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  • Dil, Ammara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Multiscale Analysis of Multifunctional Composites2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional polymer composites are highly demanding due to their high strength and stiffness, low weight, easy processing and corrosion resistance. However, their weak out of plane properties restricts their use in high performance applications, such as aerospace, military and automotive components. The exceptional mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of carbon nanotubes offer great potential to improve out of plane properties of the fibre reinforced composites and imparts multifunctionality. This thesis work focuses on investigating different properties of multiscale composite such as, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties under cyclic loading conditions. One important aim of this project work is to study  relationship between the nanotube concentration and the resulting properties of the multiscale composites. The multiscale composites characterized in this thesis work are manufactured by two different ways, (1) by depositing MWCNTs on carbon fibre via Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process and then the final manufacturing by resin transfer moulding and (2) by mixing MWCNTs in resin and manufacturing multiscale composite by hand lay-up.  The electrical conductivity of multiscale composites was tested at different lengths, currents, nanotube content and alignment voltages. The electrical conductivity measurements performed at different sample lengths showed that the conductivity strongly depends on length along which it is measured. All samples showed lower conductivity values at longer lengths and higher at smaller lengths. The matrix doped multiscale composites did not show any enhancement in conductivity due to improperly dispersed nanotubes whereas in fibre doped multiscale composites, the enhancement in conductivity was insignificant compared to the reference sample. However, a percolation threshold is observed at 0.005% MWCNTs content. This sample showed highest conductivity among multiscale composites. The results from mechanical characterization showed that thin 90°ply composite perform better under cyclic loading conditions by delaying matrix microcracking. Among the multiscale composites, the sample with 0.005% nanotubes showed enhanced interfacial shear strength by delaying microcracking.

  • Pålstam, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Digitala hjälpmedel för granskning och prövning av bygglovshandlingar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Politically speaking, Sweden has an ambition to be at the forefront of digitization, meanwhile neighboring countries such as Norway and Denmark are ahead in the field. The goals of the digitization are to facilitate communication with interested parties and to increase both quality and efficiency in municipal work. However, there is no common guidance for how the digitalization should be done within the municipalities, which results in different municipalities making different choices.

    The common requirements that must be met for obtaining a building permit include BBR 3:1 and 3:2, as well as detailed plans and area regulations. Previous studies have focused on digital detailed plans and the possibility of testing BIM models against these requirements. The studies investigated the IFC file formats suitability for BIM-based building permit documents.

    In Luleå municipality, which uses the common application service Mittbygge.se, building permit documents are submitted in many different file formats and with varying quality. This can be a consequence of the fact that legally, there is a lack of clear guidelines for what building permit documents must contain and how they should be designed.

    The purpose of this thesis was to map, evaluate and compare the software that Sweden's municipalities use to review and test building permits. To fulfill the purpose, different software for viewing and testing digital building permits were examined in the context of design requirements for accessibility in BBR 3:1. Through interpretation and concretisation of legal text, the requirements that are examined in the building permit stage were simplified. An evaluation model was then created for the software based on the simplified laws and the analog tools commonly used. The template was used to evaluate and compare the software that the municipalities use. In addition, the software's interoperability with BIM were evaluated.

    Among Sweden's municipalities, at least 5 different software are being used for viewing and testing building permits, 2 of them lack at least one necessary function for testing a building permit act against BBR 3:1. According to the evaluation model, DWG TrueView and Bluebeam revu stood out as best suited for this purpose. These software have all the functions needed for viewing and testing building permits according to the evaluation model. Also, the software are compatible with building permits on various BIM-levels.

    With the Solibri Model Checker software, it is possible to test BIM models against legal requirements automatically to a certain extent. However, the software is dependent on advanced BIM models rather than regular building permit documents, something that would make the building permit application unreasonably difficult for citizens. Additionally, some of the requirements are based on soft values which makes them difficult to automate.

    The majority of Sweden’s municipalities have started their digitization process in regards to building permits. In some municipalities, the citizens and the companies have not yet been able to adapt to the municipality's digital building permit management. In other municipalities, they have just begun to receive digital building permits documents recently.

  • Kokkonen, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Förskollärares arbete med barn som har koncentrationssvårigheter2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersökte förskollärares beskrivningar av hur de arbetar med barn som har koncentrationssvårigheter och på vilket sätt förskollärare skapar delaktighet för barn i de vardagliga aktiviteterna. För att kunna besvara syfte och frågeställningar användes en kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer. Intervjuerna var semistrukturerade och utfördes med tre yrkesverksamma förskollärare från två olika förskolor inom samma kommun. Resultatet visade att det dominerande arbetet med barn som har koncentrationssvårigheter är förberedelser innan eller efter en aktivitet. Förskollärarna använder sig även av olika kommunikationsformer om barnen har svårigheter med det verbala språket. Resultatet visade att förskollärarna anser att barn som har koncentrationssvårigheter har svårt med socialt samspel. För att skapa en god delaktighet i gruppen visade studien att arbete med barnkonventionen, pedagogisk dokumentation och mindre grupper är fördelaktigt.

  • Bergh, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Blir alla barns röster hörda ?: En studie om specialpedagogiskt stöd i förskolan med fokus på alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation (AKK)2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka användningen av det specialpedagogiska stödet alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation (AKK) i förskolan och undersöka hur detta stöd var utformat och anpassat för barn som har kommunikationssvårigheter. Forskningen visade att de barn som är i behov av specialpedagogiskt stöd i förskolan främst är barn som har kommunikationssvårigheter. Det framkommer även i litteraturen att förskolans styrdokument är otydliga i sina formuleringar i hur det specialpedagogiska stödet ska vara utformat. Jag besökte en språkförskola där jag genomförde en kvalitativ intervju med en förskollärare som hade erfarenhet av AKK. Jag utförde även en observation som metod i undersökningen för att ta reda på vilka AKK-former som var synliga i förskolans miljö. Enligt resultatet är det mycket som talar för att förskolan har anpassat förskolemiljön efter barnens behov och förutsättningar, framförallt utifrån hur förskolan utformat det specialpedagogiska stödet AKK. Det förekommer kompensatoriska insatser men mycket av det pedagogiska lärandet tyder också på inkludering och miljöanpassning vilket det kritiska perspektivet framhåller. Detta kan också tolkas som att förskolan förhåller sig till ett dilemmaperspektiv, där man finner en mellanväg mellan dessa två perspektiv.

