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  • Al-Janabi, Ahmed Mohammed Sami
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.
    Ghazali, Abdul Halim
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.
    Yusuf, Badronnisa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Optimizing Height and Spacing of Check Dam Systems for Better Grassed Channel Infiltration Capacity2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The check dams in grassed stormwater channels enhance infiltration capacity by temporarily blocking water flow. However, the design properties of check dams, such as their height and spacing, have a significant influence on the flow regime in grassed stormwater channels and thus channel infiltration capacity. In this study, a mass-balance method was applied to a grassed channel model to investigate the effects of height and spacing of check dams on channel infiltration capacity. Moreover, an empirical infiltration model was derived by improving the modified Kostiakov model for reliable estimation of infiltration capacity of a grassed stormwater channel due to check dams from four hydraulic parameters of channels, namely, the water level, channel base width, channel side slope, and flow velocity. The result revealed that channel infiltration was increased from 12% to 20% with the increase of check dam height from 10 to 20 cm. However, the infiltration was found to decrease from 20% to 19% when a 20 cm height check dam spacing was increased from 10 to 30 m. These results indicate the effectiveness of increasing height of check dams for maximizing the infiltration capacity of grassed stormwater channels and reduction of runoff volume.

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  • Sharafati, Ahmad
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Haghbin, Masoud
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Asadollah, Seyed Babak Haji Seyed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Tiwari, Nand Kumar
    Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Scouring Depth Assessment Downstream of Weirs Using Hybrid Intelligence Models2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the scouring depth downstream of weirs is a challenging issue due to its effect on weir stability. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) model integrated with optimization methods namely cultural algorithm, biogeography based optimization (BBO), invasive weed optimization (IWO) and teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) are proposed to predict the maximum depth of scouring based on the different input combinations. Several performance indices and graphical evaluators are employed to estimate the prediction accuracy in the training and testing phase. Results show that the ANFIS-IWO offers the highest prediction performance (RMSE = 0.148) compared to other models in the testing phase, while the ANFIS-BBO (RMSE = 0.411)ANFIS-TLBO-M3 RMSEtesting=0.411, CCtesting~0.00) provides the lowest accuracy. The findings obtained from the uncertainty analysis of prediction modeling indicate that the input variables variability R-factor=1.72has a higher impact on the predicted results than the structure of models. In general, the ANFIS-IWO can be used as a reliable and cost-effective method for predicting the scouring depth downstream of weirs.

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  • Tran, Quoc Cuong
    et al.
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Minh, Duc Do
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Jaafari, Abolfazl
    Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 64414-356, Tehran 64414, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Minh, Duc Dao
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam. Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Van, Duc Tung
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Duc Anh
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Tran, Trung Hieu
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-527, Japan.
    Nguyen, Duy Huu
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382002, India.
    Le, Hiep Van
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Novel Ensemble Landslide Predictive Models Based on the Hyperpipes Algorithm: A Case Study in the Nam Dam Commune, Vietnam2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of landslide predictive models with strong prediction power has become a major focus of many researchers. This study describes the first application of the Hyperpipes (HP) algorithm for the development of the five novel ensemble models that combine the HP algorithm and the AdaBoost (AB), Bagging (B), Dagging, Decorate, and Real AdaBoost (RAB) ensemble techniques for mapping the spatial variability of landslide susceptibility in the Nam Dan commune, Ha Giang province, Vietnam. Information on 76 historical landslides and ten geo-environmental factors (slope degree, slope aspect, elevation, topographic wetness index, curvature, weathering crust, geology, river density, fault density, and distance from roads) were used for the construction of the training and validation datasets that are the prerequisites for building and testing the proposed models. Using different performance metrics (i.e., the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), negative predictive value, positive predictive value, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, root mean square error, and Kappa), we verified the proficiency of all five ensemble learning techniques in increasing the fitness and predictive powers of the base HP model. Based on the AUC values derived from the models, the ensemble ABHP model that yielded an AUC value of 0.922 was identified as the most efficient model for mapping the landslide susceptibility in the Nam Dan commune, followed by RABHP (AUC = 0.919), BHP (AUC = 0.909), Dagging-HP (AUC = 0.897), Decorate-HP (AUC = 0.865), and the single HP model (AUC = 0.856), respectively. The novel ensemble models proposed for the Nam Dan commune and the resultant susceptibility maps can aid land-use planners in the development of efficient mitigation strategies in response to destructive landslides.

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  • Andersson, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Liten till stor: Att byta från violin till viola2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att vid två olika tillfällen spelat på masterclasses för violinprofessor Ulf Wallin, rekommenderades jag ett huvudinstrumentbyte från violin till viola. Detta med tanke på de rygg- och nackproblem som jag brottats med under en längre period och som hindrat mig från att komma vidare i mitt violinspel.

    I detta arbete utforskar jag speltekniska skillnader mellan violin och viola. Jag har under åtta veckor systematiskt övat på skalor, etyder och repertoar. Jag har valt att dela upp processen i fyra olika moment: instrumentfattning, stråkteknik, intonation och altklav. Under processen redogör jag för hur jag arbetat med de olika momenten och med hjälp av mina lärare tagit mig an de utmaningar jag stött på. Jag har regelbundet fört loggbok och antecknat intressanta saker jag upptäckt under övningspassen. Jag har också spelat in videoklipp för att kunna följa min utveckling. Jag har analyserat denna process utifrån Gibsons affordance-begrepp, vilket har fått mig att inse varför jag har olika förutsättningar beroende på om jag spelar violin eller viola.

    Arbetet har resulterat i att jag uppnått en förbättrad teknik och musikaliskt uttryck. Jag redovisar det genom en inspelning jag gjort av ett solostycke med ljud och bild i en gotländsk kyrka.


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    1.Hoffmeister rotation
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    2.Arpeggione
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    3.Bach inledning
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    4.Stråk med olika tyngd
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    5.C-strängen
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    6.Stråk på A-strängen
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    7.Samma hastighet olika kontaktställe och tyngd
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    8.Samma kontaktställe, olika tyngd och hastighet
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    9. Länk till Youtube
  • Choudhry, Jamal
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    A study of wear and load behaviour on bucket teeth for heavy-duty cable shovels2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many of today’s engineering advancements rely on minerals such as copper, gold and iron. For this reason, the mining industry plays an important role for the development of society and technological wonders. Mining excavators are commonly used tools for extracting the minerals from the mine. Mining excavators are large machines used to breakdown, penetrate and load the rock ores onto trucks that transport the minerals. During the dynamic loading, the excavator bucket experiences significant amount of wear and tear that negatively affects the production by increasing the downtime. The bucket teeth are arguably the most worn parts of the bucket and are responsible for significant amounts of downtime. This thesis aims to provide a better understanding of the load and wear on the bucket teeth of large scale mining excavators used in Bolidens Aitik copper mine in Sweden. Because of how much wear and tear the bucket teeth are exposed to, there is a need to better understand the wear behaviour of the teeth and for the whole bucket in general. This understanding can then be used to improve the service life of the teeth and other parts of the bucket and thus increase work efficiency and reduce downtime.

    This project was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of regular field measurements to follow the wear on the bucket for about two weeks of digging and loading. The gathered data was then analysed to provide a better understand about the wear behaviour. The second part was to develop a numerical model that could predict the wear on the bucket and could be verified by the field measurements.

    The field measurements consisted of seven 3D laser scans of the bucket starting with brand new teeth. At the time of the last scan, the buckets total loaded tonnage was approximately 542 kton and the excavator had operated in total of approximately 195 hours. After the raw data from the scans was gathered and analysed, various information about the wear behaviour on the teeth was achieved. The 3D scanned data was also used to provide a complete wear development cycle which allowed to track the wear of any point in the bucket. The method could also be used to create animations of the teeth as they were being worn. From the results, it was concluded that the wear rate for the teeth slowed down and even converged as the geometry changed due to wear. When comparing all nine teeth on the bucket, it was also found that the middle teeth on the bucket were most exposed to wear. The most worn tooth was found to lose around 50 kg of weight after approximately 117 operating hours, which accounts for 40 % of the original weight. The animations from the complete wear development results also showed how the individual teeth and the whole leading edge with all nine teeth were being worn as the buckets loaded tonnage increased from 0 to 542 kton.

    The numerical model consisted of simulations of loading with the rocks being modelled with the Discrete Element Method (DEM). These were divided into four cases, the first being with the bucket with all new teeth. The second bucket with a mixture of new and worn teeth. The third bucket with all worn teeth and then finally the fourth bucket in which a new tooth geometry was tested. The numerical model showed promising results and potential for being a reliable way to predict the wear on the bucket. The results showed that both the penetration force and wear for the middle teeth was higher than the other neighbouring teeth. It also showed that the completely worn teeth had a lower wear rate than the new teeth which is in agreement with the results from field measurements. Other factors such as tooth shape and length were also observed to have a significant impact on the wear and penetration force. Lastly, the new teeth geometry also showed potential for design improvements in terms of wear resistance but can be further optimised. From the new teeth geometry, a suggestion was given for using an existing tooth system that might be more wear resistant.

