos Länsstyrelsen som önskade automatisera en arbetsprocess med RPA. Datainsamlingen skedde genom intervjuer och observationer i form av informationstillfällen med informanter från Länsstyrelsen. Resultatet från informationstillfällen analyserades på ett tematiskt sätt till två huvudområden som är förstå processen och utbilda anställda. I analysen jämförs de framtagna riktlinjerna med det teoretiska ramverket och riktlinjer för RPA skapade av konsultföretag. I slutsatsen presenteras och motiveras våra riktlinjer, den första riktlinjen fokuserar på att skapa förståelse för processer och om RPA är ett lämpligt alternativ. Om det är fallet är den andra riktlinjen att utbilda anställda vad RPA är och hur implementationen kommer påverka dem.

  • Forsberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hällgren, Terese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Feedback, förtroende & arbetstillfredsställelse: En kvantitativ studie om arbetsledarens betydelse för medarbetaren inom ett varuhus i detaljhandeln2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att det förekommer hög personalomsättning inom detaljhandeln är ingen nyhet. Det är både kostsamt och bidrar till ett försämrat arbetsklimat för de anställda. Studiens syfte har varit att beskriva hur arbetsledarens roll för effektiv styrning kan påverka medarbetarnas upplevda arbetstillfredsställelse inom ett varuhus i detaljhandeln genom variablerna “feedback från arbetsledare” samt “förtroende mellan arbetsledare och medarbetare”. För att besvara studiens syfte användes en kvantitativ forskningsmetod i form av en enkätundersökning som skickades ut till ett utvalt varuhus som är verksamma inom detaljhandeln. Undersökningsenheten består av 53 anställda varav 28 stycken deltog. Resultatet visar att feedback från arbetsledare inte har lika stor påverkan på medarbetarnas arbetstillfredsställelse som förtroende mellan arbetsledare och medarbetare. Sammanfattningsvis kan vi konstatera att arbetsledaren har en viktig roll att fylla. Medarbetarna uppskattar den feedback som kommer från arbetsledaren men den upplevs som ojämnt fördelad där vissa får feedback och andra inte. Det är av stor vikt att snabbt skapa och upprätthålla förtroende mellan arbetsledare och medarbetare för att uppnå arbetstillfredsställelse och detta kan göras smidigt genom internrekrytering av arbetsledare, där en befintlig relation och förtroende finns.

  • Grandin, Ida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Blir eleverna problemlösare?: En läromedelsanalys om hur läroböckerna möjliggör utveckling av problemlösningsförmågan i matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that mathematics in Swedish school for most part consists of calculating in the textbook when it at the same time has been proven that the textbooks in a too low extent contains tasks that allow the pupils to work with problem solving. Research mean that the problem-solving ability is about having a broad repertoire of strategies and an understanding for how these are associated and how they can be used. The ability is described as being able to think creatively and to evaluate one’s knowledges to tackle a problem as good as possible. To develop this, the pupils need to get the opportunity to discuss, create own problems and solve problems in many ways. They also must get to solve many problems during a long period of time. This study has compared two textbooks for grade five which are used in Swedish schools and has looked at their content and structure to see how they enable the development of the problem-solving ability. The study showed that both textbooks contain a low proportion of mathematical problems and the pupils are encouraged to discuss very little. The pupils are never asked to solve a problem in more than one way and only in one of the teaching materials the pupils get to practice making own problems. The conclusion was that both teaching materials need to be complemented by other education if the pupils are to develop the problem-solving ability in mathematics.

  • Lehmivaara, Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Pakkala, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Ledarens emotionella intelligens och arbetsgruppens autenticitetsklimat: En utforskande studie om arbetsgrupper som har emotionella arbeten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study combines two areas of research; emotional intelligence and climate of authenticity. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the leader’s emotional intelligence has an effect of the climate of authenticity in teams with emotional labor. In addition to this the study also aim to explore the level of emotional intelligence of leaders and the climate of authenticity in teams with emotional labor. This is investigated through a quantitative survey among leaders and their teams in health care and the police. The leaders´ were asked to answer a survey about their emotional intelligence and the team were asked to answer a survey about the teams´ climate of authenticity. The result showed a high level of emotional intelligence and climate of authenticity overall. A multiple regression analysis showed that use of emotion was the emotional intelligence dimension with the highest beta value, thereafter comes regulation of emotions, followed by others emotional appraisal and finally self emotional appraisal. Regulation of emotions was the only emotional intelligence dimension with a significant effect on the teams climate of authenticity. No significant relationship between the leaders´ emotional intelligence and the teams climate of authenticity where found, nor between the leaders´ emotional intelligence in each dimension and the climate of authenticity of the team. 

  • Nilsson, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    ”En fyrkantig undervisning”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur lågstadielärare arbetar med elever som har neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar i det ordinarie matematikklassrummet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to highlight how primary school teachers work in the regular classroom while teaching pupils, diagnosed with neuropsychiatric disabilities, mathematics. The background section begins with an account of how mathematics challenges, associated with these specific disabilities, may appear. Thereafter the concept of inclusive mathematics teaching is discussed along with suggestions on how teachers and other educators can work with these pupils, based on previous scientific research. The study data has been gathered through qualitative interviews with five primary school teachers in schools throughout the country. The interviews were recorded as audio files to later be transcribed and interpreted in regards to the content of the analysis' different steps. The study has its theoretical point of departure in the sociocultural, but also in the relative perspective. The result shows that pupils with neuropsychiatric disabilities benefit from following a clear structure which is repeated from lesson to lesson. Since the pupils often lack attention and concentration ability it is important that they have shorter work periods along with more frequent breaks than other classmates. Furthermore, the result shows that it is important that the pupils have the opportunity to vary their working methods and working routines, while at the same time receiving continuous feedback and support throughout the entire teaching process.

  • Hasselfors, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers.
    Characterization and Modeling of mm-Wave Power Amplifiers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of mobile communication (5G) is upon us, and with that newtypes of technologies are needed for improved data rates, reliability, response timeand increased utilization. In this report, two highly efficient linear power amplifiersare characterized and tested with simulated communication signals. The purpose ofthe amplifiers is to be integrated into antenna arrays that will transmit amplifiedcommunication signals to mobile users.One of the amplifiers is tested with modulated communication signals with anoptimized gate bias value. The amplifier shows during the final tests high-efficiencylevels of up to 40% and is still able to behave linearly with>20 dB gain and lowerror vector magnitude below 1%.The fundamental theory for signal processing is described at the beginning of thereport, followed by an overview of the experimental setup built during the thesis formeasuring modulated signals through amplifiers.

