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  • Tzivis, Natasa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Srithang Sandgren, Pornthip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Patientens upplevelser vid kolonundersökning med datortomografi: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The term colorectal cancer (CRC) means cancer of the colon and rectum.Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death worldwide with statistically rising mortality and affects thousands of people every year. The disease is investigated with diagnostic imaging where the most common is colonoscopy but also with computed tomography (CT) if the colonoscopy is incomplete or if the patient is unable to undergo a colonoscopy. The examination requires accurate bowel cleansing as well as a limited food intake, which leads to physical as well as psychological concern in the patient. Adequate information before, during and after the examination is necessary to facilitate the patient's mental and physical condition. Aim: The purpose of the study was to compile and illustrate the state of knowledge regarding patients' experiences before and during a CT colon (CTC) examination. Method: The literature study was conducted as a general literature review. Thirteen articles with both qualitative and quantitative approaches were included in the study after a quality review of all.Results: Four main findings were identified in the result. These consisted of physical efforts, concern and anxiety, embarrassment and reluctance for the study related to ethnicity and gender, and the acceptance of discomfort with the study itself. Conclusion: Many of the patients experienced pain during the examination which was related to bowel dilatation. Since many of the patients experienced that the examination was embarrassing and physically stressful, it is very important to have adequate information and a good dialogue. This can reduce their concerns, provide security and increase the manageability of the investigation. It is of utmost importance not to violate the patient's integrity and to provide encouragement during ongoing examination as well as after.

  • Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dawood, Anwar Hazim
    College of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Koya University, Koya, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. President of Komar University of Science and Technology, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sediment flux from Lesser Zab River in Dokan Reservoir: Implications for the sustainability of long‐term water resources in Iraq2020In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prudent management of Iraqi water resources under climate change conditions requires plans to be based on actual figures of the storage capacity of existing reservoirs. With the absence of sediment flushing measures, the actual storage capacity of Dokan Reservoir (operated since 1959) has been affected by the amount of sediment delivered during its operational life leading to an undetermined reduction in its storage capacity. In consequence, there has not been an update on the dam's operational storage capacity curves. In this research, new operational curves were established for the reservoir based on a recent bathymetric survey undertaken in 2014. The reduction in reservoir capacity during the period between 1959 and 2014 was calculated by the mean of the difference between the designed storage capacity and the storage capacity which was concluded from the 2014 bathymetric survey. Moreover, the rate of sediment transported to the reservoir was calculated based on the overall quantities of accumulated sediment and the water discharge of the Lesser Zab River into the reservoir. The results indicate that the dam capacity is reduced by 25% due to sedimentation of an estimated volume of 367 million cubic metres at water level 480 m.a.s.l. The annual sedimentation rate was about 6.6 million cubic metres, and the sediment yield was estimated to be 701.2 t∙km−3∙year.

  • Vallejos, Leopoldo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Inkluderingsarbetet i förskolan: Vad det är och vad det betyder för barn med ett annat modersmål2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här arbetet tas betydelsen av förskolans inkluderingsarbete upp men också flerspråkighetens inverkan på detta. I uppsatsens inledning beskrivs bakgrunden för intresset för detta inkluderingsarbete och varför det är viktigt att genomföra. I arbetet får man läsa om vad inkludering är, ta del av tidigare forskning inom området, begrepp som kan associeras med inkludering, vad arbetet ska utgå ifrån. Arbetet utgår från ett sociokulturellt perspektiv och en kvalitativ forskningsmetod används för att besvara de uppsatta frågorna i arbetet. Guidelinjer för att använda sig av intervjun som datainsamlingsmetod tas också upp. Vidare tas de etiska ställningstaganden som är viktiga att ha vid genomförande av intervjuer upp för att sedan beskriva genomförandet som kan kort sammanfattas med att intervjuer genomfördes med en pedagog inom en viss verksamhet samt med en pedagog som arbetar ihop med andra verksamheter. Detta så att samma arbete kan utföras av andra. Urval för deltagare i intervjun, bearbetning och analysmetod tas vidare upp. Skrivningen avslutas med arbetets resultat, diskussionsdel samt en implikationsdel och till sist förslag till fortsatt forskning. Sammanfattningsvis tas utfallet av arbetet och varför det inte blev som förväntat och vad det kan bero på upp här.