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  • Rismalm, Pernilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sigelind, Nathalié
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Familjers upplevelser av hälsostödjande familjesamtal vid kronisk sjukdom: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: När en familjemedlem drabbas av kronisk sjukdom påverkas hela familjen, det kan leda till en förlust av normala familjefunktioner. Kroniska sjukdomar har under det senaste årtiondet ökat kraftigt. Den familjecentrerade omvårdnaden syftar till att se familjen som en helhet där hälsostödjande familjesamtal kan användas som en omvårdnadshandling av sjuksköterskan för att främja familjers hälsa. Syfte: Att beskriva familjers upplevelser av hälsostödjande familjesamtal vid kronisk sjukdom. Metod: Denna litteraturstudie baserades på 10 vetenskapliga artiklar där analysen genomfördes med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Resultatet i denna litterastudie beskrivs i fyra huvudkategorier; Att samtalen skapade rum för berättelse och bekräftelse, Att samtalen samlade familjen till meningsfulla dialoger, Att sjuksköterskan skapade förtroende och Att samtalen bidrog till styrka för sig själv och inom familjen. Slutsats: Resultatet i denna litteraturstudie visar att hälsostödjande familjesamtal kan vara värdefulla och bidra till att främja hälsa hos familjer när en familjemedlem drabbats av kronisk sjukdom, vilket kan bidra till nya perspektiv och en ökad förståelse inom familjen.

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  • Backes, Albin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Räddningstjänstens förmåga vid IVPA (i väntan på ambulans): En studie om räddningstjänstens förmåga att utföra IVPA-uppdrag2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När en person drabbas av ett plötsligt akut sjukdomsfall ställer vi krav på att samhället ska reagera och hjälpa den som är i behov av hjälp. Personen som är drabbad upplever en otrygghet och vill ha hjälp så fort som möjligt. Att ge den hjälpen åligger Sveriges regioner enligt hälso- och sjukvårdslagen. Med en allt mer centraliserad sjukvård och en trend som visar att väntetiden på en ambulans blir allt längre krävs en samverkan mellan samhällets trygghetsskapande och livräddande funktioner.

    Problematiken med denna samverkan mellan räddningstjänst och ambulanssjukvården när det handlar om hälso-och sjukvård är sedan tidigare väl känd. Svenska Kommunförbundet och Landstingsförbundet, numera Sveriges Kommuner och Regioner, kom ut med en rapport år 2001 där detta undersöktes. Efter rapporten har lagändringar genomfört för att förenkla samverkan och för att möjliggöra avtal som innebär att räddningstjänsten utför hälso-och sjukvårdsinsatser i väntan på ambulans.

    I Örebro län finns ett avtal mellan Region Örebro län och Nerikes Brandkår som innebär att räddningstjänsten larmas till misstänkta hjärtstopp där det finns en bedömd tidsvinst i att larma räddningstjänsten. Resultatet visar att räddningstjänsten larmades tillsammans med ambulans vid 111 av 389 misstänka hjärtstopp under 2018, vilket motsvara ca 28,5 procent av fallen. Vid dessa gemensamma utlarmningar var räddningstjänsten enligt medianvärdet 9 minuter före ambulansen till den drabbade. Medicinska studier visar att chansen att få igång ett hjärtstopp minskar med 10 procent för varje minut.

    Ambulanssjukvårdens tillgänglighet har under senaste tiden varit föremål för medial uppmärksamhet i och med en ökad belastning på verksamheten. Resultatet i studien påvisar en markant högre belastning för ambulanssjukvården än hos Nerikes Brandkår. Av Nerikes Brandkår totala antal uppdrag utgjorde IVPA ca 3,8 procent under 2018.

    Det finns flera andra sjukdomsfall där tiden spelar en avgörande roll för utgången hos den drabbade. Två av dessa sjukdomsfall, livshotande blödning och luftvägshinder, undersöktes vad det gäller omfattning i länet samt huruvida räddningstjänsten skulle kunna genomföra en första insats i väntan på ambulans vid dessa sjukdomsfall. Om räddningstjänsten även skulle larmas på 28,5 procent av alla larm om livshotande blödning och luftvägshinder och oförändrat på misstänkt hjärtstopp skulle andelen IVPA öka från dagens 3,8 till 4,9 procent. Det skulle även innebära en total ökning av antal larm till räddningstjänsten med 1,1 procent, eller cirka 32 larm per år i hela Nerikes Brandkår. Räddningstjänstens tillgänglighet och förmåga att göra snabba potentiellt livräddande insatser i väntan på ambulans bör tas till vara av regionen. Ambulanssjukvården och räddningstjänsten har ett flertal gemensamma beröringspunkter där en av dem är att skapa trygghet och rädda liv.

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  • Saifouri, Paiman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Fönster och Miljöcertifiering: Undersökning av hur valet av fönsterstorlek (fönsterlösning i form avljudkrav, ljusinsläpp och värmegenomstrålning) ska göras på ett optimalt sätt.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Flodmark, Felicia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Närkeby, Julia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda palliativa patienter i livets slutskede i hemmet: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid vård i livets slutskede har sjuksköterskan en mycket viktig roll som omvårdnadsansvarig för patienten. Syftet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda palliativa patienter i livets slutskede i hemmet. Tillvägagångssättet som har använts i detta arbete är en litteraturstudie med inifrånperspektivmed fokus på människor och i detta fall sjuksköterskors upplevelse. Litteraturstudien bestod av tio kvalitativa studier och har analyserats med kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys med induktiv ansats. Analysen resulterade i sex kategorier: Att kommuniceramed kollegor är svårt men samarbete är viktigt; Att ha patientens hem som arbetsplats är problematiskt; Att göra fel vid ensamt arbete skapar rädslor; Att känna behov av struktur och organisering vid ett tidspressat arbete;Vikten av god kunskap och erfarenhet vid palliativ vård i hemmet; Att bemöta och bilda en relation till patient och anhöriga. I resultatet framkom det att sjuksköterskor som arbetar med palliativ vård i hemmet uppskattar en god kommunikation mellan kollegorna då det är mycket ensamarbete och sjuksköterskorna var oroliga för att göra misstag. Det visade sig även att struktur och organisering i arbetet blev ännu viktigare när det var ett högt tempo. Sjuksköterskors kunskap, erfarenhet och ett gott bemötande av patienten samt dess anhöriga var en förutsättning för god vård.

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  • Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Noppa, Rebecca
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att ha genomgått könsstympning: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnlig könsstympning är en kulturell tradition som utövas i mestadels Afrika, men också i Mellanöstern och Asien. Omkring 200 miljoner kvinnor beräknas idag vara könsstympade och cirka 3 miljoner beräknas vara i risk för att utsättas för ingreppet årligen. Könsstympning innebär delvis eller total borttagning av de yttre könsorganen, eller annan skada på de kvinnliga könsorganen av icke medicinska skäl och klassas utifrån fyra olika huvudtyper beroende på hur mycket av kvinnans könsorgan som avlägsnas. I och med det mångkulturella samhället vi lever i idag är det inte ovanligt att personal inom hälso- och sjukvård i Sverige möter kvinnor som är könsstympade. Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av att ha genomgått könsstympning. Metoden som användes var kvalitativ innehållsanalys med manifest ansats där tio vetenskapliga artiklar analyserades. Analysen resulterade i fyra kategorier: att den sexuella hälsan begränsas, att livet präglas av ett fysiskt och ett psykiskt lidande, att könsstympning är nödvändigt för att accepteras och att mötet med sjukvården återspeglas av att känna sig annorlunda. Genom att öka kunskapen kring ämnet hos hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal skulle dessa kvinnor kunna få bättre omvårdnad.