  • Norberg, Felicia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gestaltningsförslag: Ett hamnkontor från 1900 får ny verksamhet: En studie ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv om hur kulturhistoriska byggnader kan bidra till besöksnäring och ortsidentitet genom att få en ny verksamhet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The process where people move from rural areas to cities is called urbanization. This has been ongoing in Sweden for a long time. About 200 years ago, 90% of the population lived in rural areas, today 85% live in cities (SCB, 2015).While new buildings are being added, older buildings are taken out of service and this affects the conditions for the preservation of older buildings (Boverket 2007, 15). This will have consequences for how we in the future can relate and understandour history (Sveriges miljömål, 2017). But one of the Swedish parliaments goals is to create a sustainable development, which has made the cultural environment to a usefulresource. It can become an important part of sustainable developmentin both an ecological, social and economic perspective (RAÄ [a], u.å.).The municipality of Kramfors,together with neighboring municipalities,runs a development projectcalled “The tourismindustry of the High Coast -a journey in spaceand time"where the purpose is to tell theindustrial and cultural history of the area and increase tourism in the High Coast and Ådalen. One of the purposes with this master thesiswas topresenta conceptual design proposal for therebuilding and extension of an old harborofficebuildingfrom 1900, located by the river in Öds kaj, Kramfors. Öds kajis one of the nodes inthe development project and the historical harbor buildingcan become the attraction ofthe area.The main purpose of the thesis was to investigate, from a sustainability perspective, how a culture-historicalbuilding, by gaining a new function, can strengthen the socialidentity and contribute to tourism industry in a smaller town. This while respectingthe cultural-historical aspects of the building.Initially, a literature study was made from which information about cultural historical valuation was obtained. With Axel Unnerbäck's (2002) model as support, an analysis was made of the harboroffice's cultural-historical values. The building-historical andsocial-historical values were considered to be the main motive for preserving the building. They were strengthened by the basic motives: architectural value, identity value, industrial history value, patina and social-historical value.Asite analysis and a needs study were conducted in order to mapconditions and needs. In the next step, Peña and Parshall's (2001) method Problem Seekingwasused, where the purposewasto identifyfactors that wouldaffectthe designprocess.Before designing the proposal, a general description of possible future functions/ businesseswas made to decidethe most suitable for the buildingand the area. Based on needsacafé and restaurantbusinesseswas chosen.Beforedevelopingthefinaldesign proposal, a consequence analysiswasmade of three early sketches toexamine the impacton thecultural history values. The final result includesabuilding extension that, through a glass link, marks and respectsthe volume, materials and colorsof the original building.The conclusion of this thesis is that the aspects identity value, tourismindustry and sustainability are strongly interconnected. Sustainability involves the preservation of our cultural-historical heritage, which in a first step is made possible through cultural-historical valuation. The inheritance is in turn important for local identity valuesand tourismindustry, and thus crucialfor anotherpart of sustainability.Furthermore, the conclusion isthat processesand methodsusedin this master thesisare applicable to similar projects where a cultural-historical building willget a new function or business.

  • Stenvinkel, Christelle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Ahlén, Ängelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    "Klickokratin" och de vita fläckarna: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om journalistikens demokratiska roll och framtid2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism is a part of the foundation of a democracy and is responsible for giving a wide view of the society, examining the authorities and making sure to give a nuanced picture of reality. With the rapid flow of information given to us by the digital media, journalism has gained tremendous competition from third parties and private individuals. At the same time, surveys have been carried out where politicians and press secretaries find that journalists today are unable to cover reality to the extent that would be desired. The economic situation has meant that many local offices have had to be closed down, which has contributed to white spots that are no longer covered in Sweden. In this survey, semi-structured interviews were conducted with parliamentary politicians, journalists and press secretaries in the political arena to get answers on how they view the journalism's democratic role, the future of journalism and how digitalization has affected journalism. The answers were thematised and analyzed against theories of media convergence, journalism's democratic role and political communication. In several themes that were found among the answers, there is consensus in the interviewees' answers and opinions questions. For example, journalism faces major challenges in the future in a society with easy ways of disseminating disinformation, and that journalists themselves need to find the solution to preserve their relevance and credibility.

  • Sundvall, Denise
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Harila, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Rise of The Robots: En innehållsanalys om representation av virtuella influencers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks representationen av virtuella influencers och interaktionen mellan publiken. Syftet med undersökningen är att få en djupare förståelse för detta nya fenomen som idag växer på sociala medier, och framför allt Instagram. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna som ligger som grund för undersökningen är hyperrealitet, identitet och personas, semiotik och representation. Metoderna som används för att analysera materialet är en kvalitativ innehållsanalys samt en semiotisk analys. I genomförandet av den kvalitativa innehållsanalysen (publikens kommentarer) identifierades följande teman; hyllningar/kritik, politik och realitet. I den semiotiska analysen identifierades tre andra teman, dessa var livsstil, politik och relationer (bilder och bildtexter från de virtuella influencers). Resultatet av undersökningen visade att beroende på influencer, bilder och bildtexter var variationen stor mellan hur publiken tog emot materialet. Det gick också att se en stor skillnad i den semiotiska analysen mellan de olika virtuella influencers som undersöktes. 

  • Lotfian, Samira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Vikström, Tommy
    Boliden Mineral AB, Skelleftehamn, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Plastic-containing materials as alternative reductants for base metal production2019In: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shredder residue materials are produced after the removal of ferrous and non-ferrous fractions from end-of-life electronic equipment. Despite the high plastic content and metal value in the ash, high percentages of these materials are currently sent to landfills. In this study, the potential of utilising shredder residue material and other plastic-containing materials as reducing agents was studied. Plastic-containing materials were co-injected with coal into a zinc-fuming furnace in Boliden-Rönnskär smelter. The data obtained from the trial, such as the data from the chemical analysis of the slag and the steam production, are discussed. The observations indicate that plastic-containing material can replace up to 1 ton h−1 of coal without a significant decrease in the zinc reduction rate.

  • Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Cenamor, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Digital Platforms to Enable Servitization: How leading manufacturers leverage digitalization to provide advanced services2018In: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2001-208X, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish manufacturing firms are increasingly adopting pioneering digital technologies and analytics to support advanced service provision in an attempt to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. This article explains how a platform approach to digitalization can help manufacturers achieve both customization and operational efficiency in advanced service provision across global markets.

  • Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hur Företag Kan Tjäna på Digitalisering: Möjligheter, Fallgropar Och Lärdomar2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I en tid av digitalisering utmanas företagen att nyttja digitala möjligheter sprungna ur exempelvis det industriella internet of things, big data och artificiell intelligens. Den transformativa kraften i digital teknik möjliggör affärsmodells-innovation och nya sätt att skapa värden för industriföretag där tjänster och ökat kundfokus är centralt. Digitalisering exponerar emellertid företagen för betydande risk och finansiell belastning p.g.a. bristande förståelse för lämpliga affärsmodeller och organisatoriska utmaningar. I den här policysammanfattningen summeras insikter från studier av mer än 40 ledande företag (såväl leverantörer som småföretag och kunder) som engagerat sig i digital affärsmodellsinnovation. De övergripande slutsatserna presenteras i form av tre fällor och sex lärdomar för att dra nytta av digitalisering. Att lyckas med digitalisering är långt mycket mer komplext än att utveckla ny teknik. En lyckad implementering kräver samspel och förändring mellan teknik, organisatoriska processer och människor samt affärsmodeller både inom företaget och externt i ekosystemet.