  • Hermansson, Hannes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Ett matematiskt mindset: Hur kan det visas och hur ser det ut?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie visar hur ett matematiskt mindset kan modelleras och hur detta mindset ser ut hos grundskoleelever i norra Sverige. Studien utgår från ett sociokognitivt perspektiv och inspireras av Carol Dwecks teoretiska ramverk om mindset. En av grundpelarna i ett sådant mindset är att det finns statiska tankar som skapar hinder i kunskapsutvecklingen och dynamiska tankar som skapar förutsättningar för god kunskapsutveckling. Syftet med ett specifikt matematiskt mindset är att unga elever kan ha svårt att förstå abstrakta begrepp och företeelser. Många av de modeller som finns för att undersöka mindset använder abstrakta begrepp som exempelvis intelligens. Detta gör att elevens kognitiva förmåga kan bli en begränsande faktor när unga elevers tankar undersöks. Studien presenterar 4 komponenter som ingår i ett matematiskt mindset; Ansträngning och fysiska egenskaper, inlärd hjälplöshet, lärandemål/prestationsmål och utmaning med risk för misslyckande. Dessa fyra komponenter användes för att skapa en enkät, vars ändamål var att reflektera elevens tankar kring olika scenarion kopplade till matematikämnet. Deltagarna i studien var 37 grundskoleelever i årskurs 2 från två klasser i en skola i norra Sverige. Enkätsvaren från de 37 deltagarna resulterade i 4 olika modeller för ett matematiskt mindset. Resultatet från studien visade att det i urvalet fanns elever med flera statiska attributioner och att det finns elever med hög grad av dynamiska attributioner. Resultatet från denna studie har potential att ge pedagoger och forskare inblick i unga elevers mindset inom ämnet matematik. Eftersom Carol Dwecks teori bygger på att elevens statiska eller dynamiska tankar är förändringsbara så ger resultatet från denna studie en språngbräda till nästa steg; strategier för att förändra elevers statiska tankar till dynamiska tankar.

  • Jakobsson, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Pratmatte: En kvalitativ studie om hur pedagoger använder Singaporemodellen för elevers begreppsutveckling2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa hur pedagoger använder och interagerar med elever enligt Singaporemodellen för att elever ska utveckla begreppsförståelse och begreppskunskaper i matematik. Utifrån syftet framställdes tre frågeställningar; Hur använder lärare Singaporemodellen för att eleverna ska utveckla sin begreppsförståelse? Hur interagerar lärare och elever inom Singaporemodellen så att eleverna ska få möjligheter att utveckla sin förmåga i att använda matematiska begrepp? och Hur använder lärare matematiska begrepp inom Singaporemodellen? Syftet och frågeställningarna undersöktes genom två kvalitativa metoder, en gruppintervju med tre pedagoger samt ett observationstillfälle av ett lektionstillfälle. Båda metoderna har analyserats och tolkats genom Singaporemodellens egna koncept och innehåll.

     

    Resultatet visar att Singaporemodellens struktur och lektionsupplägg är präglat av variation, en tillåtande lärmiljö, interaktion och kommunikation som utgör positiva aspekter på elevernas matematiska kunskaper och begreppsutveckling. Däremot visar Singaporemodellen även svårigheter med att undervisningen upplevs ostrukturerad och uppmuntrande till annan lek. Dessutom ligger det ett stort fokus på att samtala matematik, vilket gör att pedagogens roll är oerhört viktig för att Singaporemodellen ska verka effektivt för elevernas begreppsutveckling. Sammantaget upplevs Singaporemodellens koncept och struktur ta lång tid att lära sig, men kan möjligen ha viktiga positiva effekter på elevers kunskaper och utveckling av matematiska begrepp.

     

    Nyckelord: modellen, begreppsutvecklande, interaktion, tillåtande lärmiljö, varierad undervisning.

  • Jansson Bergwall, Greta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Jensen, Linda-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Det digitala litteraturläsandet: En kvalitativ studie av digital litteratur som ett verktyg i förskolans verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte äratt undersöka förskollärares erfarenheter och användning av digital litteratur som ett verktyg i förskolans verksamhet. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten för studien är det sociokulturella perspektivet. Kvalitativa intervjuer av semi- och ostrukturerad form genomfördes med fem förskollärare verksamma i en kommun i norra Sverige. I studien framkommer det att den digitala litteratur som används av de deltagande förskollärarna är applikationen Ugglo. Resultatet visar på motsägelsefulla beskrivningar av användandet av digital litteratur. Den beskrivs av de deltagande förskollärarna både som ett organisatoriskt verktyg, på så sätt att det används för att sysselsätta barn när personaltätheten är låg, och som ett didaktiskt verktyg vid projekt- och temaarbete. Den digitala litteraturen lyfts av förskollärarna som ett gott komplement till traditionell litteratur samt som ett bra verktyg att använda i arbetet med flerspråkighet. Utifrån resultatet dras slutsatsen att det bör finnas en medvetenhet om den digitala litteraturens fördelar när det gäller möjligheten att presentera text och bild för barnen och på så vis bidra till deras språk- och litteracitetsutveckling.

  • Jansson, Molly
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Andersson, Frida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    En kvinnas upplevelse av att leva med bipolär sjukdom2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bipolär sjukdom är en psykiatrisk diagnos som påverkar känslolivet. Det som karaktäriserar sjukdomen är ett pendlande mellan depression och hypomani/mani som är en eufori utöver det vanliga. Vårdpersonalen har en viktig roll i mötet med patientgruppen, de bör ge stöd och skapa interventioner då dessa patienter har högre suicidrisk än den resterande befolkningen. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva en kvinnas upplevelse av att leva med bipolär sjukdom. Metod: En manifest kvalitativ innehållsanalys med en narrativ ansats av en självbiografi. Resultat: Sex kategorier presenteras: att pendla mellan olika verkligheter, att ångesten kan komma när som helst och var som helst, att behöva behandla den kroniska sjukdomen varje dag, att inte vilja utsätta andra för sitt dåliga mående, att det ständigt pågår ett krig i huvudet samt att vilja leva och att inte vilja leva. Diskussion: Vårdpersonal och närstående har betydelse för patientens välmående i stödjandet av patienten, de bör vara öppensinnade och därmed inte döma eller förminska patientens egna upplevelser. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor bör se patientgruppen utifrån ett holistiskt perspektiv då sjukdomen handlar om mycket mer än bara depressioner och manier.