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  • Segerstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Nödvändigt: Lager och produkter i arbeteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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  • Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, Uttarakhand, India.
    Rai, Priya
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, Uttarakhand, India.
    Heddam, Salim
    Faculty of Science, Agronomy Department, Hydraulics Division University, 20 Août 1955, Route EL HADAIK, 26 Skikda, BP, Algeria.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    Department of Civil Engineering, School of Technology, Ilia State University, Tbilisi 0162, Georgia.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam. Computer Science Department, College of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Anbar, Ramadi 31001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Pan Evaporation Estimation in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh States, India: Validity of an Integrative Data Intelligence Model2020In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Appropriate input selection for the estimation matrix is essential when modeling non-linear progression. In this study, the feasibility of the Gamma test (GT) was investigated to extract the optimal input combination as the primary modeling step for estimating monthly pan evaporation (EPm). A new artificial intelligent (AI) model called the co-active neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was developed for monthly EPm estimation at Pantnagar station (located in Uttarakhand State) and Nagina station (located in Uttar Pradesh State), India. The proposed AI model was trained and tested using different percentages of data points in scenarios one to four. The estimates yielded by the CANFIS model were validated against several well-established predictive AI (multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) and multiple linear regression (MLR)) and empirical (Penman model (PM)) models. Multiple statistical metrics (normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), Willmott index (WI), and relative error (RE)) and graphical interpretation (time variation plot, scatter plot, relative error plot, and Taylor diagram) were performed for the modeling evaluation. The results of appraisal showed that the CANFIS-1 model with six input variables provided better NRMSE (0.1364, 0.0904, 0.0947, and 0.0898), NSE (0.9439, 0.9736, 0.9703, and 0.9799), PCC (0.9790, 0.9872, 0.9877, and 0.9922), and WI (0.9860, 0.9934, 0.9927, and 0.9949) values for Pantnagar station, and NRMSE (0.1543, 0.1719, 0.2067, and 0.1356), NSE (0.9150, 0.8962, 0.8382, and 0.9453), PCC (0.9643, 0.9649, 0.9473, and 0.9762), and WI (0.9794, 0.9761, 0.9632, and 0.9853) values for Nagina stations in all applied modeling scenarios for estimating the monthly EPm. This study also confirmed the supremacy of the proposed integrated GT-CANFIS model under four different scenarios in estimating monthly EPm. The results of the current application demonstrated a reliable modeling methodology for water resource management and sustainability.

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  • Liu, Suhong
    et al.
    School of Mathematics and Information Science, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Shaanxi, China.
    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Viet Nam.
    Aldlemy, Mohammed Suleman
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Collage of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Benghazi-Libya.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.
    Energy analysis using carbon and metallic oxides-based nanomaterials inside a solar collector2020In: Energy Reports, ISSN 2050-0505, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 6, p. 1373-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of a flat-plate solar collector was studied by using SiO2, Al2O3, Graphene, and graphene nanoplatelets nanofluids with distilled water as the working fluids. The energy efficiency was theoretically compared using MATLAB programming. The prepared carbon and metallic oxides nanomaterials were structurally and morphologically characterized via field emission scanning electron microscope. The study was conducted under different operating conditions such as different volume fractions (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%), fluid mass flow rate (0.0085, 0.017, and 0.0255 kg/s), input temperatures (30, 40, and 50 °C), and solar irradiance (500, 750, and 1000 W/m2). Nanofluids showed better thermophysical properties compared to standard working fluids. With the addition of the nanofluids SiO2, Al2O3, Gr and GNPs to the FPSC the highest efficiency of 64.45%, 67.03%, 72.45%, and 76.56% respectively was reached. The results suggested that nanofluids made from carbon nanostructures and metallic oxides can be used in solar collectors to increase the parameters of heat absorbed/loss compared to water only usage.

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  • Perdal, Amanda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Upplevelser av isolering hos patienter koloniserade med multiresistenta bakterier inom slutenvården: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Multiresistenta bakterier är bakterier som utvecklat motståndsmekanismer mot läkemedel. Risken för att koloniseras av dessa bakterier är ett problem som ökar globalt, följaktligen växer antalet patienter som vårdas isolerade. Isoleringsvård innebär att patienten har ett eget rum och egen toalett att förhålla sig till, samt att vårdpersonal ska tillämpa specifika rutiner och åtgärder.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva upplevelser av isolering hos patienter koloniserade med multiresistenta bakterier (MRB) inom slutenvården.

    Metod: En kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys med inifrån perspektiv tillämpades för att besvara studiens syfte. I analysen ingick nio vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Resultat: Isoleringen påverkade patienternas upplevelser utifrån flera aspekter som resulterade i kategorierna: ’Att vara ensam och känna ett känslomässigt lidande’, ’Att känna begränsningar i relationer och vara orolig för smittspridning’, ’Att känna sig stigmatiserad och få låg självkänsla i brist på egen kunskap’, ’Att tveka över sjukvårdspersonalens kunskap och åtgärdernas betydelse’ och ’Att vara instängd i ett rum där miljön har stor betydelse’.

    Slutsats och kliniska implikationer: I litteraturstudien identifierades patienternas bristande kunskap om isoleringen och varför vissa åtgärder ägde rum. Det behövs ytterligare forskning på vilket sätt patienter erhåller ökad kunskap i kombination med isoleringsvård. På så sätt kan patienternas förståelse i situationen öka deras känsla av sammanhang. Genom utvidgning av sjukvårdspersonalens kunskap om patienters personliga upplevelser av att befinna sig inom isoleringsvård kan ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt främjas. Troligtvis förbättrar det även bemötande av patienternas redan identifierade behov. 

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  • Strömqvist, Oscar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing and Medical technology.
    Kolding, Sturla Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing and Medical technology.
    Hot och våld mot sjuksköterskor inom slutenvården: En integrerad litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Olika yrkesgrupper löper större risk att utsättas för hot och våld. Sjuksköterskor har direktkontakt med människor i olika typer av lidande, därmed finns det en stor risk att utsättas för utmanande beteenden eller situationer. Rädslan för att utsättas för hot och våld kan leda till att sjuksköterskor som jobbar prehospitalt väljer att avsluta sina anställningar, eller att de kan utveckla psykiatriska diagnoser. Syfte: Att sammanställa kunskap kring hot och våld mot sjuksköterskor i slutenvården. Utifrån syftet formulerades frågeställningar: Vilka organisatoriska faktorer kan leda till hot och våld? Vilka faktorer påverkar sjuksköterskans arbete efter att ha utsatts för hot och våld? Metod: Whittemore och Knafls metodartikel användes för att göra en integrerad litteraturstudie bestående av kvalitativa och kvantitativa artiklar. Resultat: Arbetsplatsen känns osäker då det saknas säkerhetsåtgärder och en god kontakt mellan arbetstagare och arbetsgivare. Det efterfrågas fortbildning inom hantering av hot och våld, detta kan göra att personal upptäcker varningstecken från patienter tidigare. Smärtor och skador förekommer samt psykiska diagnoser som leder till försämrad omvårdnad och ökad frånvaro. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor bör utbildas redan vid lärosätet i att hantera hot och våld.

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  • Wulffschmidt, Emelie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Månsson, Essie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta lidande hos patienter med sjukdom: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Lidande är något som alla kan uppleva och som kan bli tydligare vid sjukdom. Lidandet kan vara en fysisk samt psykisk smärta och kan upplevas som mörkt, svårt och meningslöst. Genom att ta sig igenom lidande kan personer uppleva mening igen. Sjuksköterskors uppgift i yrkesrollen är att både lindra samt bevittna det lidande som patienten upplever, detta kan dock vara en utmaning för sjuksköterskor att hantera. Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att möta lidande hos patienter med sjukdom. Metod: En litteraturstudie grundad på 10 vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserats med kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys med induktiv ansats. Resultat: Analysen resulterade i fem kategorier. Genom att sjuksköterskor engagerade sig i patienters lidande fick de en ökad förståelse för dem. De upplevde att det var viktigt att skapa en relation till patienter i syfte att kunna hjälpa dem och dela lidandet i gemenskap. Sjuksköterskor upplevde att patienters lidande kunde bli deras eget lidande vilket kunde leda till ett behov av att distansera sig från patienter. När sjuksköterskor upplevde att de lyckades lindra patienters lidande kände de en ökad tillfredsställelse och betydelsefullhet. I mötet med patienter upplevde sjuksköterskor att de själva reflekterade över livet, döden och lidandet vilket kunde ge en förtvivlan. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver reflektera och ventilera sitt lidande för att uppleva ett ökat välmående, att kunna möta patienters lidande samt kunna tillgodose en personcentrerad vård.

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  • Pålsson, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Electric bicycle rack for an urban environment: A bicycle rack that caters for the needs for electric bicycles in today’s society2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people commute to work, travel and use the electric bicycle as a daily means of transport. The need for bicycle racks, adapted for electric bicycles is growing and the demands on bicycle racks are higher than for bicycle racks for ordinary bicycles. This as they are very expensive to buy. On behalf of NOLA Industries, a bicycle rack for electric bicycles will be designed. The bicycle rack must also meet the need to recharge the batteries while the bicycle is parked and meet all found requirements from all stakeholders, which were collected during the project. The project is carried out by one student from Luleå University of Technology, who is studying M.Sc. in industrial design with a focus on product development. The project was carried out in Luleå with NOLA at a distance in Stockholm. The aim of the project was to come up with an idea for a bicycle rack that is suitable for public environments and that also fits into NOLA’s existing product range. At the beginning of the project, the time was planned using a Gantt scheme. The process used was CDIO consisting of four different phases. After the planning was completed, a benchmarking was made of how the situation looked and how the electric bicycles in today’s society work. The theory section was planned and introduced with a description of the line of technical design. The chapter was then followed up with relevant theory for the project. In order to find out what users think of existing bicycle racks and what were the desires for future bicycle racks, a survey was sent out. The work continued with several different information collection methods which were then followed up with creative work in the design phase. The final work included CAD models and renderings from keyshot of the finished concept. The final concept meets stakeholder requirements for an electric bike rack. It fulfill the need to be able to recharge the electric bike’s battery and to lock the electric bike in several points. The roof and the bicycle racks are equipped with led lighting, counteracting vandalism and theft of the electric bicycles. The roof also protects the electric bicycles against weather conditions.