  • Zernell, Mikaela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Design of a Ski Mountaineering Helmet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a master thesis project in Industrial Design Engineering at Luleå University of Technology performed during the spring semester 2019 and with the goal to design a helmet for POC specialized for ski mountaineering.

     

    To cope with new rules in ski mountaineering competitions, to widen the product catalogue of POC and to make ski mountaineering safer and more enjoyable, a double certified helmet was to be designed, meaning certified for both mountaineering and downhill skiing. The end goal with the project was a product concept fully ready to be prototyped and tested for both EN 12492 – mountaineering helmets and EN 1077 – ski helmets standards.

     

    Theories relevant to the project has been researched, they include head injuries, manufacturing methods, anthropometry, and safety certifications. Some takeaways from these were that head injuries in ski mountaineering can be severe or deadly, but can be mitigated by using a helmet, helmets are usually produced by expanding plastic beads into a shock absorbing material, by expanding the beads more, the shock absorbing material gets a lower density, and by expanding them less the material gets a higher density, an easy way to design a helmet that fits well on most people’s heads is to use headforms, and that an easy way to design a helmet that can be EN1077 and EN12492 certified is to use similar dimensions as existing helmets with the same certifications.

     

    Methods used in the project has been: a survey asking users for insight and opinions; analysis of the brand POC; competition research; observations; idea generation - including 6-3-5 and body storming; and creation and evaluation of prototypes.

     

    The project has resulted in information about user’s experiences of SKIMO helmets, users wants and needs, an analysis of POC products, ideas, prototypes for testing functionality, clay models for exploring shape, a concept decision and last but not least, a CAD model and a prototype of the final concept.

    The survey results together with some observations could be summarized as three problems to solve and six features the helmet should have.

    1. Temperature Change.

    2. Ventilation holes makes goggle foggy when worn on the on the forehead.

    3. The third problem is created as a combination of the EN 1077 standard penetration test for ski helmets and the users need for “extremely good ventilation”.

     

    Requested features were:

    1. The users want to be able to where sun glasses in a passive position on top of the helmet.

    2. They want head lamp attachment.

    3. It should look good.

    4. Side straps for goggles are requested.

    5. It should be colourful so that it’s easy to detect in the mountain terrain.

    6. And of course, it needs to be lightweight.

     

    The result is a SKIMO helmet I chose to call POC Ibex. It’s a helmet with a double layer EPS liner with multiple functions. It allows for ventilation to the forehead without fogging up the goggles and helps withstanding penetration tests while still having big ventilation holes. It has Magnetic removable ear pads, that can be attached without removing the helmet.

    It’s made from EPS and PC and on the top, it has an extra thick layer of PC for extra protection against rock fall.

  • Sjölander, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Numerisk analys för nybyggnation av sugrörsgalleri i Krångede kraftverk2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Göransson, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Från exkludering till inkludering: En studie för att belysa Digitaliseringens baksida2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital development has since the 1950s given rise to exclusion, but it was not until 1990-2000 that it became a more of a social problem. Digitization grew rapidly and organizations wanted, and still want to take advantage of the benefits that digital funds could create for their organizations, both in recourses as time and money.

    Sweden is one of the countries that are at the forefront of the digital transformation journey, but there is also a back side. The rapid digitization has created a group in the society that has been excluded, which is over a one million people large. This group is represented by people who can also be considered having socially barriers in society based on factors such as age, education, functional variation, unemployment and loneliness.

    The purpose of the study was to shed light on this digital exclusion as a backside of digitalization, get a picture of responsibility, but also to see what work that is in progress today to counter this.

    The study results in responsibility being shared between organizations, private individuals and politicians. Measures are taken today, but not to a sufficient extent. Increased understanding and awareness of what consequences this may entail, which is also exemplified in an interview with a respondent who has been subjected to digital fraud, is required.

  • Gloerfelt-Tarp, Mille
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Rönnberg, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Implementering av chattbot i en kundfokuserad kundservice: Behålla det personliga med kundservice hos en chattbot2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitization continues to accelerate and so does customers’ expectations of businesses and their services. To be able to remain competitive and to maintain pace with the market leaders, high availability and customer service 24/7 is expected. A growing trend to address this requirement is a chatbot. The fear associated with implementing a chatbot is that it may be experienced as cold or impersonal when compared to traditional customer service.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to maintain the personal characteristics of a human customer service during the implementation of a chatbot. To investigate this, a chat bot was developed which and then iteratively tested at a company in the electricity and energy industry. The method used in this implementation was Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM). In each iteration of development, the personal properties of the chatbot were tested against the company's customer service.