  • Jörnklev, Sebastian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ombyggnad och ändrad användning av en kulturhistorisk värdefull skola från 18502019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To use existing buildings that would otherwise be empty could be a part of the solution regarding the housing shortage in Sweden. When changing older buildings, it is important to consider the cultural and architectural values. When changing usage to dwellings and improving energy efficiency it is important that it is carried out carefully on older valuable buildings. The purpose of the work is to contribute to an increased understanding of how the architectural and cultural-historical values of an older building can be preserved despite a change in use from one function to another. The goal of the work is to examine how a cultural-historical valuable building can be changed to functional dwellings in conjunction with reduced energy usage. The work is based on a case study of a school building from 1850 in Vanstad, Skåne.

     

    An introducing review of theory is a bout older building and installation solution, cultural value and qualities in dwellings. Which acquis to follow during reconstruction and change of usage, design requirements according to BBR and actions to reduce energy usage. Four different studies regarding reduction in energy usage on older brick buildings are studied. The case study building is not K-marked but is pointed out as a valuable building that is worth preserving in documents from Sjöbo. It is recommended that buildings constructed before the 1900s should be kept as authentic as possible.

     

    Based on information gathered through inventory of archive material and inventory of the case study building a description on the case study building is made which is the basis for a design proposal for changed usage from school building to housing. Sjöbo is requesting smaller apartments which the design proposal considers. The design proposal resulted in 7 apartments where 6 out of 7 has a living space between 35 m2 and 55 m2. Because of the buildings age and older building techniques the building does not reach todays energy requirement. The design proposal documents which actions that is possible to implement to reduce the energy usage. Every apartment is reviewed to control which qualities is achieved in the dwellings. The measures advocated is: additional insulation on walls and roof, sealing of the climate shell, change of ventilations system, heating system, installation of solar cells and improvement of window and doors.

     

    The result shows how it is possible to design functional dwellings in an older cultural-historical valuable building. To apply energy efficiency measures to reduce the energy usage and improving the indoor climate is also demonstrated in the result. Regarding profitability considering reconstruction, changed usage, reduction in energy usage and design of dwellings more in-depth studies could be made regarding the actual energy savings and LCC calculations for further economic insight. 

  • Olofsson, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Albin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att delge negativa besked: En integrerad kunskapsöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The event of breaking bad news is a subject that no one present in the practical setting could choose to avoid. It is a subject that the practitioners comes in touch with during a daily basis. Traditionally the role as the breaker of bad news has been settled by the physician, but at the time being, disagreements occur in the clinical setting about who should break bad news to familys and patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the nurses’ experiences of breaking bad news. What are the nurses’ role in the event of breaking bad news, and are there any barriers that can affect the way the bad news is given to the patients and family members? These were two questions of issue that were looked into. Method: The integrative review method based out of Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was used for this review. A systematic search resulted in twelve articles that were deemed fitting for the purpose of this study. Results: This integrative review resulted in five identified roles carried out by the nurse in the event of breaking bad news. Further on, nine factors were identified as being of significance in how the bad news were delivered by nurses and received by patients and the patient’s family members. Nurses expressed a desire and a wish for some kind of education or training in how to break bad news. Conclusion:  This article contributes with five roles experienced by nurses, along with nine different factors to have in mind when carrying out difficult news. The SPIKE model and Gibbs reflective model were discussed to have a great importance in the clinical setting. 

  • Pelli, Sophie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Gottfridsson, Cornelia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Att leda inom revisionsbranschen - en balans mellan amerikanskt och skandinaviskt ledarskap: En kvalitativ studie ur ett ledare- och medarbetarperspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The auditing industry is characterized by high staff turnover, which leads to massivecostsfor the companies. Previous studies show that many choose to leave the industry after threeyears because of the high pressure of overtime, the lack of balance between work and leisure and low entrance salary. The auditing industry has a clear hierarchy that can be equatedwith an American and task-oriented leadership. Task-oriented leadership includeless participation and commitment than the Scandinavian relationship-based leadership,where decisions are taken in common and is characterized by a horizontal organizational structure. Theyounger generations now demandflexibility, balance between work and leisure and an open working climate. The auditing industry is characterized by an American task-oriented style while the youngergenerationsis demanding a leadership more similar to the Scandinavian relationship-oriented leadership. The purpose of this study wasto investigate whether companies in the auditing industry adapt their leadership to the future generationsand to examinehow the leadership has changed over the past 10 years. A qualitative study has been conducted in three out of four companies within the Big Four. Interviews have been conductedwithan employee perspective as well as a leadership perspective in order to gainadeeper understanding. The result of the study shows that the auditing industry hasdeveloped towards a more relationship-based leadership style and all interviewees stated that the industry previously was more focused on results which can be equated with a task-based and an American leadership style. Today’s leadership focuses on participation and joint decision-making. Leadership in all studied agencieshas evolvedtowards a mote relationship-based leadership from a task-based leadership. Strategies for adapting leadership towards the youngergenerationsinvolve for example,offering flexible working hours, creating conditions for balancing work and spare time, eliminating simple working tasks to be able to offer more complicated working tasks and social activities.

  • Svensson, Markus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Leandersson, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Det krävs mer än bara feedback och goda arbetsförhållanden för att en modern ledare ska lyckas: En kvantitativ studie med syfte att optimera styrningen av Millennials2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Millennial generation represents a substantial amount of the total population and will in the future represent the majority of the labor market. Previous research has shown that previous generations and Millennials differ in their management, organizational and motivational preferences. The fact that the Millennial generation differs from previous generation is a specially noted factor within the workplace and the manager-employee relation. In order to efficiently manage this ambitious generation, the modern manager has to adapt to the specific management preferences that they have. The purpose of this study is to examine what management factors the Millennials have and prefer as well asassess how the modern manager can adapt their leadership to successfully cope with this generation. The study will investigate whether the preferred and executed leadership is transformational or transactional. The purpose was tested with data collection using surveys focused on two different groups, the Millennials and theleaders. The results show that the Millennial generation prefers the transformational leadership and highly value factors of management that pursue meaningful feedback, good work relations and allow high involvement. However, the modern leader cannotjust implement a management style with feedback and good work relations, the factor of being influential and using empowerment is a crucial factor in achieving great leadership. The study contributes with knowledge of how the modern leader should adapt their leadership in order to maximize the potential of Millenials. 

  • Freiman, Samuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Osjälviskt Samspel: En studie i vad som händer med en jazzensembles samspel om ingen hör sig själv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att få en djupare förståelse för lyssning och vad som karaktäriserar ett bra samspel. Genom arbetet ville jag se hur en jazzensembles samspel påverkas och utvecklas när vi inte hörde oss själva. 

    I arbetsprocessen har jag med hjälp av mina medmusiker och en studiotekniker spelat in ett flertal exempel där vi inte hörde oss själva, samt inspelningar med medhörning för att kunna jämföra skillnader och resultat.