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  • Hansson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Bell’s theorem and its tests: Proof that nature is superdeterministic—Not random2020In: Physics essays, ISSN 0836-1398, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 216-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By analyzing the same Bell experiment in different reference frames, we show that nature at its fundamental level is superdeterministic, not random, in contrast to what is indicated by orthodox quantum mechanics. Events—including the results of quantum mechanical measurements—in global space-time are fixed prior to measurement.

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  • Okwori, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Performance assessment of Swedish sewer pipe networks using pipe blockage and other associated performance indicators2020In: H2Open Journal, E-ISSN 2616-6518, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewer pipe networks are expected to operate with minimal or no interruptions. The complex nature of randomlyoccurring failures in sewer networks arising from blockages significantly adds to the cost of operation and maintenance.Blockages are significant due to sewage backup or basements flooding, resulting from theiroccurrence. Therefore, continuous performance assessment of sewer pipe networks is necessary to ensurerequired levels of service at an acceptable cost. This study provides insight into the performance of the sewerpipe networks by assessing the proneness of the network to blockages. Furthermore it draws inferences at a holisticstrategic level of influential explanatory factors of blockage proneness, using data available in the SwedishWater and Wastewater Association’s benchmarking system. Results indicate that medium sized municipalitiesare prone to at least 30% more blockages per km per year compared to other municipalities. A hypothesis ofexplanatory factors includes reduced flow volumes and flow depth. Flow velocities below self-cleaning velocityin sewer pipe networks, encouraged by sluggishness of flow are responsible for increased possibility for sedimentdeposition and accumulation in sewers leading to blockages. This is also exacerbated by the deposition of nondisposables(wet wipes, baby diapers, hard paper, etc.), accumulation of fats, oils and grease in sewers andincreased water conservation measures.

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  • Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq.
    Mosul Dam: Is it the Most Dangerous Dam in the World?2020In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam, with a storage capacity of 11.11 km3 constructed on highly karstified gypsum beds alternating with marl and limestone. After impounding in 1986, seepage locations were recognized. The dam situation now indicates that it is in a state of extreme relative risk. If it fails, then 6 million people will be affected and 7202 km2 area will be flooded. Grouting operations will elongate the life of the dam but will not solve the problem. Building a protection dam downstream will be the best measures to secure the safety of the downstream area and its’ population.

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  • Waldton Lézin, André
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    The effects of distortion: Investigating how different types of distortion affect timbral attributes and subjective preference2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of distortion has been investigated prior to this study, however most of these studies focus on the objective physicalities of a certain type of distortion or they might apply distortion in static amounts to examine effects of loudspeaker distortion. Objectively the varying types of distortion may be different, however there are little explanations on how these types subjectively might sound different. This study aimed to investigate how subjective preference and perception of the timbral attributes warmth and roughness may vary between types of distortion, and if there was a pattern between these using three different types of distortion (zero-crossing, solid state and tube), applied at two different levels (high and low) and to two different instruments (guitar and vocals). The outcome indicated that subjects most prefer tube distortion and that this distortion was considered to provide the most amounts of warmth while also the least amounts of roughness. There were also interaction effects indicating guitar being less sensitive about the level of distortion while being more sensitive about the type of distortion for the measures of preference and amounts of roughness, when compared to vocals.

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  • Stocks, Theodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Ett oväntat samband: En studie i anslagsteknik och improvisation på pedal steel2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har sedan jag började spela pedal steel varit intresserad av hur instrumentet kan användas på olika sätt i olika sorters musik. Efter att ha hört musik där jag tycker pedal steel låter likt en klarinett blev jag intresserad av hur jag kunde ta fram det soundet ur instrumentet. Genom att studera ett antal låtar och solon har jag fått en djupare förståelse för hur en klarinett låter i swingmusik. Jag har utformat ett antal övningar utifrån de upptäckter och svårigheter jag har stött på, vars mål är att göra mitt sound mjukare och mer likt en klarinett. Övningarna har kompletterat inlärningen av låtar och solon och tydliggjort de faktorer jag tycker ha bidragit till mitt resultat. I den här studien har jag upptäckt olika speltekniska faktorer som kan bidra till att en pedal steel låter mer som en klarinett, framförallt hur jag gör mitt anslag för att få ett mjukare sound. I arbetets avslutande del behandlar jag mina frågeställningar och kommer fram till studiens styrkor respektive svagheter. På vissa områden har min metod visat sig vara mycket effektiv och på andra områden skulle metoden kunna utvecklas och förbättras.

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  • Lundström Thunderlin, Joacim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    A comparison between phantom center and a central loudspeaker source: How does the listener position affect the stereophonic image in contemporary sound reinforcement systems?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In live sound reinforcements scenarios, the majority of the audience is placed in a non- optimal listening position and will not experience the stereophonic image as intended by the mixing engineer. This study was conducted to examine the impact of a central loudspeaker source and phantom center, on the stereophonic image from different listening positions. Sixteen subjects, consisting of audio engineering students and professionals, were subjected to an optimal and non-optimal listening position and a three channel and stereo system, and was asked to estimate the perceived location of a stimulus, consisting of a 40 ms 1 kHz tone, placed on five different locations within the panorama. The results of these test were then summarized and analyzed by utilizing three t-tests in order to examine; the difference between perceived and intended location for each combination of system configuration and listening position, the difference between the listening positions and the difference between system configurations. The results show that a three-channel system is less affected by the listening position than a stereo system, indicating that a three-channel system can provide a more similar experience to audience members regardless of their listening position. However, the preference of system configuration is not examined and should be examined before making the claim that one system configuration is superior. The number of t-test conducted may also have impacted the results and provided a false significance. Subsequent studies could be made to confirm or reject the results of this study.

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  • Brännlund, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Standardisering av informationssäkerhet: Hur påverkar ett ledningssystem organisationen? En fallstudie hos ett svenskt SME2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi befinner oss idag i informationseran och i denna tidsålder ökar både tillgängligheten och riskerna med teknologin och den data den hanterar. Organisationer av alla typer och branscher står inför samma utmaning, att skydda deras verksamhetskritiska data från illvilliga aktörer. Genom att införa ett standardiserat arbetssätt för informationssäkerhet kan många risker minimeras för organisationer av alla storlekar. Denna studie ämnar beskriva hur en certifiering mot en internationell standard för informationssäkerhet leder till förändring av organisationen och ledningssystemet hos ett svenskt SMF (små och medelstora företag) inom IT-sektorn. Studien genomförs med en enskild fallstudie med en kvalitativ metodologi, datainsamling och analys. Teori för informationssäkerhet, risker, kontroller och standardisering står som grund för undersökningen och empirin ställd mot den i analysen. Studiens slutsatser är att det sker en viss förändring av organisationen vid införandet av en standard och ett ledningssystem. Det införlivas ett säkerhetstänk i alla processer och rutiner i verksamheten. Studien framför även vikten av att ett ledningssystem för informationssäkerhet är anpassat efter och införlivat i organisationen. Efterlevnaden av systemet är centralt eftersom om det inte efterlevs så är investeringen bortkastad och förändringen oväsentlig. Övergripande syn på fallstudieobjektets inställning till standardiserad informationssäkerhet är positiv. 

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  • Shao, Haidong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China.
    Lin, Jing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Zhang, Liangwei
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, China.
    Wei, Muheng
    ZhenDui Industry Artificial Intelligence Co., Ltd, Shenzhen, China.
    Compound fault diagnosis for a rolling bearing using adaptive DTCWPT with higher order spectra2020In: Quality Engineering, ISSN 0898-2112, E-ISSN 1532-4222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault diagnosis plays a vital role in prognostics and health management. Researchers have devoted their efforts in enhancing the accuracy of fault diagnosis. However, diagnosis of compound faults in complex systems is still a challenging task. The problem lies in the coupling of multiple signals, which may conceal the characteristics of compound faults. Taking a rolling bearing as an example, this study aims to boost the accuracy of compound fault diagnosis through a novel feature extraction approach to making the fault characteristics more discriminative. The approach proposes an adaptive dual-tree complex wavelet packet transform (DTCWPT) with higher order spectra analysis. To flexibly and best match the characteristics of the measured vibration signals under analysis, DTCWPT is first adaptively determined by the minimum singular value decomposition entropy. Then, higher order spectra analysis is performed on the decomposed frequency sensitive band for feature extraction and enhancement. The proposed approach is used to analyze experimental signals of a bearing’s compound faults and found effective.