    The result of the study shows that there is an opportunity to maintain humanity to a certain extent through several identified factors. The most important factors that have been identified are response delay, making sure the word choices align with company values and target audience, as well as follow-up questions that take previous context into account.

  • Mohammad, Mohammad E.
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    A numerical study of pumping effects on flow velocity distributions in Mosul Dam reservoir using the HEC‐RAS model2020In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water flow direction and velocity affect and controls erosion, transport and deposi- tion of sediment in rivers, reservoirs and different hydraulic structures. One of the main structures affected is pumping stations within the dams wherein the velocity distribution near the station intake is disturbed. The two-dimensional (2-D) HEC-RAS 5.01 model was utilized to study, analyse and evaluate the effects of pumping rates and flow depth on the flow velocity distribution, flow stream power and their effects in the Mosul Dam reservoir. The pumping station was considered as a case study. The station is suffering from sediment accumulation around, and in, its intake and suction pipes. The main inflow sources to the reservoir are the Tigris River and run-off from the valleys within its basin. The reservoir was divided into two parts for the present study, including the upper part near the pumping station (analysed as a two-dimen- sional zone), while the lower part was analysed as a one-dimensional flow to reduce the simulation period computation time (1986–2011). Different operation plans (i.e. pumping rate and water depth) were considered. The results of the depth-averaged velocity model indicated that when the pumping station was working at a range from the designed full capacity (100% to 25% of its full capacity), the maximum flow ve- locity increased from 75 to 4 times the normal velocity when there is no pumping dependent on pumping rate and flow depth. For the same operation plans, the flow stream power varied from around zero values to 400 times at full pumping capacity and low flow depth. For sediment routing along the reservoir, the considered statisti- cal criteria indicated the model performance in estimating the total sediment load deposition and invert bed level is much better than in the case of erosion and deposition areas for different considered bed sections of the reservoir.

  • Liljegren, Anni
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Koncept till campingbutik: Förbättringsarbete av campingbutik med fokus på platsinnovation2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har gjorts i Leksand, 2019, som ett examensarbete för en kandidatexamen i Teknisk design. Anledningen för att detta arbete görs är att förbättra en campingbutik på Leksands Strands camping med fokus på platsinnovation. Då jag själv jobbat i butiken och varit ansvarig för den i tre somrar är detta ett projekt för att hjälpa mig och företaget att utveckla butiken för att göra den mer attraktiv för både gäster och personal. Teorin har fokuserat mycket på turism, platsinnovation samt marknadsföring och delar i platsens identitet. Metoderna i detta projekt har handlat om att hitta och analysera fakta och sedan använda metoder som moodboard och persona för att kunna framföra resultatet om hur butiken ska designas och förbättras. Resultatet utgick från platsinnovationens tre byggstenar; Gestaltning, Innehåll och Marknadsföring. Var del har förslag på förbättringar som alla smälter ihop till ett enda stort förbättringsförslag. I sista delen av denna rapport diskuteras resultatet och frågeställningar samt syfte och mål besvaras.

  • Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kumar, Anil
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kim, Sungwon
    Department of Railroad Construction and Safety Engineering, Dongyang University, Yeongju, Republic of Korea.
    Kashani, Mahsa H.
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Karim, Vahid
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghorban, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Modeling monthly pan evaporation process over the Indian central Himalayas: application of multiple learning artificial intelligence model2020In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 323-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of several predictive models including multiple model-artificial neural network (MM-ANN), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), support vector machine (SVM), multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP), and ‘M5Tree’ were assessed to simulate the pan evaporation in monthly scale (EPm) at two stations (e.g. Ranichauri and Pantnagar) in India. Monthly climatological information were used for simulating the pan evaporation. The utmost effective input-variables for the MM-ANN, MGGP, MARS, SVM, and M5Tree were determined using the Gamma test (GT). The predictive models were compared to each other using several statistical criteria (e.g. mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), Willmott's Index of agreement (WI), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and Legate and McCabe’s Index (LM)) and visual inspection. The results showed that the MM-ANN-1 and MGGP-1 models (NSE, WI, LM, RMSE, MAPE are 0.954, 0.988, 0.801, 0.536 mm/month, 9.988% at Pantnagar station, and 0.911, 0.975, 0.724, and 0.364 mm/month, 12.297% at Ranichauri station, respectively) with input variables equal to six were more successful than the other techniques during testing period to simulate the monthly pan evaporation at both Ranichauri and Pantnagar stations. Thus, the results of proposed MM-ANN-1 and MGGP-1 models will help to the local stakeholders in terms of water resources management.