    Jag har genom dialoger med mina medmusiker, och från inspelningarna av våra studiotillfällen, kunnat analysera vår upplevelse kring hur momentet påverkade samspelet och improvisationen över en blandad jazzrepertoar.

    Efter analys av alla inspelningar har jag insett att jag behöver fler speltillfällen över en längre period för att kunna dra definitiva slutsatser. Tendenserna som observerats är att utan referenspunkter för vårt eget spel saknade vi självförtroendet och förmågan till samspel. Ett övningstillfälle krävde för mycket tid och förberedelse för att kunna användas som övningsmetod. 

    Med hjälp av forskningen har jag funnit tydliga ljudexempel på olika typer av spänning i improviserad musik, och hur samspelet påverkar spänning och release. Genom analys av dessa exempel har jag fått en djupare förståelse för samspel och lyssning som musiker i en jazzensemble.

  • Hansson Lagerberg, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    The Impact of the Difference Signal on the Perceived Loudness of a Piece of Stereo Rock Music: A Comparison Between Headphones and Loudspeakers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the BS.1770 Loudness Standard is affected by the amount of difference signal present in the signal being measured, and if this affection is different between the two playback systems Headphones and Loudspeakers. The study was restricted to rock music productions in a stereo format. The results obtained from the study might provide useful information to mixing and mastering engineers, as it evaluates the correlation between spatial information and subjective loudness. The study consisted of an active listening test, containing six stimuli with different Sum and Difference Ratio (SDR). The test was done in both headphones and loudspeakers, and the difference in volume as set by the subjects were noted. The results from the headphone version and the loudspeaker version were then compared in a paired t-test to see if there was a significant difference between the two formats. The results pointed to the factors of Playback System and SDR to have non- significant effect on the results. After analyzing the possible error sources, it became apparent that other factors had a far greater effect on the results. The results imply that the BS.1770 Loudness Standard can accurately measure the loudness of a given stereo rock music material, despite the fact that it does not consider the differences between the channels when conducting the measurement. Whether or not the effect being studied is significant in other conditions is not verified, due to the restrictions of the study. Further studies would be needed in order to verify the findings of this study, preferably with more attention to detail since there were apparent flaws in the method used.

  • Hansson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rajden, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Elevers upplevelser av skadeprevention på alpina skidgymnasium i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Elever som studerar vid alpina skidgymnasium i Sverige löper en ökad skaderisk under sin studietid och då framförallt i de nedre extremiteterna. Det visar sig även att de elever som skadar sig får mentala konsekvenser till följd av skadan till exempel i form av identitetsförlust eller utanförskap. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att utforska och beskriva hur ungdomar, som studerar på svenska alpina skidgymnasium upplever utbildningens preventiva åtgärder för att undvika, samt minska antalet skador vid träning och tävling för eleverna. Metod: Studien är en kvalitativ intervjustudie. De intervjuer som gjordes utfördes var semistrukturerade. För att rekrytera informanter togs kontakt med ett alpint skidgymnasium som författarna tilläts besöka och genomföra studien på. Efter genomförda intervjuer analyserades materialet med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Analys av datamaterialet resulterade i två huvudkategorier: Skadeprevention från utbildningen, Upplevelser ur elevens perspektiv. Samtliga huvudkategorier har egna underkategorier. Konklusion: Analysen av materialet visade att informanterna upplevde att det fanns ett behov av att öka det skadepreventiva arbetet från utbildningens sida för att kunna minska riskerna för skador.

  • Jonsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Stoltz, Unni
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Redovisning av extrem tjänstefiering: Revisorers och normgivares syn på problematiken2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are constantly trying to improve their business models by implementing new strategies. A new strategy that recently has become popular is called product service systems (PSS). This phenomenon is when companies instead of traditionally selling and buying physical products, now is selling or buying the function of a product. For example; instead of selling a drilling machine, the company sell the produced holes per hour that the machine is capable of making. This phenomenon has been studied mostly within the area of innovation and sustainability, but no studies has yet been written with an accounting perspective. There is no existing standard that regulate this specific business strategy, hence there is a lack of knowledge of this subject in an accounting perspective. Therefore we compiled the following purpose of this study to be; describe auditors interpretations and the assessments of business contracts that are involving PSS and also analyze the problems that come with it. We also want to highlight the norm setter’s view of the identified problems. To be able to answer the given purpose we decided to compile the following research questions; 1) How should a PSS contract be reported in the financial reports according to auditors in Sweden? 2) What accounting problems, regarding PSS contracts, does the auditors raise? 3) How does Swedish norm setters in accounting view the identified problems? Through a qualitative method the empirical chapter consists of a total of one interview with a PSS company, six auditors and two norm setters. The results of the study show that PSS should be expensed in the financial reports. The most important problem appears in the comparability between companies financial reports. PSS is being treated differently from other similar business strategies in the financial reports. There seems to be a need for clarification surrounding PSS contracts. The results show that there is a contradiction on whether that clarification should come from the norm setters or the auditors. The auditors claims that the norm setters should create and publish distinct guidelines on the topic, aiming for all auditors to make an equal assessment. While on the other hand the norm setters rather think that the existing standards are enough and that it is the auditors or the accountant’s responsibility to be transparent in the financial reports. Through transparency the norm setters believe that comparability between companies can be achieved.

  • Kallin Eliasson, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Ström, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bidrar ökad reglering till ökad revisionskvalitet?: En studie ur revisorernas perspektiv på obligatorisk byrårotation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The auditors main assignment is to ensure that the financial information presented by corporations align with the reality. This assignment has been heavily criticized in connection with corporate scandals.  A measure to this and to ensure good audit quality was the introduction of mandatory audit firm rotation. Mandatory audit firm rotation has been greatly discussed, mainly because of the two differences of opinions. The current sides are those who are advocate for regulation and those who are objectors. One actor who deems to have great knowledge in the matter are auditors. Since there seems to be lacking studies regarding the auditors perspective, the following purpose evolved. The purpose of this study is to analyze the auditors perspective on the introduction of mandatory audit firm rotation and its impact on audit quality. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to also create a greater understanding of the implications that mandatory audit firm rotation has on audit quality. To achieve the purpose of this study the following research questions has been developed; “Do auditors consider mandatory audit firm rotation to affect the auditor’s competence? If so, in what way?” and “Do auditors consider mandatory audit firm rotation to affect the auditor's independence? If so, in what way?”. The study has had a focus on the auditor’s and their perspective by interviewing auditors. By illustrating the auditor’s perspective with regulations and audit quality, previous research has been taken into account to inform how the empirical data has been collected and analyzed. The results of the study identified four factors which together form audit quality; independence in appearance, independence in fact, competence from frameworks and competence from experience. The conclusion of the study suggests that mandatory audit firm rotation only affect the auditor's independence in appearance and not the independence in fact. However, it is not clear whether or not the overall competence is affected by mandatory audit firm rotation.

  • Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stenberg, Hampus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Effekten av excentrisk styrketräning i jämförelse med koncentrisk eller isometrisk styrketräning vid tendinopati: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tendinopati är ett samlingsbegrepp och en klinisk diagnos för ett patologiskt tillstånd i en muskelsena. Tillståndet är vanligen direkt kopplad till någon form av repetitiv rörelse eller överbelastning och besvären samt rehabiliteringen är ofta långvarig, omfattande och frustrerande. Isolerad excentrisk styrketräning har länge ansetts som den primära träningsinterventionen vid tendinopati men det råder fortfarande oklarhet över hur olika isolerade träningsupplägg står sig mot varandra. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att utvärdera om excentrisk träning i jämförelse med koncentrisk eller isometrisk träning har bättre effekt avseende smärta och funktion vid behandling av tendinopatier. Metod: En systematisk litteratursökning genomfördes i databaserna Pubmed, SCOPUS, PEDro, Web of Science, Cochrane och SportDiscus samt i de inkluderade artiklarnas referenslistor. Resultat: Totalt inkluderades nio artiklar i denna litteraturöversikt.  I samtliga artiklar var minst två av interventionerna excentrisk jämfört med koncentrisk träning vid tendinopati. Ingen av de inkluderade artiklarna behandlade isometrisk träning som en jämförande separat intervention. I sex av nio studier gjorde både den excentriska och den koncentriska interventionsgruppen förbättringar utifrån utfallsmåtten smärta och funktion, men ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna kunde påvisas. I en studie varierade graden av förbättring inom både den excentriska och den koncentriska gruppen utan statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna. I två av nio studier uppmätte den excentriska interventionsgruppen ett signifikant bättre resultat än den koncentriska. Konklusion: Denna litteraturöversikt indikerar att excentrisk träning inte har tillräckligt med vetenskapligt underlag för att kunna anses vara mer effektivt i jämförelse med koncentrisk träning. Det saknas jämförande forskningsunderlag mellan excentrisk och isometrisk träning.

  • Sjöberg, Ludvig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Wind Forecasts Using Large Eddy Simulations for Stratospheric Balloon Applications2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The launch of large stratospheric balloons is highly dependant on the meteorological conditions at ground level, including wind speed. The balloon launch base Esrange Space Center in northern Sweden currently uses forecasts delivered through the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute to predict opportunities for balloon launches. However the staff at Esrange Space Center experience that the current forecasts are not accurate enough. For that reason the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to improve the forecast. The model performs a Large Eddy Simulation over the area closest to Esrange Space Center to predict wind speed and turbulence. During twelve hypothetical launch days the improved forecast have an overall accuracy of 93% compared to the old forecast accuracy of 69%. With some improvements and the right computational power the system is thought to be operationally viable.

  • Kaufman, Rebecka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Bilden av musik: Fyra notationstyper och deras inverkan på instuderingsprocess och klingande musik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Musikforskaren Nicholas Cook skriver i sin bok “Music: A Very Short Introduction” (2000) om den västerländska notationens funktioner. Han menar att notationen är en så pass stor del av vår musikaliska förståelse och en så integrerad del av hur vi i väst skapar, tänker på och föreställer oss musik att den är omöjlig att bortse från (även i den musik som skapas utan att någonsin noteras). I detta arbete har jag därför valt att undersöka hur olika typer av notation inverkar på min instuderingsprocess, den klingande musiken och den västerländska bilden av musik. Jag har undersökt detta genom att låta kompositören Viktor Elinder komponera fyra olika stycken till mig, alla nedtecknade med olika typer av notation. Jag har sedan instuderat dessa stycken och fört loggbok över mina upplevelser och tankar kring de olika typerna av notation.

    Under arbetets gång har jag reflekterat kring de olika notationstyperna, vilka friheter och begränsningar de sätter kring både musiken och min egen interpretation. I beskrivningen av hur den västerländska bilden av musik påverkas av notation har jag även använt mig av en lingvistisk teori kallad Sapir–Whorf-hypotesen. Hypotesen är uppkallad efter Benjamin Lee Whorf och Edward Sapir och berör hur vårt språk förhåller sig till och påverkar våra tankar, och i förlängning av det, hur vi uppfattar vår verklighet. Jag redogör för hur jag upplever att denna teori även går att applicera på den västerländska notationens förhållande till den klingande musiken och hur detta är bidragande i skapandet av den västerländska musikkulturen och den västerländska bilden av musik.

    Arbetet har hjälpt mig att definiera mina tankar kring notationen på ett tydligare sätt och i förlängningen resulterat i att jag känner mig tryggare i både min interpretation av traditionellt noterad västerländsk musik och mer experimentella notationstyper. 

  • Pettersson, Elin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Jämförbarhet i hållbarhetsrapporten och dess samband med företagens branschtillhörighet och styrelsens könsfördelning: En kvantitativ studie av företag på Stockholmsbörsen Large Cap2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The comparability in the sustainability report is a necessity to serve its main purpose, which is to be useful for the stakeholders. To encourage comparable information in the sustainability report, Swedish companies must comply with the national sustainability law, which is based on the EU directive of sustainability reporting. To comply with the national sustainability law companies can apply international voluntary frameworks such as Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), but there is no imperative requirement. All the voluntary frameworks may contribute to the observed differences of indicators disclosed in the sustainability reports, which makes the information not comparable. This study contributes to the field of research by (1) mapping the comparability in the sustainability reports of firms listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange Large Cap by investigating the level of completeness for the reporting requirements categories and (2) explain and analyse the correlation between the company´s sector, board diversity and the level of completeness of firms that are covered by the national sustainability law. Therefore, a quantity content analysis was conducted on all companies in our sample. The findings display a weak relationship between the investigated variables. This suggest that there are other underlying factors that may affect the comparability in the sustainability reports.