  • Pérez G., Andres M.
    et al.
    Universidad de los Andes, Colombia.
    Villegas S, Juan S
    Universidad de los Andes, Colombia.
    López, Omar D.
    Universidad de los Andes, Colombia.
    Suarez, Laura
    Universidad de los Andes, Colombia.
    Escobar, Jaime A.
    Universidad de los Andes, Colombia.
    Numerical and Experimental Estimation of the Efficiency of a Quadcopter Rotor Operating at Hover2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has led to an increase in the use of small copters for different activities such as geo-referencing, agricultural fields monitoring, survillance, among others. This is the main reason why there is a strong interest in the performance of small-scale propellers used in unmanned aerial vehicles. The flow developed by rotors is complex and the estimation of its aerodynamic performance is not a trivial process. In addition, viscous effects, when the rotor operates at low Reynolds, affect its performance. In the present paper, two different computational methods, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method (UVLM) with a viscous correction, were used to study the performance of an isolated rotor of a quadcopter flying at hover. The Multi Reference Frame model and transition SST κ−ω turbulence model were used in the CFD simulations. The tip vortex core growth was used to account for the viscous effects in the UVLM. The wake structure, pressure coefficient, thrust and torque predictions from both methods are compared. Thrust and torque results from simulations were validated by means of experimental results of a characterization of a single rotor. Finally, figure of merit of the rotor is evaluated showing that UVLM overestimates the efficiency of the rotor; meanwhile, CFD predictions are close to experimental values.

  • Sar, Suchandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Sparrman, Tobias
    Umeå University.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Characterization of Double Leached Waelz Oxide for Identification of Fluoirde Mineral2019In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Double leached Waelz oxide (DLWO), with 76% zinc, is a secondary zinc containing raw materials obtained by the treatment of electric arc furnace dust. The content of fluoride in DLWO is still too high for direct leaching, as fluoride has a detrimental effect on electrowinning for zinc production. Knowledge of the characteristics of DLWO, and especially on how a fluoride mineral might exist, can contribute to further improvement of the selective leaching for the removal of fluoride. In this study, DLWO was characterized using analytical techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), 19F liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (19F LS NMR), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and 19F solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (19F SS NMR). This study showed that DLWO mainly consisted of zincite (ZnO), cerussite (PbCO3) and a spinel containing zinc, iron and manganese. The fluoride mineral identified was calcium fluoride (CaF2). In SEM analysis, fluorine was found in larger grains together with calcium and oxygen, which was possibly calcium carbonate.

  • Popescu, Cosmin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Northern Research Institute - NORUT, Narvik, Norway.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    3D reconstruction of existing concrete bridges using optical methods2019In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Routine bridge inspections usually consist of visual observations. These inspections are time-consum-ing and subjective. There is a need to identify new inspection techniques for infrastructure that reducetraffic disturbance, and improve the efficiency and reliability of the acquired data. This study comparedthe performance of three different imaging technologies for the three-dimensional (3D) geometricmodeling of existing structures: terrestrial laser scanning, close-range photogrammetry, and infraredscanning. Each technology was used to assess six existing concrete railway bridges. The technologieswere compared in terms of geometric deviations, visualization capabilities, the level of the inspector’sexperience, and degree of automation. The results suggest that all methods investigated can be usedto create 3D models, however, with different level of completeness. Measurements such as spanlength, deck widths, etc. can be extracted with good accuracy. Although promising, a full off-siteinspection is currently not feasible as some areas of the bridges were difficult to capture mainly dueto restricted access and narrow spaces. Measurements based on terrestrial laser scanning were closerto the reality compared to photogrammetry and infrared scanning. The study indicates the no specialtraining is needed for photogrammetry and infrared scanning to generate a 3D geometric model.

  • Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Ulf Friberg: ”Äntligen ifrågasätts myten om skådespelarens mörker”: Ja, låt oss diskutera skådespelarens yrke, men utan den gamla vanliga mytiska svärtan. Ulf Friberg fortsätter diskussionen som inleddes av Dramatens Andreas T Olsson i DN (1/4).2019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 5 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har länge argumenterat för att se på och diskutera skådespelarens yrke som just ”ett yrke”! Ett yrke med djup kunskap, regler, arbetsplatser, kollegor. Ett yrke med sina egna svårigheter och förtjänster. Precis som många andra yrken vill jag tillägga.

  • Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    What are mistakes?: Let society touch you2019In: The Sustainable Theatre Artist: Norteas 2018 / [ed] Samuli Nordberg; MadsThygesen; Steinunn Knutsdottir, Malmö, 2019, p. 18-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To reach the new and authentic you have to make misstates, do wrong, to fail. Every single progressor invention in human history derives from failure or mistakes.Make space for what you don't know, embrace your errors and feel strong.Do wrong and you’re on the right track.I wise man said: “If the world were perfect, it wouldn't be.”

  • Dahlqvist, Anna
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support, Ekonomi.
    Industrial Energy Use, Management Practices and Price Signals: The Case of Swedish Process Industry2019In: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, ISSN 2146-4553, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the paper are to: (a) derive and discuss indicators of industrial companies’ decision-making and management practices on energy use; and (b) investigate whether these practices can help explain variations in energy intensities across these companies. The data were collected through telephone interviews with 101 large industrial firms in Sweden. The indicators display a significant overall increase in firms’ awareness of energy efficiency issues over time, including the attention devoted to these issues at the top management level. Still, our econometric results show that energy prices constitute the most important determinant of inter-firm differences in energy intensities. Higher energy prices over the time-period, have induced the implementation of energy-relevant management and practices, and led to more systematic decision-making processes. Finally, firms for which so-called ‘hidden’ costs, e.g., the costs of production disruptions, are a large concern, will be more energy intense than others.

  • Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Collecitvity vs. individualism2019In: Empowerment of the future Performing Artists / [ed] Steinunn Knútsdóttir, Iceland University of the Arts, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These are results and thoughts from my research at Swedish theater academies.

    Within a time span of about three years, I have interviewed just over 40 students from the four theater academies in Sweden. Driven by an interest in their view of collectivity and individualism in relation to education, the acting profession and society. For the same purpose I have also talked to and interviewed a number of teachers from theater academies about their experience of contemporary students in relation to collectivism and individualism, in a teaching context.

  • Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, H awler, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology2019In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 189-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

  • Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate of Iraq is of the subtropical semi-dry type; however, the country was rich in water resources until a few decades ago. Climate change and the construction of many dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the neighboring countries have caused water shortages and poor water quality. Now, there is a need to decrease consumption, improve management of water resources, and determine the water requirements of the major crops because agriculture is the first consumer of water in Iraq. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) CROPWAT 8.0 simulation software and the CLIMWAT 2.0 tool attached to it have been used in this research for Dhi-Qar Province in southern Iraq to find the crop water requirements (CWRs) and irrigation schedules for some major crops. The CROPWAT Penman–Monteith method was used to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil conservation (S.C.) method was used to estimate the effective rainfall. The study results showed that ET0 varied from 2.18 to 10.5 mm/day and the effective rainfall varied from 0.0 to 23.1 mm. The irrigation requirements were 1142, 203.2, 844.8, and 1180 mm/dec for wheat, barley, white corn, and tomatoes, respectively. There is a higher water demand for crops during the dry seasons (summer and autumn) and a lower demand during the wet seasons (winter and spring). The total gross irrigation and the total net irrigation were 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for wheat, 175.2 mm and 122.6 mm for barley, 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for white corn, and 203.3 mm and 142.3 mm for tomatoes. This study proved that the CROPWAT model is useful for calculating the crop irrigation needs for the proper management of water resources.

  • Elias, Ziyad
    et al.
    Geomorphic Researcher, Hannover, Germany.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq.Private Consultant Geologist, Erbı ̄l, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessmentof the Tectonic Activity in Northwestern Part of the Zagros Mountains,Northeastern Iraq by Using Geomorphic Indices2019In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tectonic Activity of regions with active tectonics can be assessed by using of the

    geomorphic indices. Six Geomorphic indices including stream-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), drainage basin shape (Bs), hypsometric integral (Hi), valley floor width-valley height ratio(Vf), and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf) were calculated using GIS technique in Kifri Chai Basin;northeast Iraq, which belongs to the Western Zagros

    Mountain. The basin was divided into eighteen subbasins depending on the 4th, 5th and 6th stream orders of the drainage within Kirfi Basin. It was found that the SL, Af, Bs, Hi, Vf,and Smf (J) values are uniform and exhibit almost the same classes. However, few exceptions occur, especially in Bs values, but the exceptional values do not influence significantly on

    the acquired results, in each of the eighteen sub-basin. From these indices the relative active tectonics index value (Iat) was determined. The results of average Iat values (2.35) showed that the tectonic activity in the whole basin is Moderate. Moreover, an attempt was carried out to compare the regional Neotectonic activity with the relative tectonic activity in the basin. The results showed that there is a positive relation between the two comparatives; especially the subsidence amount and scored relative tectonic activity.

  • Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    Silesian University of Technology, The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Piezoresistive Load Sensing and Percolation Phenomena in Portland Cement Composite Modified with In-Situ Synthesized Carbon Nanofibers2019In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were directly synthesized on Portland cement particles by chemical vapor deposition. The so-produced cements contained between 2.51–2.71 wt% of CNFs; depending on the production batch. Several mortar mixes containing between 0 and 10 wt% of the modified cement were produced and the electrical properties at various ages and the load sensing capabilities determined. The percolation threshold related to the electrical conductivity was detected and corresponded to the amount of the present CNFs, 0.271, 0.189, 0.135 and 0.108 wt%. The observed threshold depended on the degree of hydration of the Portland cement. The studied mortars showed a strong piezoresistive response to the applied compressive load reaching a 17% change of the electrical resistivity at an applied load of 3.5 MPa and 90% at 26 MPa. This initial study showed that the studied material is potentially suitable for future development of novel fully integrated monitoring systems for concrete structures.

  • Friberg, Ulf (Actor, Author of dialog, Composer)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Forslund, Johan (Instrumentalist, Actor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    En föreställning om Tid: Om tid finnes...2019Artistic output (Unrefereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under en timmes tid får ni följa med på en resa till parallella universum , in i minnetsdunkla skrymslen och till framtiden. En roande personlig betraktelse av det enda vi har och samtidigt alltid lider brist på; TID! Ja, ett totalt slöseri med tid, men som det heter:                                                                                                                        “Den rätta tiden att koppla av är när man inte har tid med det!”                                                                                                                                                          En musikalisk resa mellan då och sen, stjärnor och planeter och ett möte med tiden själv.

    Tid är något strängt personligt och samtidigt är det den vi har gemensamt. Vi är som månniskor fångade mellan två evigheter som vi inte vet något om: tiden fram till födelsen och tiden efter döden. Där i mellan ska vi leva, förverkliga oss. Är tiden linjär eller cirkulär, har allt redan hänt en gång?                               

    Av och med Ulf Friberg tillsammans med Johan Forslund som pianist och sidekick

  • Naganna, Sujay Raghavendra
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Madhwa Vadiraja Institute of Technology and Management, Bantakal, Udupi, India. Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
    Deka, Paresh Chandra
    Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore, India.
    Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Civil Engineering, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkey. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Biazar, Seyed Mostafa
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Dew Point Temperature Estimation: Application of Artificial Intelligence Model Integrated with Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, water, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dew  point  temperature  (DPT)  is  known  to  fluctuate  in  space  and  time  regardless  of

    the climatic zone considered.  The accurate estimation of the DPT is highly significant for various applications of hydro and agro–climatological researches.  The current research investigated the hybridization of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with nature-inspired optimization algorithms (i.e., gravitational search (GSA) and firefly (FFA)) to model the DPT of two climatically contrasted (humid and semi-arid) regions in India. Daily time scale measured weather information, such as wet bulb temperature (WBT), vapor pressure (VP), relative humidity (RH), and dew point temperature, was used to build the proposed predictive models.  The efficiencies of the proposed hybrid MLP networks (MLP–FFA and MLP–GSA) were authenticated against standard MLP tuned by a Levenberg–Marquardt back-propagation algorithm, extreme learning machine (ELM), and support vector  machine  (SVM)  models.   Statistical  evaluation  metrics  such  as  Nash  Sutcliffe  efficiency (NSE),  root  mean  square  error  (RMSE),  and  mean  absolute  error  (MAE)  were  used  to  validate the model efficiency.  The proposed hybrid MLP models exhibited excellent estimation accuracy. The hybridization of MLP with nature-inspired optimization algorithms boosted the estimation accuracy that is clearly owing to the tuning robustness. In general, the applied methodology showed very convincing results for both inspected climate zones.

  • Larsson, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Smart Booking: Concept for an automated booking solution2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing demand and already strained resources the Swedish healthcare are before major challenges, which digitisation could help to solve. One of these challenges addresses how to use the limited personnel as efficiently as possible to meet the demands. This thesis aims to deliver a proof of concept for a booking-tool which aids in the booking of patients into practitioners schedules, in a time- and resource efficient matter while still respecting patient preferences. The solution presented gives practitioners the possibility to find the “best” time to book one or multiple appointments in multiple schedules with regard to both patient and practitioner preferences, in a timely matter. The system uses a scoring function to determine which time is the best. This weights used in the function is defined by the user and is highly configurable, altering how metrics are weighed in when scoring different possible times, thus altering the behaviour and results dependent on the users needs and preferences.