  • Elmanius, Leona
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Benitez, Sonja
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    För- och nackdelar med mobil datortomografi vid akut diagnostik - En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For patients in need of urgent medical care, the time to diagnosis and treatment is an important factor. The role of the X-ray nurse is important in emergency diagnostics as they are responsible for conducting X-ray examinations. Today, mobile X-ray services, primarily conventional X-ray examinations, are for instance available for unstable patients. These services offer rapid diagnosis, but many urgent issues require examinations using a computed tomography (CT). Aim: The aim of this study was to compile the pros and cons of mobile CT in acute care diagnostics. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review. A systematic literature search was conducted in three medical databases. In total, ten quantitative articles were quality-reviewed and analyzed. Results: It appears in the results that the advantages of a mobile CT are several, such as reduced time for the diagnosis and treatment and reduced workload for the healthcare personnel. A mobile CT also counteracts transport-related complications in high-risk patients. However, it also states that the disadvantages, such as increased radiation dose, inferior image quality and increased costs, should be taken into account. Conclusion: The mobile CT has been shown to increase patient safety, which is an important factor in healthcare. The device, despite its drawbacks, has a great potential to facilitate diagnostics in patients in critical situations. Hopefully, this device will be further developed to be used regularly.

  • Malin, Gawell
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Truls, Neubeck
    Ideell Arena.
    Innovationslabb för social inkludering: Erfarenheter från Vinnova-finansierade projekt2020 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I boken presenteras en analys av erfarenheterna från tio projekt som finansieras inom Vinnovas utlysning ”Social innovation mot segregation – finansiering av innovationslabb för ökad inkludering” under perioden 2017-2019. Analysen bygger på projektledarnas erfarenheter av att leda och organisera innovationslabben, som dokumenterats genom workshops, enkät och projektmaterial. Rapporten är framtagen inom ramen för det kunskapsstöd som letts av Ideell Arena i samarbete med Södertörns högskola och Luleå tekniska universitet.

  • Asplund, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Rosa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar det korta mötet med personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For radiographers, expertise is required to be able to meet patients with different types of needs, including patient with dementia and their specific needs. This specific patient group often feel insecure and anxious and this is exacerbated in hospital environments. Therefore, radiographers face special challenges when it comes to providing persons with dementia with the optimal and safe care they need. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to identify which factors that affect the short meeting in the care of people with dementia. Method: The study was conducted as a qualitative literature review. A systematic search in the databases PubMed and CINAHL resulted in 9 articles that were quality checked and analyzed. The results were presented as categories. Results: Six different factors affected the short meeting of persons with dementia; communication, person-centred care, knowledge, time, environment & organization and relatives. Conclusion: All these factors are of great importance for the care of persons with dementia. To be able to meet this patient group with dignity more time is required. Time allows for better communication and more person-centred care. More research is needed on the short meeting in the radiology department as it is lacking in the literature. It would have been of great interest and importance to know how the radiographers best can meet the needs of this patient group despite the lack of time in the short care meeting.

  • Bocké, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    ”Hand reach star excursion balance test”: Assessment of dynamic functional mobility in female elite team gymnasts in relation to overuse injuries2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clinical usable assessment methods to quantify mobility, balance, stability and postural control functions together in a full kinetic chain movement are sparse. Normative data of such dynamic functions in different group of athletes are  still lacking and therefore the relationship between dynamic functional mobility and overuse injuries are also unknown. The prevalence of overuse injuries among adolescent athletes are continuously high and team gymnastic is one example of a sport with multiple and underestimated overuse injuries.