  • Westman, Amelia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Optimering av kylsystemslayout i BvS102019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BAE Systems Hägglunds AB have since 2001 provided the twin-bodied all-terrain vehicle BvS10. BvS10 is an armored and amphibious vehicle that is designed to provide total operational support where other vehicles cannot. The cooling system in BvS10 has its air intake on the roof on the front part of the vehicle and its exhaust backwards out over the connection which interconnects the rear- and front chassis. In this report, it has been evaluated whether if changes in the geometry of parts of the cooling system and if the alternative radial fan identified gives a more favorable air flow compared to the supplied fan power. Catia V5 was used to design a simplified model of the cooling system in 3D and the four concepts that were developed. Then they were simulated in FloEFD. The concepts that were developed did not show a more favorable airflow compared to the supplied fan effect. Calculations show that the new fan Airscrew 475MP4 IGV provided an increased air flow at the same fan power. An optimization was performed and showed a reduction in the drive power of the fan with 15,5 kW at an air flow of 6,15 kg/s. A change to Airscrew 475MP4 IGV is therefore recommended.

  • Helmvall, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Energilager i Luleå Energis elnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will investigate possible energy storages in Luleå Energi’s power grid within a five-year period. The transition to a more sustainable and efficient energy system, in response to climate change, creates new challenges for the power grid. Energy storage has, according to many sources, the potential to contribute to meet the challenges that arise from a larger share of intermittent renewables, a growing number of electrical vehicles and increased demands for reliability and stability.

    Several reports conclude that currently energy storages are most profitable in customer applications, especially in combination with micro-production, e.g. solar cells. Therefore, this report will investigate if battery storages could be installed in three multi-residential properties with solar cells, with the purpose to increase self-use of electricity generated from the solar cells and peak-shaving. Batteries have been chosen as storage technology, since they currently seem to be the technology with the most potential. Possible savings for the customer as well as potential benefits for the grid will be considered.

    Based on data for the properties’ consumption and solar power production, an analysis has been made to see how much excess electricity the solar cells generate and to identify peak demands. Regarding the solar cells, data has only been available for a few months. For other days, the production has been estimated base on measurements of global radiation over Luleå municipality. A simulation in MATLAB has then been carried out to dimension the battery.

    When customers connect micro-production to the grid, the voltage may rise above permissible limits, especially in weaker rural grids. As a result, reinforcements of the grid may be necessary, which means expenses for the grid owner. Installation of a battery, that can store energy and keep the voltage within permissible limits, could be an alternative. The report considers such a case and makes a comparison between reinforcements of the grid and installation of a battery.  

    The results of the report show that energy storages have several potential benefits, both for customers, grid owners and system operators. Forecasts point to a strong growth, as well as lowered battery prices, which could lead to investments that are more profitable. The study of installing a battery in properties with solar cells shows that an increased self-use and peak shaving is possible. However, the economic results show negative net values. This means that currently the investment is not profitable. Approximately, battery prices must be cut in half to reach profitability. The calculation concludes that power tariffs enables most savings for the customers and gives them incentives for peak-shaving.

    The report also shows that the amount of micro-production in a rural grid can be limited by the strength of the grid. If five customers in the investigated part of the grid each would install 8.6 kW solar power, the voltage rise at the point of common coupling would go above permissible values, and the grid would have to be reinforced. The economical comparison between investing in new cables and installing a battery storage shows that currently, a battery storage is more expensive than a new cable.

    The overall conclusion from the report is that energy storage has the potential to contribute to the transition of the energy system. However, regulations and battery prices currently limit the possibilities for profitable investments. It is recommended to do an oversight of regulations and new business models to enable more investments in energy storage. Studying alternative tariffs is also important, to create incentives for a more efficient use of the power grid.

  • Holmquist, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg Burvall, Ninni
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arbetsterapeuters erfarenheter av att stödja elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar i grundskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the experiences of occupational therapists’ in supporting students with neuropsychiatric disabilities in elementary school. Method: During the data collection the authors used semi-structured interviews over the phone or video calls with five occupational therapists’ who had experience of supporting students with neuropsychiatric disabilities in elementary school. Results: From the results, the occupational therapists’ experiences was described in categories: The students difficulties and challenges in school, focus on the student in school, contextual conditions, collaboration with teachers, assessment of students functions and school environment, measures for increased participation and activity balance. Conclusion: The study showed that the occupational therapists’ fulfill an important role in elementary school to support students with neuropsychiatric disabilities, as they pay attention to the challenges that can arise for the students and what specific needs the students have on the basis of their difficulties. It enables the student to get conditions to complete school assignments.

  • Kylén, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Deep compositing in VFX: Creating a framework for deciding when to render deep images or traditional renders.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Pettersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nygren, Sophie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Förstagångsföräldrars erfarenheter av aktivitetsbalans och meningsfulla aktiviteter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: It is a great change in life to get a new family member. Therefore there is a need to examine first-time parents' experiences of activity balance and which activities are considered meaningful. But also examine if there is any interest in getting support in structuring their activities during the first time at home with the child. Method: The information was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were then transcribed. Sentences were taken out, condensed and coded. Based on the codes, an analysis was made. The parents estimated their occupational balance on a scale between 1–10. Results: The study showed that there is no explicit need for support during the child's first year. But based on the descriptions of the situation that arose after the child's homecoming, there was a certain need to get support in finding the occupational balance during the first period with the child. Conclusion: Based on the result the conclusion showed that there was a need for support during the first time with the child, as it was described as a time of insecurity. This involves a major change, which includes that the parents' habits and routines where turned upside down. They had to find a new activity pattern. Further research: To obtain a larger basis and within a broader range of ages for both parents and children, quantitative studies would be needed. But even more qualitative studies would be necessary in order to gain an in-depth understanding of the parents' experiences.

  • Pålsson, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Guiding the viewer using visual components: Eye-tracking for visual analysis 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Are there ways to assess the objective value of the image? By first breaking down visual components and visual structure that are commonly used in image construction, this report will try to predict how a audience chooses to view an image.

    Through eye-tracking technology using a webcam to track the subjects' eye movement, these visual components validation will be tested. The result is presented as heatmaps; which illustrate the point of attention of the audience. The result is then compared with a hypothesis that was compiled in preparation for the examination.

    The result of the survey shows that potential off using eye-tracking for analysis, though the technology of using a web camera might not be the most suitable.