  • Eriksson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Utveckling av påbyggnadsskåp till pickup-bil2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Granberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wiklund, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av att leva med migrän2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Migrän är en kronisk sjukdom och kännetecknas ofta av återkommande smärtsamma attacker som kan medföra illamående samt ljud- och ljuskänslighet. Det är en ärftlig sjukdom som är tre gånger mer vanligt hos kvinnor än hos män. De fysiologiska orsakerna till varför personer drabbas är inte fastställda och något botemedel mot sjukdomen finns inte. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva personers upplevelser av att leva med migrän. Metod: En kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys med inifrånperspektiv användes för att besvara syftet där målet var att studera personers upplevelser. Nio vetenskapliga kvalitativa artiklar ingick i analysen. Resultat: Migrän påverkar personer i alla aspekter; psykiskt, fysiskt och socialt. Sjukdomens osynlighet har bidragit till att personer med migrän många gånger inte blir tagna på allvar, varken av samhället eller vården. Något som personer beskriver orsakar en vilja att dölja sina symptom av rädslan att bli misstrodda. Oförutsägbarheten med migränattacker orsakar begränsningar vilket exkluderar personer från sociala sammanhang. Att leva med migrän har bidragit till en förändrad bild av personerna de en gång var, både i arbete och vardag. Slutsats: En brist på förståelse och kunskap av hur migrän påverkar de som lever med sjukdomen sågs i litteraturstudien. Ytterligare forskning behövs för att öka möjligheten till bättre förståelse hur vardagslivet påverkas. Ökad kunskap om personliga erfarenheter av att leva med migrän möjliggör för sjuksköterskan att arbeta personcentrerat och möta personerna med respekt.

  • Rådman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Implementation and testing of a path tracker for a full-scale Unmanned Ground Vehicle2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is the implementation and testing of a path tracker for a car-sized Unmanned Ground Vehicle. The vehicle, a Toyota Land Cruiser, was provided by SSC and hadpreviously been modified for remote operation. The developed path tracker uses a "follow the carrot" algorithm and has been writtenin C using the Robot Operating Software (ROS) framework and has been integrated intothe vehicles existing ROS powered software. During the implementation, the Gazebo rigid body simulator was used to simulate a simplified vehicle. Integration with the real sensors was performed using a small-scalecar, both indoors with the aid of a Vicon motion capture system and outdoors utilizingonly sensors available to the full-size car. The small-scale tests showed promise, howeverwhen full-scale field tests were performed the results showed some problems and reasonsfor these are discussed.

  • Fitinghoff, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Extraction of Rust code from the Why3 verification platform2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is hard to ensure correctness as software grows more complex. There are many ways to tackle this problem. Improved documentation can prevent misunderstandings what an interface does. Well built abstractions can prevent some kinds of misuse. Tests can find errors, but unless they are exhaustive, they can never guarantee the absence of errors. The use of formal methods can improve the reliability of software. This work uses the Why3 program verification platform to produce Rust code. Possible semantic-preserving mappings from WhyML to Rust are evaluated, and a subset of the mappings are automated using Why3's extraction framework.

  • Tao, Hai
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Environmental Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Environmental Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Heddam, Salim
    Faculty of Science, Agronomy Department, Hydraulics Division, Laboratory of Research in Biodiversity Interaction Ecosystem and Biotechnology, University 20 Août 1955, Algeria.
    Voyant, Cyril
    Castelluccio Hospital, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio, France. University of Reunion Island—PIMENT Laboratory, France..
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Deo, Ravinesh
    School of Agricultural, Computational and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Systems & Centre for Applied Climate Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Designing a New Data Intelligence Model forGlobal Solar Radiation Prediction: Application ofMultivariate Modeling Scheme2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global solar radiation prediction is highly desirable for multiple energy applications, such

    as energy production and sustainability, solar energy systems management, and lighting tasks for home use and recreational purposes. This research work designs a new approach and investigates the capability of novel data intelligent models based on the self-adaptive evolutionary extreme learning machine (SaE-ELM) algorithm to predict daily solar radiation in the Burkina Faso region. Four different meteorological stations are tested in the modeling process: Boromo, Dori, Gaoua and Po, located in West Africa. Various climate variables ssociated with the changes in solar radiation are utilized as the exploratory predictor variables through different input combinations used in the intelligent model (maximum and minimum air temperatures and humidity, wind speed, evaporation and vapor pressure deficits). The input combinations are then constructed based on the magnitude of the Pearson correlation coefficient computed between the predictors and the predictand, as a baseline method to determine the similarity between the predictors and the target variable. The results of the four tested meteorological stations show consistent findings, where the

    incorporation of all climate variables seemed to generate data intelligent models that erforms with best prediction accuracy. A closer examination showed that the tested sites, Boromo, Dori, Gaoua and Po, attained the best performance result in the testing phase, with a root mean square error and a mean absolute error (RMSE-MAE [MJ/m 2]) equating to about (0.72-0.54), (2.57-1.99), (0.88-0.65) and (1.17-0.86), respectively. In general, the proposed data intelligent models provide an excellent modeling strategy for solar radiation prediction, particularly over the Burkina Faso region in Western Africa. This study offers implications for solar energy exploration and energy management in data sparse regions.

  • Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in HalabjaSaidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for

    domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate

    along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

  • Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns2019In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 151-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

  • Maligranda, Lech
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Lech Maligranda: laureat Nagrody Głównej PTM im. Samuela Dicksteina za 2016 rok2018In: Antiquitates Mathematicae, ISSN 1898-5203, E-ISSN 2353-8813, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 285-297Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Samuel Dickstein’s prize is awarded for outstanding achievements in the field of mathematical education, popularization and history of mathematics. It was established in 1978 and the first one recognized by it was Stefan Straszewicz. In 2016, the Samuel Dicstein main PTM award was honored with Professor Lech Maligranda from the Technical University of Luleå (Sweden) for outstanding achievements in the history of mathematics.

  • Maligranda, Lech
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Review of the book by Mariusz Urbanek ``Genialni - Lwowska Szkoła Matematyczna" (Polish) [Geniuses - the Lvov school of mathematics]2018In: Matematychni Studii, ISSN 0094-1492, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 105-112Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review is an extended version of my short review of Urbanek's book that was published in MathSciNet. Here it is written about his book in greater detail, which was not possible in the short review. I will present facts described in the book as well as some false information there.