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  • Kazan, Ibrahim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland studenter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness among young people is generally something that has tripled in the 2000s. Thisform of mental illness is usually expressed in the form of stress, anxiety and depression.(Socialstyrelsen, 2013) The group of young people who appear to be most exposed to thisconsists of students (Socialstyrelsen 2017; Folkhälsomyndigheten 2018).The purpose of this study was to be able to measure how widespread mental illness really isamong students through an interview with the school curator at Luleå University ofTechnology and a survey to find out why mental health is so prevalent among student.The questions that were prepared for both the survey and the interview with the curator areclosely linked, although the interview is more in-depth.The questions raised in the study were, have you ever experienced mental illness during yourstudy period and whether the students have experienced anxiety or stress. Consequently, thestudents had to answer what the causative factors were, as well as what the students do to bestrecover.The results of the study indicate that almost half of the students (47%) have experiencedmental illness during their studies. However, it is interesting that as many as 32 people (89%)responded that they had experienced the feeling of stress and anxiety during their studies. 32people (64%) of the students who thought they were experiencing stress and anxiety felt thatit was due to the studies.When asked what the students do to recover from mental illness or anxiety no one (0%)answered that they seek professional support in the form of a psychologist or student healthconsular. A bit over half of the people asked (58%) deal with it on their own while one of four(25%) choose to do nothing at all and let it pass. The results of the interview and surveys areto a large extent consistent.Mental illness is a fact among students at the same time as it is a major threat to positivedevelopment in society. The numbers are frightening both when it comes to the number ofstudents who are affected and when it comes to the number of students who are trying to seekprofessional help, mostly because of the prevailing stigma.

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  • Karlsson, Margarita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Jämförelse mellan halvlätt trä och tung betongkonstruktion i projektet Anläggaren 3: Koldioxidutsläpp, kostnad och inverkan av geografisk position på energiåtgång2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The house Anläggaren 3 was investigated for energy consumption, carbon dioxideemissions and investment cost by setting up the project as two types of construction. The first alternative wasa semi-light construction where the outer walls, the middle joists and the ceiling were of wood, while the second alternative was a heavy construction where thepreviously mentioned parts consisted of concrete.The chosen approach was to review energy needs through several calculations with theprogram IDA ICE. Climate impact was investigated with statistics from SMHI and severalenergy simulations with IDA ICE. The investment cost was generated with the Bidconprogram. More detailed data for the building components of the two constructions wasused in the energy calculation program.The semi-light wood construction for the Anläggaren 3 required less material than theconcrete construction to achieve almost the same U-values. The two design alternatives were hardly affected by geographical location differences and climate change, but energyconsumption had a more even profile for the southern cities than the northern ones. Aninvestment in the semi-light wood construction is preferable in Skellefteå as it is cheaper, takes less time and emits less carbon dioxide than the heavy concrete construction. Concrete is in its original condition better from the mold and fire safety point of view, often withstands more stress and be formed in some situations more than wood.

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  • Bood, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Acid retardation: recovery and recycling of acid and metal2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the production of steel, an oxide scale is formed on the surface and to achieve anadequate quality of the surface the scale needs to be removed. Acid pickling is a surfacetreatment where the oxide scale is removed by acid. Over time the amount of dissolved metals in the acid solution increases leading to a decrease in the pickling efficiency, hence the acid solution needs to be renewed.

    The renewing can be performed by an operation process called acid retardation. In this process, the spent pickling solution passes through a column packed with an ion exchange material, resin. The absorption of strong acids is preferred by the resin, hence the movement of the acids in the resin bed will be retarded relative to the movement of the metal ions. Regeneration of the resin occurs when water is passing through the resin bed counter current to the flow of the spent pickling solution. This generates a by-product with low acid and high metal content, and a product containing high acid and low metal.

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acid retardation with regards to separation efficiency and the behaviour of acid and metal in the column. The results can further be used as the groundwork for a deeper understanding of the acid retardation and how to optimize the process. Experiments were performed in lab-scale columns with synthetic spent pickling solutions containing sulfuric, nitric and hydrofluoric acid and iron in different mixtures. During the experimental work, variation of the acid and metal concentration, the type of resin and the height of the column were performed.

    The results from the experimental work show that a concentration dependence between the concentration of acid and metal exists and the performance of different resin types varies depending on the acid and metal solution tested. The height might also affect the separation, but it is recommended that this is further investigated. Other recommendations for further work with a focus on understanding the acid retardation for optimization include variations of the volume of solution added to the column, variation in flow rate and slurry packing of the resin.

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  • Pan, Fengjiao
    et al.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Zhengzhou Institute of Emerging Industrial Technology, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.
    Zhou, Le
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Zhengzhou Institute of Emerging Industrial Technology, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.
    Zeng, Shaojuan
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.
    Liu, Xue
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.
    Liu, Yanrong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Nie, Yi
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Zhengzhou Institute of Emerging Industrial Technology, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.
    离子液体/羊毛纤维/凝固剂三元相图的构建2020In: The Chinese Journal of Process Engineering, ISSN 1009-606XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary phase diagram is an available tool for investigating the thermodynamic behavior of wool fiber dissolution and wool keratin regeneration. In this work, the ternary phase diagram of ionic liquid (IL)/wool fiber/coagulator was constructed by experimental cloud point measurement and Boom empirical equation. The effects of coagulator types, coagulation temperatures, and structures of ILs on the properties of wool keratin regeneration were investigated systematically by linearized cloud point (LCP) correlation and ternary phase diagram. The result indicated that the best system for wool keratin regeneration was 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium diethylphosphate ([Emim]Dep)/wool fiber/water system at the coagulation temperature of 25℃. Characterization of the structures and properties showed that the main structure of the regenerated wool keratin basically agrees with the raw wool fiber. The highest crystallinity of the regenerated wool keratin was obtained from the system of [Emim]Dep/wool fiber/water (25℃).

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  • Shah, Faiz Ullah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Khan, Inayat Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comparing the Thermal and Electrochemical Stabilities of Two Structurally Similar Ionic Liquids2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 2388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we focus on the thermal and variable temperature electrochemical stabilities of two ionic liquids (ILs) having a common tributyloctyl phosphonium cation [P4,4,4,8]+ and two different orthoborate anions: bis(mandelato)borate [BMB] and bis(salicylato)borate [BScB]. The thermo-gravimetric analysis data suggest that [P4,4,4,8][BScB] is thermally more stable than [P4,4,4,8][BMB] in both nitrogen atmosphere and air, while the impedance spectroscopy reveals that [P4,4,4,8][BScB] has higher ionic conductivity than [P4,4,4,8][BMB] over the whole studied temperature range. In contrast, the electrochemical studies confirm that [P4,4,4,8][BMB] is more stable and exhibits a wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) on a glassy carbon electrode surface as compared to [P4,4,4,8][BScB]. A continuous decrease in the ESWs of both ILs is observed as a function of operation temperature.

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  • Islam, Raihan Ul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Critical Infrastructure and Societal Security.
    Inference and Multi-level Learning in a Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Predict Flooding2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floods are one of the most dangerous catastrophic events. By the year 2050 flooding due to rise of ocean level  may  cost  one  trillion USD to coastal cities. Since flooding involves multi-dimensional elements, its accurate prediction is difficult. In addition, the elements cannot be measured with 100% accuracy. Belief rule-based expert systems (BRBESs) can be considered as an appropriate approach to handle  this  type  of  problem  because they are capable of addressing  uncertainty. However, BRBESs need to be equipped with the capacity to handle multi- level learning and inference to improve its accuracy of flood prediction. Therefore, this paper proposes a new learning and inference mechanism, named joint optimization using belief rule- based adaptive differential evolution (BRBaDE) for multi-level BRBES, which has the capability to handle multi-level learning and inference. Various machine learning methods, including Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Regression and Long Short Term Memory have been compared with BRBaDE. The result exhibits that our proposed learning mechanism performs betters than learning techniques as mentioned above in terms of accuracy in flood prediction.

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  • Islam, Raihan Ul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Critical Infrastructure and Societal Security.
    A learning mechanism for BRBES using enhanced Belief Rule-Based Adaptive Differential Evolution2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, Belief rule-based expert systems (BRBESs) are widely used in various domains which provides a framework to handle qualitative and quantitative data by addressing several kinds of uncertainty. Learning plays an important role in BRBES to upgrade its knowledge base and parameters values, necessary for the improvement of  the prediction accuracy. Different optimal training procedures such as Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been used as learning mechanisms. Among these procedures, DE performs comparatively better than others. However, DE's performance depends significantly in assigning near optimal values to its control parameters including cross over and mutation factors. Therefore, the objective of this article is to present a novel optimal training procedure by integrating DE with BRBES. This is named as enhanced belief rule-based adaptive differential evolution (eBRBaDE) algorithm because it has the ability to determine the near-optimal values of both the control parameters while ensuring the balanced exploitation and exploration in the search space.  In addition, a new joint optimization learning mechanism by using eBRBaDE is presented where both parameter and structure of BRBES are considered.  The reliability of the eBRBaDE has been compared with evolutionary optimization algorithms such as GA, PSO, BAT, DE and L-SHADE. This comparison has been carried out by taking account of both conjunctive and disjunctive BRBESs while predicting the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) of a datacentre. The comparison demonstrates that the eBRBaDE provides higher prediction accuracy of PUE than from other evolutionary optimization algorithms.