  • Höckerman, Kasper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Aktörskoalitioner i svensk säkerhetspolitik: En analys av riksdagspartiernas inställning till Natomedlemskap2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien avser att förklara riksdagspartiernas inställning mot Natomedlemskap över tid. Därför utförs en policyanalys inom ramen för ''The Advocacy Coalition Framework'’. Detta genomförs genom att kategorisera riksdagspartierna till relevanta advocacy coalitions utifrån deras beliefs. Studien använder sig av utrikespolitiska debatter för att avgöra respektive riksdagspartis beliefs. Genom att undersöka riksdagspartiernas normative och empirical policy core beliefs över tid kan studien finna likheter och skillnader mellan advocacy coalitions. Vad studien kommer fram till är hur riksdagspartierna tar en annan ställning inom säkerhetspolitiken och hur gemensamma beliefs kan förekomma mellan advocacy coalitions. Med åren går det även att se hur riksdagspartier börjar värna mer om militära medel för svensk säkerhet. Studien erbjuder också ett teoretiskt intressant inlägg genom att lyfta upp hur empirical policy core beliefs binder också advocacy coalitions varifrån tidigare forskning visar hur oftast normative policy core beliefs avgör strukturen i advocacy coalitions. Riksdagspartiers ställningstagande antingen för Natomedlemskap eller mot Natomedlemskap blev relevant för vilken advocacy coalition riksdagspartierna blev kategoriserade inom.

  • Asplund, Lucas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Utvärdering av framtida lågtempererade geoenergilager för Vasakronans kontorsfastigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vasakronan is a real estate company with plans to build several geoenergy systems among other energy saving solutions to reduce 50 % of their buildings energy use. Each plant is designed by different constructors; thus, the design of the plants varies with both operating systems and construction. With this, Vasakronan has identified new challenges with managing, monitoring and operating optimization of the energy plants compared to the more commonly district heating plants. In order for Vasakronan to gain more control over the system design, this master thesis has investigated two different system for borehole energy storage solutions. One system by covering the cooling demand completely with free cooling from the boreholes and the second one by utilizing the buildings heat pump in cooling mode. Since the energy plants are affected by supply temperatures and COP, Vasakronan requested an investigation in how these systems should be adapted in a building with a geoenergy system.

     

    The result showed that the system with free cooling had a lower cost over long time than the system with cooling operation, but was limited by the requirement for large ground areas for implementation of the system. Additionally, the supply temperature and COP had a larger impact to the total costs than the choice between the two systems in the short term.

     

    An optimal geo energy plant for Vasakronan's office buildings would consist of high temperature cooling and low-temperature heating. The cooling requirement should be completely covered by free cooling as the cost of the system has low reinvestment, operation and maintenance costs in the long term. In cases where the ground area of the energy storage was limited for total free cooling, the cooling operation system should be built with the same supply temperatures in order to maintain the utilization rate of free cooling and high COP.

  • Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Forsberg, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Användarinvolvering för ökad medvetenhet: En studie om policyutvecklingsprocessen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisations experience the new general data protection regulation (GDPR) as difficult to understand and are unsure as to how they should formulate and communicate a policy that is complied by the organisation's employees. ePrivacy is a separate regulation that works as a compliment to GDPR and makes the regulation even more complex. The purpose of this study is to identify recommendations to formulate policies that increases likelihood that the policy is complied by the organisation's employees. The study was conducted as a case study with a participating company. In this study a policy has been developed within the context of the GDPR and ePrivacythat was then used in interviews with employees of the participating company. This was done in order to research the policy development process and handling of policies in that company. With this research, the knowledge of factors within policy development that affect the employees likelihood to comply with and be aware of the organisation's policies will increase. The recommendations that are formulated as a result of the study may be usedby developers to increase the likelihood that the organisation's policies are complied with and that the employees are more aware of the policies. The recommendations of the study is that developers should take advantage of user involvement in the policy development process. This gives the employees their chance to affect their own work and their processes themselves which will increase their self efficacy and awareness of policies.

  • Duricu, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) and Risk Assessment in the context of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hagman, Jennie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Anhörigas erfarenheter av fysioterapeutisk rehabilitering under och efter vårdperiod av närstående som insjuknat i stroke: En enkätundersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Stroke är något som drabbar många varje år och det krävs ofta mycket rehabilitering. I denna rehabilitering har den anhöriga en stor roll och den rollen följer även med efter hemgång. Vilka erfarenheter finns och hur fungerar det för de anhöriga när en närstående drabbas utav en stroke. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur anhöriga till strokepatienter ser på den fysioterapeutiska rehabiliteringen som ges gällande information, vägledning, delaktighet, bemötande och trygghet. Metod: En enkätundersökning har gjorts som delades på en anhöriggrupp för strokepatienter på facebook. Enkäten var indelad i olika teman som fokuserade på olika delar av rehabiliteringen. Resultat: Anhöriga tycker informationen vid rehabiliteringen fungerar olika bra. De kände att de hade varit delaktiga i rehabiliteringen men inte fått vara med så mycket och göra saker aktivt. De ansåg inte att de hade tillräckligt med kunskap och information efter vårdperioden och de kände en otrygghet i att åka hem med sin närstående efter rehabiliteringen. Rehabiliteringen efter hemkomsten kändes inte trygg och det fungerade olika bra. Bemötandet i vården såg bra ut och de kände sig välbemötta av såväl specifikt fysioterapeuter och även andra professioner inom vården. Det finns saker som fungerar bra i vården, men det finns också flera punkter som inte fungerar lika bra. Konklusion: De anhöriga behöver mer kunskap och mer verktyg för att känna sig trygga och redo för det nya som kommer. Det behövs mer rådgivning inom strokevården för att kunna ge bästa möjliga vård till alla, till patient men också till anhöriga.

  • Holmström, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Barsk, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Informationssäkerhet i kommunala förvaltningar: kultur, medvetenhet och ansvar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information is handled, stored and used by all types of organisations in conjunctionwith the digitization. Information is an important business driver in the businessprocesses of most organisations therefore the protection of the information is crucial.Information security is not solely a technical question and therfore is affectedby the organisational culture, employees security awareness and the role of managementand individuals. The study uses a qualitative method for data collectionwith an abductive approach. In the study, we perform interviews with 9 differentemployees within different municipal administrations to examine how they workwith information security. In the analysis we investigate the correlation betweentheory and the existing situation. In the discussion we highlight the importance ofmanagement participation and the effects they have on information security, securityawareness and organisational culture. We also discuss the importance of theinvolvement of individuals in information security and how it affects its effectivness.The study shows the municiapals shortcomings within information security and theimportance of individuals and managements responsibility for an effective and secureorganisation.

  • Jonsson Vannucci, Tomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Investigating the Part Programming Process for Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing is a novel Additive Manufacturing technology. As a result, the process for progressing from a solid model to manufacturing code, i.e. the Part Programming process, is undeveloped.

    In this report the Part Programming process, unique for Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing, has been investigated to answer three questions;

    • What is the Part Programming process for Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing?
    • What are the requirements on the Part Programming process?
    • What software can be used for the Part Programming process?

    With a systematic review of publications on Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing and related subjects, the steps of the Part Programming process and its requirements have been clarified.