  • Maligranda, Lech
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Strelcyn, Jan
    Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 7539, Laboratoire Analyse, Géometrie et Applications, Villetaneuse.
    Jan Ptaszycki (1854-1912)2018In: Antiquitates Mathematicae, ISSN 1898-5203, E-ISSN 2353-8813, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 31-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jan Ptaszycki was a Polish mathematician working in St. Petersburg in the period 1876–1912. In Poland, he is forgotten, and in Russia considered generally as a Russian mathematician, known there as Ivan Lvovich Ptaszycki. In Russian literature about history of mathematics, depending on the author, it is reported that Ptaszycki was a Russian mathematician or, more rarely, a Polish mathematician as, for example, in Lokot (2015, 2018). The important information about Ptaszycki comes from the obituaries of K. A. Posse (1912) and S. Dickstein (1912) and from the memoirs of I. Ja. Depman (1960), that is from people who knew him personally. We wanted to make known to the contemporary reader this forgotten Polish mathematician working in St. Petersburg. This article tries to reach his work and achievement in mathematics as well as information about his activity. After discussing his biography, we briefly discuss his mathematical work. At the end of this paper, we quote articles and books related to Ptaszycki scientific achievements and we present a full list of his published works and books, and also references where one can find information about him.

  • Maligranda, Lech
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Prytula, Jaroslaw
    Ivan Franko National University of Lvov, Ukraine.
    Uniwersytet we Lwowie w latach 1939-1941: Nieopublikowane prace matematyków, fizyków i astronomów2018In: Wiadomosci Matematyczne, ISSN 2080-5519, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 67-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contents of the Lvovian journal Scientific Notes of the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics from 1940 and 1941, which was found in archive is presented. Among authors were: Stefan Banach, Leon Chwistek, Meier Eidelheit, Gertwagen, Jan Hercberg, Marian Mojżesz Jacob, Salomon Lubelski, Jan Mergentaler, Wasyl Miliańczuk, Marian Stanisław Puchalik, Antoni Wincenty Raabe, Stanisław Saks, Hugo Steinhaus, Zygmunt Zachorski, Miron Zarycki and Eustachy Żyliński. Until now we thought that papers are lost but fortunately seven manuscripts were found in archive. We present the titles of found papers with the information what will happened next with the manuscripts.

     Note: In the article on page 74 after [Z5] should be:[Z6] E. Żyliński, O gremowskiej transformacji macierzy prostokątnych, 30-62,  while the numbers [Z6] - [Z17]^* should be numbered as [Z7] - [Z18]^*.

  • Tohry, Arash
    et al.
    Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
    Dehghan, R.
    Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rahmani, O.
    Chadormalu Mining and Industrial Company, Yazd, Iran.
    Selective Separation of Hematite by a Synthesized Depressant in Various Scales of Anionic Reverse Flotation2019In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for high-quality iron concentrate is significantly increasing around the world. Thus, the development of the techniques for a selective separation and rejection of typical associated minerals in the iron oxide ores, such as phosphorous minerals (mainly apatite group), is a high priority. Reverse anionic flotation by using sodium silicate (SS) as an iron oxide depressant is one of the techniques for iron ore processing. This investigation is going to present a synthesized reagent “sodium co-silicate (SCS)” for hematite depression through a reverse anionic flotation. The main hypothesis is the selective depression of hematite and, simultaneously, modification of the pulp pH by SCS. Various flotation experiments, including micro-flotation, and batch flotation of laboratory and industrial scales, were conducted in order to compare the depression selectivity of SS versus SCS. Outcomes of flotation tests at the different flotation scales demonstrated that hematite depression by SCS is around 3.3% higher than by SS. Based on flotation experiment outcomes, it was concluded that SCS can modify the pH of the process at ~9.5, and the plant reagents (including NaOH, Na2CO3, and SS gel) can be replaced by just SCS, which can also lead to a higher efficiency in the plant. 

  • Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader: Case Ripan i Kiruna2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability includes several parameters, and these can be measured and valued in many different ways. This study focuses on balancing the various parts to achieve sustainability by minimizing energy for heating and energy to produce the materials used in the building as well as minimizing cost for material investment and cost for heating using optimization techniques. This is balanced together with the environmental impact. This report describes an initial study for sustainability optimization of a smaller building. The goal is to develop a comprehensive approach to provide a broader basis of decisions for new construction.

    The calculation included the building envelope (exterior walls, roof and floors), interior walls and stabilizing elements for different frames of wood (timber frame and CLT).

    The result from the Ripan Case shows that the timber frame design has the lowest embodied energy and operating energy, and lowest cost for investment and heating during the operating phase. The environmental impact of the timber frame design was also low.

  • Schillings, Audrey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Kiruna, Sweden .
    Slapak, Rikard
    EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Kiruna.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Kiruna.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, Toulouse, France.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Earth atmospheric loss through the plasma mantle and its dependence onsolar wind parameters2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Chipp, Kerry
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wocke, Albert
    University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Strandberg, Carola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Chiba, Manoj
    University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Overcoming African institutional voids: Market entry with networks2019In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Literature on modes of entry has focussed on firm-level strategies. The predominant theories used are Institutional Theory and the resource based view. Using an alternate approach, network theory, the paper demonstrates an additional mode of entry: multiple firms entering together as an extension of an existing loose network, known as a bridging network. The extension of an external network across borders is an appropriate mode of entry in emerging markets with no pre-existing networks or existing networks within a market that are weak, immature or missing.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A conceptual review, which develops four propositions, demonstrating that market entry with bridging networks may be the preferred mode of entry in the presence of institutional voids. Alternative modes may not be viable due to costs and risks associated with overcoming such voids

    Findings

    Existing theory and case examples supports the contention that market conditions facilitate firms to enter as networks rather than as singular entities. These conditions are found in markets with institutional voids and explain the dominant form of business groups in many countries and the operation of loose strategic alliances in emerging markets. Network entry facilitates market access speed may allow for local ties to remain undeveloped or be a first step in building in-country networks.

    Originality/value

    This paper heeds to the call for a network ecosystem approach to market entry, arguing that firms may enter as a collective in subsistence and emerging markets which would explain the preponderance of business groups and loose alliances found.

  • Segerstedt, Eugenia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Diversity of livelihoods and social sustainability in established mining communities2019In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges for any community that seeks to maintain a healthy and thriving social life around an operating mine have been considered at some length in research, but the picture is still far from complete. In order to pinpoint some of the gaps in research, the literature on social sustainability as applied to established mining communities in developed countries is here reviewed, and the general understanding of the social sustainability of such communities is touched on. Diversity of livelihoods is explored as an analytical lens which can be used to approach social sustainability challenges without essentializing the preferences of social groups. Extensive literature searches with keywords such as mining, work, gender, organization, social, sustainability, community, town, area, cohesion and inclusion were conducted. The results of our review show a research gap between studies of mining companies and studies of wider mining communities. We conclude that considering diversity of livelihoods can be a productive analytical tool when approaching aspects of social sustainability such as social cohesion and inclusion, gender equality, managed migration, demographics, and housing infrastructure. Continued research is recommended to further bridge the gap between studies of mining companies and studies of mining communities from the perspective of social sustainability.