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  • Backebjörk, Vanja
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Lundgren, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Nurses' experiences and challenges while caring for patients with mental disorders in the Gambia: a quantitative cross-sectional study2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The care for patients with mental disorders have changed and this has led to higher demands on nurses. Research is conducted globally within the subject and studies have shown that nurses enquire more theoretical knowledge and practical training. In the Gambia, nursing education is conducted by five different schools and the country has one psychiatric hospital. Purpose: To explore nurses’ experiences and challenges while caring for patients with mental disorders in the Gambia. Method: The study was conducted using a quantitative cross-sectional design. Result: The result showed that the respondents enquire more education, that the work is challenging and that the majority of respondents have experience of working with patients with mental disorders. Conclusions:  There is a need for internal education for nurses on their workplaces and more research within the subject.

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  • Liselott, Olofsson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Barn som väcker funderingar: En kvalitativ studie om hur förskollärare identifierar barn i behov av särskilt stöd2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens huvudsakliga syfte är att undersöka hur förskollärare identifierar barn i behov av särskilt stöd inom förskolans verksamhet, men även att höja medvetenheten kring detta viktiga ämne. Studien utgår ifrån en kvalitativ metod i form av enskilda intervjuer med förskollärare som arbetar i en förskoleverksamhet. Det material som samlats in har bearbetats utifrån Rennstam och Wästerfors (2015) dvs sortera, reducera och argumentera, samt tolkats och analyserats utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Resultatet av detta presenteras i resultatavsnittet i form av två huvudkategorier samt tre underkategorier utifrån studiens forskningsfrågor. Resultat visar att det finns betydande skillnader mellan förskollärarna gällande såväl kompetens i ämnet, som metoder för att identifiera barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Sammantaget visar resultatet att de barn som definieras av förskollärarna som ett barn i behov av särskilt stöd inte är någon klart avgränsad grupp, men att de ändå skiljer sig från majoriteten på något område exempelvis genom sociala svårigheter, fysiska eller psykiska svårigheter. Vidare visar det också att miljön kan ha stor betydelse för huruvida ett barn anses vara i behov av särskilts stöd eller i vilken omfattning de behövs.

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  • Strömsten, Eva-Lotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    CDIO-modellen som stöd för teknikundervisning på gymnasiet2020Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta utvecklingsarbete har varit att utveckla och testa en arbetsmetod som baserar sig på CDIO-modellen, vilket är en modell för att utveckla tekniska utbildningar. Namnet CDIO står för: Conceive, Design, Implement och Operate. CDIO-modellen innebär att inte bara elevernas ämneskunskap ska utvecklas, utan även deras färdigheter och förmågor, vilket dem kommer ha nytta utav i sina framtida yrkesroller.

    Med stöd av CDIO-modellen har en hel lektionsserie i kursen Teknik 2 på gymnasiet genomförts. Det är framförallt vid planering och framtagande av lärandemålen för lektionsserien som CDIO-modellen har varit till stort stöd.

    Resultatet från lektionsserien visade på att majoriteten av eleverna utvecklade sina tekniska ämneskunskaper, samt sina färdigheter och förmågor. De praktiska färdigheterna testades även vid den slutliga examinationen där alla elever utom en uppvisade goda praktiska kunskaper.

    Den stora utmaningen vid arbetet enligt CDIO-modellen är att det kräver mycket planering och förberedelse, vilket kan tänkas innebära att det är svårt att applicera den fullt ut om ej tillräckligt med tid finns. När väl arbetet för ett kursmoment är genomfört finns det dock goda möjligheter att återanvända och förbättra det vid planering av kommande lektionsmoment.

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  • Hedberg, P. A. M.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. G. I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andreasson, P.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Andersson, A. G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Angele, K.
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby, Sweden .
    Andersson, L. R.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical modelling of flow in parallel spillways2020In: Proceedings of the 8th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures ISHS2020, The University of Queensland , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical modelling of single spillways is well documented in literature. For parallel spillways however, there is a lack of documented, verified, and validated cases. Here, in this article, ANSYS-CFX is used to simulate the flow over three parallel ogee-crested spillways. For mesh size verification, a grid convergence study is performed by Richardson extrapolation. The turbulence model chosen for this simulation is the k-ε model and the volume of fluid method is used to simulate the water-air interface. This article details the models ability to accurately predict flow distribution at the spillways, and the water levels. The mesh is kept relatively coarse at the channel inlet with increased mesh density at the spillways. The results are validated against experimental data from Vattenfall AB, R&Ds laboratories. The geometry and boundary conditions of the experiment are tailored for CFD. The flow rate of each spillway is measured separately with high accuracy, and for several different inlet volumetric flows. The simulation results lie within the error estimates of the measuring tools used in the experiments, within ±1%. The volume flow rate differences between the three outlets is very small, within ±1%.

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  • Frojd-Wasberg, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    The interrelations between audio compression and graphical texture detail in video games: How they affect players perception of quality2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For this study three questions are being studied. Question one: “How does the audio compressionaffect the perceived video quality?” Question two is somewhat reversed: “How does the texturedetail affect the perceived audio quality?” The final question follows: “How do the audiocompression and texture detail affect the perceived overall quality?” The experiment was done on 36different untrained listeners, whereof 2 didn’t give complete answers and were therefore notincluded in the results. In total the result was based on 34 test subjects. Subjects participating in theexperiment had to play through three levels, one level for each research question. In each levelsubjects evaluated the game’s different qualities. In one level only the texture detail changed (LevelVV), in the other only audio compression rate changed (Level AA) and in the third both audiocompression and texture detail changed (Level AV). The texture detail ranged from low to medium tohigh setting, while the audio compression had four different levels ranging from 49 kbit/s to 150kbit/s, in the compressed format of ogg vorbis. The result shows that subjects did not perceive animprovement in quality in either of the single quality tests, i.e. levels AA and VV. In the last level withmultiple changing stimuli (AV), subjects could identify the lower video quality from medium and high.Subjects also showed a significant difference in perceived overall quality in the AV level, subjectsshowed that they could identify a difference in audio quality better, when video quality was on thelow setting.

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  • Larsson, Angelicca
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Magnusson, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Det är inte publiken, det är retoriken!: En kvalitativ studie om retoriken på Dagens Nyheter och Svenska Dagbladets Facebook-sidor2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has analysed how the Swedish newspapers Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet

    are using rhetorical instruments in their Facebook posts. To examine this, 50 posts from each

    newspaper has been chosen based on the number of interactions. The posts were divided into

    three parts: text, image and headline and have been analysed separately. Initially the images were

    analysed semiotics to make it possible to analyse all three parts by the neo-classical analysis

    model. This has been investigated for the reason to find out if the convergence has had an impact

    on the language Swedish newspapers are using on Facebook. This study has four issues: how is

    the rhetorical appeals used in the Facebook posts? How is the stylistic devices used in the

    Facebook posts? What rhetorical patterns are possible to identify by the analysed material? And

    how can these patterns be interpreted in the context of convergence theory? This study is based

    on theories about rhetoric, semiotic and convergence.

    The results of the study show that the convergence has contributed to how Dagens Nyheter and

    Svenska Dagbladet have adapted the language to the changed media landscape on the internet

    that is increasingly based on emotions. Using emotions, the newspapers can make the audience

    interact.

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  • Lindqvist, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Skapa vikänsla: Ett arbete om förbättrat klassrumsklimat för bättre förutsättningar för lärande2020Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Alrasheedi, Khlood Ghalib
    et al.
    Department of Geospatial, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia..
    Lue, Gang June
    Department of Geospatial, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia..
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    Department of Geospatial, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia..
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    GIS-based Spatial Accessibility to Islamic Facilities for Muslim Community in the Melbourne Metropolitan Area2020In: Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 49-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has not been widely used in Islamic facilities including mosques, Islamic schools and halal butchers, and is an important issue for the Muslim communities in Melbourne, Australia. This study applied spatial methods to analyze the spatial accessibility to Muslim facilities of the population in Melbourne city. Spatial accessibility is needed because Muslim people believe that they must pray in the mosques, buy halal food and educate their children in Islamic environment. Therefore, this study aimed to (i) identify spatial accessibility by car to the above-mentioned Muslim facilities and (ii) identify disadvantaged Muslim communities and facilities using census data at the fine spatial resolution (i.e. at Mesh Block level). The disadvantaged Muslim commonalities in the Melbourne Metropolitan Area (MMA) were delineated in GIS environment using such techniques as spatial and hot spot analysis, network analysis, mean center and standard distance methods by using ArcGIS 10.3. The spatial accessibility was assessed in terms of travel distance and time, to highlight their differences. This study highlighted the most affected Muslim communities in terms of spatial accessibility, which are located in Hume, Whittlesea, and Melton and Casey suburbs. Furthermore, this study stressed that there is a lack of Mosques and Islamic Schools in the MMA, as approximately 5,000 Muslims do not have proper access to this kind of facilities. The findings of this study could be used by Muslim community when choosing a suburb for their families. Therefore, it is recommended that the urban and regional planners should take the obtained results into consideration to achieve fair and better distribution of Islamic facilities in Melbourne city.