    The Part Programming process has been used for evaluation of software solutions, resulting in multiple recommendations for implemented usage. Verification of assumptions, made by the systematic review, has been done by physical experiments to give further credibility to the results.

  • Stenman, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Påverkan på elnätet från storskalig elbilsutbredning i olika delar av Skellefteå2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In just a few years, the number of electric cars on the Swedish roads will be much bigger than today. To charge those electric vehicles a lot of electricity will be needed, and the power grid will face a new challenge. Skellefteå Kraft Elnät AB wants to learn how their low voltage grid can handle a future with a large amount of electric vehicles and that is why this thesis is written.   This report analyzes how the low voltage grid in different types of areas are loaded today and simulates how it will be affected if the people who lives there uses electric vehicles to a varying extent. Four types of areas are examined to see the distinction between them and to learn which areas will have the biggest problem in the future. Earlier, a similar analysis of a detached area has been made by Skellefteå Kraft. This thesis will continue to look at an area with apartment buildings, one with terraced houses, one large parking lot and a rural area.    The calculations are made with a software, in which it is possible to add new loads to the grid and calculate the voltage drop, loading rate and such. An expansion of electric vehicles to 25 – 100 % of the persons living in an area is investigated and also two different types of chargers. All the calculations are made for a worst case scenario, for example that all the electric cars are charging at the same time.   Rural areas will have bigger problems with voltage drop than the city areas and in the city the loading of the cables will be the main issue. Some transformers will be overloaded early, and the greatest risk is for transformers that is already heavily loaded today.   The conclusion is that different residential areas will have different problems to connect electric vehicles in the future. Two similar areas can have significant different possibilities and challenges. Due to these distinctions it is difficult to draw general conclusions of the entire low voltage grid based on these calculations. It is recommended to do calculations over more areas to get a better understanding of the patterns.

  • Lundkvist, Jennifer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    CFD Simulation of Fluid Flow During Laser Metal Wire Deposition using OpenFOAM: 3D printing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this work was to simulate the fluid flow within a melt pool geometry, during an additive manufacturing process, implementing the CFD software OpenFOAM version 1806. Two separate models were created and run during this work, the first using a temperature mapping from a finite element (FE) model and the second being a free-standing model with Gaussian distributed laser beam striking down on the top surface. Both models were run with the standard solver icoReactingMultiphaseInterFoam, being a multiphase solver, with phase transition possibilities. Addition of gas particles was carried out during post-processing and these were to visualise the imperfections caused by melting metal alloys in a 3D printing case.

    During comparison of the movement of the free-standing model, using a moving laser beam, to the mapped temperature FE model, it was revealed that the fluid flow in the molten pool was heavily influenced by the pressure introduced by the laser beam. No streamlines were found that would indicate entrapment of gas particles during solidification.

  • Nesterud, Klara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Vålvik, Agnes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Utmaningar och rekommendationer vid utvecklandet av robotstyrdprocessautomation inom en verksamhetsprocess2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society companies increasingly strive to automate and streamline their business processes. As a result of the digital transformation of our society, new opportunities and technological innovations are constantly being created with the purpose of supporting the automation of processes by doing things in a completely new way and by utilizing modern information and computer technology. This study examines the new technological innovation in the form of a software technology called RPA (robotic process automation) and its ability to automate tasks that are usually performed manually. The study aims to highlight the challenges that are likely to arise and what the developer should consider when developing RPA within an operational process, which is presented in the form of recommendations. The method of the study is based on an exploratory approach, a qualitative data collection and an abductive approach, since a phenomenon is examined and analyzed using theory related to RPA and the automation of business processes. The challenges and recommendations that have been developed are based on results from a number of meeting sessions in the form of semi-structured workshops based on the four stages of the development process and on the development group's own experiences combined with the theory used as a basis for an analysis. The most important result of the study is that the process should be carefully mapped out and optimized before the development begins and that a continuous follow-up with the end user should be carried out in order to detect any changes in requirements. Someone within the development group should, in addition to a technical perspective, also possess a perspective related to processes and basic knowledge of business development in general.

  • Nykänen, Robin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Simulation of Bolted Joint with Frictional Contacts2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An easy and reliable way to join two or more components is to use a bolted joint. When

    torque is applied on the bolt head, a clamp force is achieved. However about 90% of this

    torque will be used just to overcome the friction in the interfaces. To be able to fasten

    these in an ecient and precise manner the friction in the bolt threads and underhead

    area is important to understand. This is currently investigated at Atlas Copco by using a

    friction test rig, FTR, which measures the clamp force, the total torque and the shank

    torque.

    To evaluate the test rig and also to be able to evaluate dierent friction models, a

    parameterised simulation model of a bolted joint is built. This is a 3D-model of the joint

    containing a bolt, a nut and a test specimen. The stiness and frictional behaviour of the

    FTR is used in the model to get a good comparison between these two. Dierent contact

    formulations and settings are tested to achieve a good model. Also, mesh size, step size

    and material models are evaluated to see the eect of these.

    The results show a good correlation between the FTR data and the simulation model.

    For the total torque to clamp force ratio a dierence of about 1% is achieved. The average

    dierence in shank torque and underhead torque is at 3.1% and -1.6% respectively.

    The pressure distribution for this model is shown to be unevenly distributed along the

    threads. This is minimized by softening the contact, but this instead increases the error

    between the FTR data and the simulation model. For the evaluation of friction models

    that are based on the contact pressure this needs to be investigated further to nd a good

    compromise between the contact pressure and the frictional behaviour.

  • Holmström, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Preliminary simulation of Porjus U9 turbine at speed no load2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower plants are shifting towards operating at off-designed conditions, meaning that the number of start-stop cycles and maintenance time due to cavitation increases. The speed no-load condition is the moment before magnetization of the generator, i.e., no load, low flow, constant runner rotational speed, guide vane and runner blade angle. Since no load is applied, the water dissipates its energy in forms of highly recirculating and turbulent flow. This master thesis aim is to simulate the speed no-load condition on the Porjus U9 turbine and validate numerical values against experimental ones. ICEM CFD was used to mesh the domains and ANSYS CFX was used to perform the simulation. The setup was split into two zones, Zone 1 and Zone 2, and an intermediate zone overlapping both zones. Zone 1 consists of the penstock and spiral, the intermediate zone consists of the spiral and distributor passages and Zone 2 consists of a distributor passage, runner and draft tube. Streamlines in the runner and draft tube show highly recirculating flow from the draft tube back into the runner. The numerical values did not correspond well against the experimental. This is deemed most likely due to an overall low pressure over the runner blades. It is recommended as a first step to increase the quality of the runner and distributor mesh to get the simulation running with the cavitation model implemented.