  • André, Andersson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Utredning av potentiella prosumenter anslutna till Härnösands fjärrvärmenät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Chronéer, Diana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Urban Living Labs: Towards an Integrated Understanding of Their Key Components2019In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 50-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s ongoing urbanization and escalating climate change, there is an increasing demand on cities to be innovative and inclusive to handle these emerging issues. As an answer to these challenges, and in order to generate and adopt sustainable innovations and nature-based solutions in the urban areas, the concept of urban living labs has emerged. However, to date, there is confusion concerning the concept of the urban living lab and its key components. Some interpret the urban living lab as an approach, others as a single project, and some as a specific place – and some just do not know. In order to unravel this complexity and better understand this concept, we sought to identify the key components of an urban living lab by discussing the perspective of city representatives in the context of an urban living lab project. To achieve this goal, we reviewed previous literature on this topic and carried out two workshops with city representatives, followed by an open-ended questionnaire. In this article, we identify and discuss seven key components of an urban living lab: governance and management structure; financing models; urban context; nature-based solutions; partners and users (including citizens); approach; and ICT and infrastructure. We also offer an empirically derived definition of the urban living lab concept.

  • Brännström, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Swidnicki Berg, Sebastian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Flödessimulering och utveckling av en monteringsstation med avseende på ergonomi, flöde och kvalitet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the result of a master thesis that was composed at Presetting- and Sharpening at Scanias engine department in Södertälje. The department works as a service organisation for the production lines and its purpose is to maintain the right quality on tools within machining.

    This is done by resharpening of drills and by turning and changing inserts on milling tools. The tools are then adjusted according to given tolerances to obtain correct quality on processed parts. The master thesis project consists of two main parts; analysis of flow and waste within the department with the goal to make the processes more efficient. The other part treats development of an assembly station for milling tools with the aim to improve the ergonomy. The mutual connection for the master thesis project lies within the ergonomy which has been a problem on the assembly station. The demands for the station has been developed mutually to ensure good ergonomy, flow and quality on the work performed on the station. In addition to this, a digitizing has been made of the department to illustrate the proposed changes.

    Through observations, interviews and simulation of flow, wastes and bottlenecks have been detected. For the development of the assembly station the product development process Ulrich and Eppinger has been used.

    The work resulted in a recommendation to institute routines and standardized work methods for how the work is supposed to be performed by operators. A routine should also be instituted on the milling handling station that means that the automatic measurement station always is prioritized by operators to guarantee maximum productivity. Finally, the wash process should be prioritized as a critical part in the daily work and thereby receive machine ownership, and thus make sure that knowledge about the wash process is obtained. The development of the assembly station led to three level based solutions that were supposed to be implemented today, within 1-2 years and a vision about the future's possible assembly station.

  • Elias, Ziyad
    et al.
    Geomorphic Researcher Hannover Germany.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist Erbīl Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of the Tectonic Activity in Northwestern part of the Zagros Mountains, Northeastern Iraq by using Geomorphic Indices2019In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tectonic Activity of regions with active tectonics can be assessed by using of the geomorphic indices. Six Geomorphic indices including stream-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), drainage basin shape (Bs), hypsometric integral (Hi), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vf), and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf) were calculated using GIS technique in Kifri Chai Basin; northeast Iraq, which belongs to the Western Zagros Mountain. The basin was divided into eighteen sub-basins depending on the 4th, 5th and 6th stream orders of the drainage within Kirfi Basin. It was found that the SL, Af, Bs, Hi, Vf, and Smf (J) values are uniform and exhibit almost the same classes. However, few exceptions occur, especially in Bs values, but the exceptional values do not influence significantly on the acquired results, in each of the eighteen sub-basin. From these indices the relative active tectonics index value (Iat) was determined. The results of average Iat values (2.35) showed that the tectonic activity in the whole basin is Moderate. Moreover, an attempt was carried out to compare the regional Neotectonic activity with the relative tectonic activity in the basin. The results showed that there is a positive relation between the two comparatives; especially the subsidence amount and scored relative tectonic activity.

  • Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of ChangeDetection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • Navarro, Kevin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Vårdnadshavares skadeståndsskyldighet: Det strikta ansvaret för barnets skadegörande handlingar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I huvudkapitel 2-5 redogörs för skadeståndslagstiftningens olika delar. Här beskrivs även den kritik som har funnits mot den reform gällande föräldraansvaret i 3 kap. 5 § skadeståndslagen som kom år 2010. Olika fall tas upp från verkligheten där skadestånd tilldömts. Här finns en beskrivning hur skadeståndsrättens huvudsakliga reparativa syfte införde föräldraansvaret med ett preventivt syfte. Det vill säga att vårdnadshavare aktivt ska försöka förhindra och framförallt förebygga att barnet begår skadevållande handlingar. Brister vårdnadshavaren i detta kan denne åläggas skadeståndsskyldighet. En bristfällig tillsynsplikt kan exempelvis vara att underlåta att ge barnet nödvändiga instruktioner vid användandet av farliga föremål. I detta avseende är förekomsten av föräldranärvaron och de sociala banden av stor betydelse för lagregleringen avseseende föräldrars principalansvar. Men ett enkelt svar på huvudfrågan finns inte. Motiven som berör vårdnadshavaren att förebygga skadegörande handlingar är en kombination mellan de rättsliga reglerna och det kriminalpolitiska ur en kriminologisk aspekt. Möjligen besvaras frågan olika beroende på om fokus ska ligga på tanken om reparation eller prevention. I uppsatsens analys diskuteras bestämmelsen utifrån en kritisk utgångspunkt. Fokus ligger på de faktiska effekterna av bestämmelsen för ekonomiskt svaga familjer samt argumenten för varför ungdomsbrottsligheten inte verkar minska trots förhoppning om en preventiv effekt med skadeståndsrätten.

     

    Sökord: Skadestånd; Vårdnadshavare; Förälder; Principalansvar; Brottsprevention; Jämkning

     

  • Niemi, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    GNSS-mätning: idag och i framtiden2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows the difference between today's geodetic measurementsand the one that comes withGalileo and Beidou included. As new GNSSequipment supporting Galileo and Beidou begins to be used, what are the differences and what can be expected by users in the future?This report addresses current theory of sources of error and satellite geometry to highlight the problems associated with GNSS. Based on the sources of error and satellite geometry, the results will be presentedand discussed at the end of the report.