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  • Sissakian, V. K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler ‒ School of Science and Engineering, Natural Resource Engineering Department, Erbil, KRG, Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist, 245/7/404, Erbil, Ainkawa, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdulahad, A. D.
    Retired Chief Geologist, 245/7/404, Ainkawa, Iraq.
    Indicating the Possibility of Activation of Large and Old Landslides and Risk Estimation Using Remote Sensing and Field Data, Examples from the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq2020In: Geotectonics, ISSN 0016-8521, E-ISSN 1556-1976, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 240-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Majority of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region is a mountainous area with relief differences that attain up to 1000 m, and locally more. The presence of dense net of rivers, streams and large valleys with diverse lithologies have initiated hundreds of mass movements of different types and sizes, active and dormant. In the current study, we have selected different landslides from different parts of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. In all selected cases, the landslides have shifted the facing rivers, streams or valleys. The slid masses are of hard and thick carbonates and/or claystones; however, clastic rocks are encountered too. At each studied landslide, we have presented the satellite image, detailed description of the geology, size of the involved area, cause of the slide, marking the original trace of the shifted river, stream or valley; if still exists. We have performed field work for some of them and presented more detailed data and field photos. Moreover, we have applied Landslide Possibility Index (LPI) at each case to indicate the possibility of re-activation or otherwise.

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  • Säll, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Luftsluss mellan vårdavdelningar på sjukhus: En funktionskontroll avseende brandgasspridning vid utrymning av vårdlokal genom luftslussar2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For the past 70 years the safety protection of new and old construction has become very substantially, especially regarding fire protection. In form of fire protection, one of the most protective buildings is hospitals. In Sweden, hospitals has a generally high safe protection. People that are visiting the hospital could be visitors, victims or even anesthetized so the fire safety is important.

     

    The purpose of this report is to investigate if the airlock functions at Swedish hospitals between different care sections fulfill the regulations. A literature study was made to understand why the regulations regarding airlocks at hospitals are formed the way they are. It resulted in that the regulations regarding airlocks haven’t been changed for the past 25 years. The report continued with a visit to a local hospital. An evacuation with hospital beds was made to gather information to the CFD calculations to know how the airlock doors was operating. The process was to start the evacuation based on a timer and stop the clock when the staff returned through the first door of the airlock and waited for the door to close.

     

    A room was programmed in Pyrosim based on a real hospital section with an airlock that connected two rooms. The programming was based on the evacuation. Totally there were six CFD calculations with three different cases. Two different effects was used to illustrate the fire. A 800 kW hospital bed fire and two with the effect of 5 MW, one with sprinkler and the other without. The purpose of the data analysis was to investigate smoke movements and penetration within hospital facilities.

     

    The data calculations showed that all 6 of the cases failed and smoke was penetrated through the airlock. Only one of the cases was able to withstand to 300 seconds and the other one failed at the first passage.

     

    The results shows that there are a deficiency in the current regulation accordning the fire safety. An alternative that is used today when projecting a hospital, is to replace the airlock with a door and pressurize the room next door so that the smoke won’t spread as fast. Although pressurized rooms are used today, they need to be tested if they work. And if they do, be replacing the currently used airlocks.

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  • Turner, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Petrography, alteration and structure of the Bronäs Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Bergslagen, Sweden2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to characterize the alteration styles and mineralization of the Zn-Pb-Ag Bronäs deposit, in the Sala area of the Bergslagen mining district, Sweden.  It presents data collected through 237m of lithological logging and subsequent lithogeochemical data, which, coupled with thin section and SEM analysis has led to the first geological descriptions of the rocks in the deposit.  The results are presented in the report through logs and a cross-section interpreted from these logs. 

    The Bronäs deposit, mined between 1945 and 1962, is a satellite deposit to the well-known Sala mine, and similarly to the Sala deposit, it is hosted within an extensive marble unit interbedded with layers of felsic volcaniclastic material.  The rocks in the area have first been dolomitized and then undergone regional metamorphism to greenschist facies at 1.87 Ga.  There is a large granitic batholith to the south and east of the deposit, and a thin porphyritic intrusion with a complex geometry closely spatially associated with the mineralization. 

    The marble unit is the host unit for the mineralization and is the most commonly occurring rock type in the study area.  It is commonly quite impure and variably skarn altered throughout, with common gangue minerals including serpentine, chlorite, tremolite, diopside and phlogopite.  The mineralized sections of the marble are spatially related to the skarn-rich areas of marble, and common sulphides include pyrite, galena and sphalerite.

    The interbedded volcaniclastic beds have a rhyolitic composition, and also contain Mg-silicates such as chlorite, tremolite and phlogopite, giving them a green colour too.  The contacts between volcaniclastic and marble beds is often marked by contact skarns. 

    The porphyritic intrusion has a granodioritic composition.  It exhibits chilled margins, and the contact between it and the marble is often marked by increased skarn alteration in the marble.  The feldspar crystals in the unit are zoned, with a white outer rim and a green to yellow sericitic core.

    The cross section shows that all the units are steeply dipping to the south-west, with steeply dipping stratabound lenses of mineralization in the marble, sub-parallel to the volcaniclastic beds in the north east.  The south-western part of the section is thick uninterrupted marble.  Lithogeochemical results have been divided into two groups – a distal group within this thick marble, and a proximal group close to the mineralization and volcaniclastic beds.

    The proximal zone is enriched in SiO2 and Al2O3 and depleted in FeO, MnO and MgO relative to the distal zone.  The Mn and Mg values are enriched when compared to regional levels however.  The proximal zone also contains more Pb, Zn, Ag, As and Sb than the distal zone, but contains lower amounts of Au and Cu than the distal zone.  There is one hotspot in the distal zone which contains high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ag, Au, Cu and Sb.

    The chemical signature is similar to the mined ore at Sala.  The common occurrence of Fe, Mg and Mn-bearing skarn minerals near the mineralization suggests these elements should be higher in the mineralized zone, but skarn minerals are common throughout the study area, and the high levels of Si and Al in the mineralization zone could be diluting the other oxides. 

    The lenses of mineralization are closely spatially related to the porphyritic intrusion however the intrusion is relatively minor in terms of size and is younger and unaltered.  It could have followed an existing fault which was related to the mineralization though.  Various examples of sulphide replacement and retrograde alteration can be seen, such as galena replacing amphiboles and barite. 

    The similarity in mineralogy between regional metamorphic calc-silicates and ore-related skarn minerals makes it hard to differentiate between the two, however the presence of high temperature clinopyroxene indicates the deposit is likely a prograde metasomatic skarn deposit.  This is backed up by a similar calc-silicate assemblage, mineralization style and replacement textures to those associated with skarn deposits.  It is also spatially related to magmatism with mineralization occurring along lithological contacts.

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  • Fredriksson, Julia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing and Medical technology.
    Grundström, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing and Medical technology.
    Patienters upplevelser av att vårdas på akutmottagningen: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att drabbas av akut sjukdom är fysiskt och psykiskt påfrestande för den enskilda individen. Akutmottagningen är ofta den första kontakten patienten har med vården. Många människor som besöker akutmottagningen är svårt sjuka eller skadade. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva patienters upplevelser av att vårdas på akutmottagningen. Aktuell forskning söktes fram i två databaser. Elva artiklar kvalitetsgranskades med hjälp av SBU:s granskningsmall och bedömdes hålla medel till hög kvalitet. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys med manifest ansats utfördes. Detta resulterade i fyra kategorier; “Att kommunikation och tillräcklig information är värdefullt”, “Att vara tvungen att vänta länge”, “Att inte känna sig sedd och tagen på allvar”och ”Att känna sig sedd och lyssnad på. Resultatet visade hur betydelsefullt information och kommunikation var för vårdupplevelsen på akutmottagningen. Många patienter delade upplevelsen av att väntan var en stor del i att vårdas på akutmottagningen. Sjuksköterskan behöver beakta det humanistiska perspektivet och se till människan som en helhet för att kunna skapa sig förståelse ur ett patientperspektiv.