  • Ravindran, Vineetha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Time-varying interharmonics in different types of grid-tied PV inverter systems2019In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widely existing circuit topologies and inverter control strategies for PV systems allow customer flexibility but also introduce different kinds of interharmonics into the grid. A complete understanding of interharmonics from PV systems, with reasons behind their origin, remains needed. In addition, the timevarying nature of interharmonics and the potential impacts on other equipment are yet to be understood. In this paper, laboratory and field measurements are presented of seven different inverter types at multiple locations. A comprehensive analysis is performed to understand the existence, persistence, and propagation of interharmonics in PV systems on the DC side as well as grid side for different power levels. The origins of the interharmonics are established with experimental evidence and through a comparative analysis. A rural low voltage 6 customer network, with two different impedance profiles caused by the installation of PV, is considered to show the potential impact on customer voltage. To address the time-varying nature of interharmonics, a sliding window ESPRIT method is preferred over FFT based methods

  • Viberg, Frida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Cirkulär ekonomi inom industriell produktion av flerbostadshus i trä2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2018 inföll ”Overshoot day”, dagen då vi förbrukat årets budget av jordens förnybara resurser, den 1 augusti (Rosengren, 2018). De resterande fem månaderna av året levde vi över jordens tillgångar. Genom att närma oss en cirkulär ekonomi kan vi förvalta jordens resurser på ett sätt som är långsiktigt hållbart och minska behovet av att använda jungfruligt material. Byggsektorn står årligen för ca en tredjedel av allt avfall i Sverige, bortsett från gruvavfallet (Naturvårdsverket, 2017). Just nu pågår en ansträngning i Europa för att minska mängden avfall, där byggbranschen utgör ett prioriterat område. Ett av Europaparlamentets mål är att förberedandet för återanvändning, materialåtervinning och annan återvinning av icke-farligt bygg- och rivningsavfall ska ha ökat till minst 70 viktprocent år 2020 (2008/98/EG).

    Lindbäcks bygg är en av de ledande aktörerna gällande industriellt tillverkade flerbostadshus i trä. Syftet med detta arbete är att genom en fallstudie på Lindbäcks bygg få en ökad förståelse för förutsättningarna för cirkulär ekonomi inom industriell produktion av flerbostadshus i trä. Där fokus ligger på de materialrester som uppstår i fabriksproduktionen och hur dessa hanteras.

    Arbetet inleddes med en litteraturstudie på området cirkulär ekonomi och cirkulär ekonomi inom byggbranschen, avfall och avfallshantering i byggbranschen. Efter emperiinsamlingen fördjupades läsningen mot alternativa lösningar för ökad cirkularitet sett till de tre största rena avfallsfraktionerna. Fallstudien har genomförts genom intervjuer med anställda från olika avdelningar inom Lindbäcks, samt med Lindbäcks avfallsentreprenör. Intervjuerna har kompletterats med data gällande de avfallsmängder som genererats från den studerade fabriken, samt med en kartläggning av överblivet materialet från fyra projekt som producerats i fabrik under vintern 2018.

    Kartläggningen av det överblivna materialet visar på stora skillnader i mängd mellan olika materialtyper och projekt. Mängden överblivet material varierar mellan materialunderskott och ett överskott motsvarande 27 % av det material som köpts in av den aktuella materialtypen för projektet.

    Endast 5 viktprocent av det avfall som genererades i Lindbäcks fabrik i Öjebyn materialåtervanns år 2018. 63 viktprocent av avfallet skickades till förbränning och 30 viktprocent deponerades. De resterande två viktprocenten utgjordes av avfall som klassats som verksamhetsavfall för sortering. För ett uppnå EU-målet med 70 % återvinning krävs alternativa lösningar för hantering av trä-, gips- och isoleringsavfall.

    De alternativa lösningarna för hantering av trä-, gips- och isoleringsavfall som identifierats i litteraturstudien har prioriterats ur ett cirkularitetsperspektiv med hjälp av Re:Sources (Re:Source, 2018) modell för visualisering av materials funktion och användning, materialhjulet. Inom sektorn materialåtervinning återfinns möjliga lösningar för samtliga tre studerade fraktioner. Genom att returnera gipsavfallet till leverantören, riva isoleringsavfallet till lösull och nyttja uppkommet träavfall i tillverkning av biokol, ökar materialåtervinningen från 5 % till 89 %. Detta medför att EU-målet uppnås med marginal, samtidigt som deponi som behandlingsmetod helt elimineras. Som ett hinder för ökad cirkularitet nämns kostnader och utsläpp kopplade till långa transporter. Genom att nyttja outnyttjat utrymme på redan befintliga transporter kan de långa avstånden överbryggas utan extra kostnader och miljöpåverkan.

    Slutsatsen kan dras att genomförandet av ett fåtal förändringar kan få stora effekter, men att fortsatta studier krävs på ämnet cirkulär ekonomi inom byggbranschen.

  • Conrad, Sarah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gelting, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nordblad, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden .
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden .
    Andersson, Per S.
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Porcelli, Don
    Department of Earth Sciences, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Semiletov, Igor
    International Arctic Research Center (IARC), University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA. Pacific Oceanological Institute (POI), Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS), Vladivostok, Russia. Tomsk National Research Politechnical University, Arctic Seas Carbon International Research Laboratory, Tomsk, Russia.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Distribution of Fe isotopes in particles and colloids in the salinity gradient along the Lena River plume, Laptev Sea2019In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1305-1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Riverine Fe input is the primary Fe source for the ocean. This study is focused on the distribution of Fe along the Lena River freshwater plume in the Laptev Sea using samples from a 600 km long transect in front of the Lena River mouth. Separation of the particulate ( >  0.22 μm), colloidal (0.22 μm–1 kDa), and truly dissolved (<  1 kDa) fractions of Fe was carried out. The total Fe concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 57μM with Fe dominantly as particulate Fe. The loss of >  99% of particulate Fe and about 90% of the colloidal Fe was observed across the shelf, while the truly dissolved phase was almost constant across the Laptev Sea. Thus, the truly dissolved Fe could be an important source of bioavailable Fe for plankton in the central Arctic Ocean, together with the colloidal Fe. Fe-isotope analysis showed that the particulate phase and the sediment below the Lena River freshwater plume had negative δ56Fe values (relative to IRMM-14). The colloidal Fe phase showed negative δ56Fe values close to the river mouth (about -0.20 ‰) and positive δ56Fe values in the outermost stations (about +0.10 ‰). We suggest that the shelf zone acts as a sink for Fe particles and colloids with negative δ56Fe values, representing chemically reactive ferrihydrites. The positive δ56Fe values of the colloidal phase within the outer Lena River freshwater plume might represent Fe oxyhydroxides, which remain in the water column, and will be the predominant δ56Fe composition in the Arctic Ocean.