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  • Hermansson, Agnes
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing and Medical technology.
    Skaf, Elena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing and Medical technology.
    Återintegrering efter obstetrisk fisteloperation: En integrerad litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Obstetrisk fistel beskrivs som en abnormal gång mellan vaginan och urinblåsan och/eller rektum, där urin och/eller avföring läcker ut okontrollerat. Den vanligaste orsaken till utvecklandet av obstetrisk fistel är en dystoki. Att drabbas av obstetrisk fistel innebär en stor risk att bli stigmatiserad samt att det är ett tillstånd som är förödande för kvinnors välbefinnande, mentala hälsa och liv. För att en kvinna ska kunna återgå till det liv hon levde innan utvecklandet av obstetrisk fistel så krävs en återintegrering. Syftet med studien var att beskriva faktorer som påverkar kvinnors återintegrering efter korrektiv operation för obstetrisk fistel. Denna studie har utgått ifrån en integrerad metodartikel med en induktiv ansats, där studien har utgått ifrån syftet utan något teoretiskt ramverk. Analysen resulterade i fyra kategorier, hälsa, stöd, ekonomi och kunskap. Resultatet visade att en lyckad korrektiv operation underlättade kvinnors återintegrering tillsammans med stöd från familj och samhälle. Dock fanns det en stor risk för kvinnor utan stöd att ha fortsatta och djupare depressioner. Kvinnorna kunde inte åstadkomma en lyckad återintegrering om de inte fick tid och stöd för att återhämta sig. Detta gällde också ekonomiskt stöd. Denna litteraturöversikt kan tillföra en ökad förståelse till sjukvårdspersonal som arbetar med denna patientgrupp, för hur obstetrisk fistel påverkar kvinnor samt vilka faktorer som påverkar kvinnors återintegrering.

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  • Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Forsberg, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Faktorer i sjuksköterskans organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljö som påverkar patientsäkerheten: En systematisk litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Patientsäkerhet är en viktig del inom hälso- och sjukvården eftersom att patientsäkerhet har en avgörande betydelse för vårdens kvalité. En hög patientsäkerhet är en förutsättning för att kunna ge en god och säker vård. Patientsäkerhet är ett ständigt aktuellt ämne som berör många, både hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal, patienter men även samhället. Att arbeta patientsäkert och följa evidensbaserad kunskap är viktigt för att kunna förhindra riskfyllda situationer där vårdskador kan inträffa. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att sammanställa kunskap om vilka faktorer i sjuksköterskans organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljö som påverkar patientsäkerheten. Metod: Studien genomfördes och utformades som en systematisk litteraturöversikt med utgångspunkt från två frågeställningar: Vilka faktorer i den organisatoriska arbetsmiljön påverkar patientsäkerheten? samt vilka faktorer i den sociala arbetsmiljön påverkar patientsäkerheten? Fjorton vetenskapliga artiklar, med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats analyserades. Resultat: Flera faktorer i sjuksköterskans organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljö kunde påverka patientsäkerheten. Faktorer i den organisatoriska arbetsmiljön var bemanning, arbetsbelastning, kompetens, arbetslivserfarenhet, återhämtning och trötthet. Faktorer i den sociala arbetsmiljön var samarbete, kommunikation och säkerhetskultur. Slutsats: Det fanns ett samband mellan patientsäkerhet och sjuksköterskans arbetsmiljö. Åtgärder bör vidtas i den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön. Det kan handla om att sjukvårdsledningen och chefer uppmärksammar brister i arbetsmiljön och vidtar relevanta åtgärder för att förbättra patientsäkerheten och uppkomsten av vårdskador. Det kan även handla om att sjuksköterskorna synliggör brister i arbetsmiljön som kan påverka patientsäkerheten negativt. Det är även viktigt att belysa de aspekter i arbetsmiljön som påverkar patientsäkerheten positivt för att kunna utveckla patientsäkerhetsarbetet.

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  • Larsson Hammarlund, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Lappalainen Rollert, Oliwer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    “När du är märkt med epilepsi, stängs alla dörrar”: En litteraturstudie om upplevelsen av att leva med epilepsi2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Epilepsi är en kronisk neurologisk sjukdom som förekommer över hela världen. Epilepsi yttrar sig genom olika former av anfall som kan innebära kramper, medvetslöshet, muskelryckningar, utöver det är sjukdomen många gånger helt osynlig. Epilepsi påverkar det dagliga livet för den drabbade, närstående blir också påverkade av denna sjukdom. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva upplevelser av att leva med epilepsi. I litteraturstudien analyserades fjorton vetenskapliga studier med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Beskrivningen av upplevelserna av att leva med epilepsi formulerades i sex kategorier. I litteraturstudien framkom det att personer kände sig rädda och oroliga för att få ett anfall eller diagnosen, de upplevde även begränsningar och restriktioner, de kände sig märkta och behandlade annorlunda. Personerna upplevde sig även som en börda då dem hade ett behov av stöd från sin omgivning, och upplevde en förändrad vardag på grund av sjukdomen. Till slut lärde sig personerna att acceptera sin sjukdom. Genom en ökad kunskap och djupare förståelse för upplevelser av sjukdomen kan sjuksköterskan bättre anpassa omvårdnadsåtgärder och på så vis ge en patientcentrerad omvårdnad för att främja både livskvalitet och hälsa hos denna patientgrupp.

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  • Larsson, Lisette
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Datorspel i undervisningen: En analys av hur intrigen i The Witcher 2: Assassins of kings kan användas i svenskundervisningen2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Analysens syfte var att presentera om ett datorspel kan betraktas som en berättande text, hur ett datorspel skiljer sig från andra berättande texter, samt hur datorspelet The Witcher 2: Assassins of kings (2011) kan användas som en berättande text i gymnasieämnet svenska. Analysarbetet genomfördes genom att spela datorspelet, skriva loggbok och spela in spel-tillfällena. För att klargöra om datorspelet kan betraktas som en berättande text använde jag mig av forskning som definierar en berättande text. Sedan jämförde jag datorspelets berättelse mot forsknings-resultaten. Gällande användningen i gymnasieämnet svenska reflekterade jag över Skol-verkets formuleringar i det centrala innehållet för kurserna. Resultatet som jag kunde utläsa var att datorspel kan betraktas som berättande text och är möjliga att använda i gymnasieämnet svenska. Beträffande skillnaderna från andra berättande texter är ett The Witcher 2 ett icke-linjärt datorspel med interaktiva inslag, vilket innebär att berättelsen kräver större engagemang från en spelare i jämförelse med en läsare.

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  • Lundberg, Carolin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Lärplattan i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om lärplattans roll i förskolan2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie är att beskriva såväl användningen av lärplattan i förskolan som användningens betydelse för interaktion, delaktighet och lärande i förskoleverksamheten. Vidare kommer de pedagogiska möjligheter och utmaningar som följer med lärplattans användning i förskolan att diskuteras. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod, där intervjuer och videoobservationer gjordes på två olika avdelningar på en förskola. Resultatet i studien visar på att det finns flera olika sätt att arbeta med lärplattan i förskolan. Resultatet ger också exempel på hur interaktionen mellan lärplattan, barnen och förskollärararen kan se ut. Förskollärarna i studien lyfter att lärplattan går att använda som verktyg till exempelvis dokumentation eller till att stötta barnens språkutveckling.

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  • Patel, Alok
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Assessment of Fatty Acids Profile and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Production by the Oleaginous Marine Thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. T66 Cultivated on Volatile Fatty Acids2020In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thraustochytrids are considered natural producers of omega-3 fatty acids as they can synthesize up to 70% docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) of total lipids. However, commercial and sustainable production of microbial DHA is limited by elevated cost of carbon substrates for thraustochytrids cultivation. This problem can be addressed by utilizing low-cost renewable substrates. In the present study, growth, lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of the marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. T66 (ATCC-PRA-276) cultivated on volatile fatty acids (C1, formic acid; C2, acetic acid; C3, propionic acid; C4, butyric acid; C5, valeric acid and C6, caproic acid) and glucose as control were evaluated for the first time. This strain showed an inability to utilize C3, C5 and C6 as a substrate when provided at >2 g/L, while efficiently utilizing C2 and C4 up to 40 g/L. The highest cell dry weight (12.35 g/L) and total lipid concentration (6.59 g/L) were attained when this strain was cultivated on 40 g/L of butyric acid, followed by cultivation on glucose (11.87 g/L and 5.34 g/L, respectively) and acetic acid (8.70 g/L and 3.43 g/L, respectively). With 40 g/L butyric acid, the maximum docosahexaenoic acid content was 2.81 g/L, corresponding to 42.63% w/w of total lipids and a yield of 0.23 g/gcell dry weight (CDW). This marine oleaginous microorganism showed an elevated potential for polyunsaturated fatty acids production at higher acetic and butyric acid concentrations than previously reported. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy revealed that growth on butyric acid caused cell size to increase to 45 µm, one of the largest values reported for oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the presence of numerous tiny lipid droplets.

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