     

    Aim

    The first aim of study was to establish normative data of dynamic functional mobility in a group of elite team gymnasts. The second aim was to investigate ongoing overuse injuries and evaluate associations between ongoing overuse injuries and dynamic functional mobility in the group.

     

    Method

    A descriptive cross sectional study including 31 female elite team gymnasts 16-19 years old were conducted. “The hand reach star excursion balance test” (HSEBT) was used to measure dynamic functional mobility in 20 different movement patterns. The "Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire"(OSTRC) was used to record and analyse severity of ongoing overuse injuries in the group. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the scoring in the HSEBT- tests and scoring on the OSTRC.

     

    Results

    A majority of the participants presented with scores near the maximum values on the HSEBT. Further,  97% of the subjects had an ongoing overuse injury. Severe injuries, affecting participation in sport were present in 67%. Correlations was found between prevalence of severe injury in the lower back and lower scoring on the right leg in a rotational movement pattern (r= -0,42) whereas prevalence of severe injury in the hip was associated with extreme high mobility in a sidebending pattern in both legs (r= 0,50, 0,49). There was also a relationship between individuals with multiple severe overuse injuries and dynamic functional mobility in an extended movement pattern of the left leg (r= -0,36, -0,38).

     

    Conclusion

    Normative data of dynamic functional mobility according to the HSEBT can provide clinicians with reference points to compare elite female team gymnasts. There was an indication of association between limited mobility in some of the included tests and prevalence of overuse injuries in the lower back and hip. This study included a small sample and therefore conclusions have to be interpreted carefully.

  • Carlsten, Katarina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Inverkan av Pulvermorfologi på Flytbarhet under Siktning2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hellberg, Jennifer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Analys av deformationsutveckling under framdrift av tunnlar2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, a correlation developed by Hanafy and Emery (1980), is often used to estimate deformations at the tunnel face for projects where rock reinforcement is to be installed near the tunnel face. It shows how deformations at a reference plane develops as a function of the distance to the tunnel face. In this thesis, the displacements was studied in order to investigate how tunnel geometry, rock coverage, stresses and rock quality affected the accumulation of displacements in a tunnel during excavation. Studies of rock reinforcement were conducted with purpose to compare results from simulations when the shotcrete hardening process had been considered and when maximum stiffness was assumed directly at installation. Load in bolts was also studied. The study showed that elastic analyses with FLAC3D can recreate analysis results and correlation developed by Hanafy and Emery. Combinations of changed stress field, tunnel geometry and/or rock cover resulted in three-dimensional effects which gave a different displacement ratio compared to Hanafy and Emery. This could be generalised to all cases in which the stress field differed from a hydrostatic stress field. Based on the study it is recommended to only use the correlation for estimating displacements near a tunnel face when hydrostatic stress field and elastic material behaviour can be assumed. Three-dimensional modelling should always be carried out in cases where the stress field cannot be assumed hydrostatic in order to correctly estimate displacements and stresses around the tunnel in the vicinity of the tunnel face. Simulation of rock reinforcement should be carried out based on the actual excavation sequence that will take place. Simulations should be performed with project-specific input data so that load history and displacements can be estimated properly and used in design.

  • Rentz, Ralf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Från insamling av data till användbar karta: Formativ undervisning för GIS-projektarbeten inom geografiundervisning på gymnasieskolan2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta utvecklingsarbete betraktar formativ undervisning för GIS-projektarbeten från insamlingav data till användbar karta inom geografiundervisning på gymnasieskolan. Studien utgår från ett sociokulturellt lärandeperspektiv där kommunikation mellan lärare och elever har en nyckelroll. Problem och frågor blir därmed utgångspunkt för lärandet och kan initiera formativ agerande av läraren. Under lektionsseriens gång har läraren försökt att hela tiden reflektera över vad den ser och vad som kan göras annorlunda i undervisningssyfte. Utifrån det har läraren bestämt sig för metoder och vägar för att sprida geografins kunskap till elever och samtidigt granska sitt agerande. En kategorisering av lärarens agerande visar att diskussioner med eleverna har en central roll inom formativ undervisning. Att diskutera med eleverna är det främsta undervisningssätt som används tillsammans med att ge instruktioner, motivera elever eller erbjuda eleverna material att arbeta vidare med. Motiv till att läraren väljer agera formativt kan uppstå i en samtalssituation med elever, i läsning av elevers skrivna material eller genom att iaktta elevernas ageranden respektive lyssnandet till deras egna diskussioner. Det visar sig att inom en lektionsserie om och med GIS ges stor möjlighet att elevers utvecklingsprocess gynnas när de gemensam utför praktiska uppgifter där de är tvungna att kommunicera och på olika sätt delar erfarenheter med varandra. Samtidigt ger det läraren chansen till att observera och reflektera med möjlighet att agera formativt. Att mäta själva effekten genom formativt agerande har förblivit svårbedömt men utifrån de gjorda erfarenheterna uppmuntras till att använda sig och pröva formativ undervisning särskilt i ramar av projektarbeten.

  • Bergmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Department of Education, Piteå municipality, Piteå, Sweden.
    How Teachers and Principals Enact the Policy of Building Education in Sweden on a Scientific Foundation and Proven Experience: Challenges and Opportunities2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, Sweden was the first country in the world to introduce a legal requirement that education should be research-based, placing huge demands on schools. The study’s aim is to explore how, through sensemaking, teachers and principals enact this policy in schools. In total, 272 teachers and 23 principals from pre-schools, leisure-time centers, compulsory schools, and upper secondary schools completed a questionnaire.

    The findings show the need for understanding central policy concepts, alignment with previous experiences, and a social context within which the policy can be understood, negotiated, and enacted. Policy enactment was dependent on the support given – professional development, time, and financial resources. Teachers and principals have so far experienced challenges and opportunities – a rewarding if complex process.

  • Setzman, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Tränare, domare och styrelseledamöter: Kvinnors historiska förutsättningar inom basketens bestämmande organ2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I have researched different prerequisites for women to engage as coaches, referees or board members within basketball in Luleå between the years 1969 to 1989. The different prerequisites that have been analyzed are economic and social and possibilities for competence development. To find answers for this I have researched change in gender balance in board meetings and among coaches but also how questions about equality have been discussed in meetings and if actions have been made to include more women. The prime material has been protocols from board meetings and movement stories from The Basketball Association of Norrbotten and Gammelstads Basketball Club. The content in these have been connected to national guidelines that was formed by the National Sports Association during the twenty years that the essay is limited to. The result shows that it has been difficult for women to take place within decision makings in basketball. Most board members, coaches and referees have often been men and the underrepresentation of women was not presented as a problem in the beginning. Even when women have taken place in boards and have started to work more actively with equality, the formulation of problems have often considered women to be the reason that there is inequality. Despite the problems, basketball in Luleå has achieved a more even gender balance in boards compared to sports on a national level. On the other hand, inequality is still a fact on the coaching side.   

  • Hai, Tao
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammed, Achite
    Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Laboratory of Water and Environment, University Hassiba Benbouali Chlef, Hay Es-Salem Chlef, Algeria.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Deo, Ravinesh C.
    School of Agricultural, Computational and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Applied Climate Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, QLD, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Global Solar Radiation Estimation and Climatic Variability Analysis Using Extreme Learning Machine Based Predictive Model2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 12026-12042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable utilization of the freely available solar radiation as renewable energy source requires accurate predictive models to quantitatively evaluate future energy potentials. In this research, an evaluation of the preciseness of extreme learning machine (ELM) model as a fast and efficient framework for estimating global incident solar radiation (G) is undertaken. Daily meteorological datasets suitable for G estimation belongs to the northern parts of the Cheliff Basin in Northwest Algeria, is used to construct the estimation model. Cross-correlation functions are applied between the inputs and the target variable (i.e., G) where several climatological information’s are used as the predictors for surface level G estimation. The most significant model inputs are determined in accordance with highest cross-correlations considering the covariance of the predictors with the G dataset. Subsequently, seven ELM models with unique neuronal architectures in terms of their input-hidden-output neurons are developed with appropriate input combinations. The prescribed ELM model’s estimation performance over the testing phase is evaluated against multiple linear regressions (MLR), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models and several well-established literature studies. This is done in accordance with several statistical score metrics. In quantitative terms, the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) are dramatically lower for the optimal ELM model with RMSE and MAE = 3.28 and 2.32 Wm −2 compared to 4.24 and 3.24 Wm −2 (MLR) and 8.33 and 5.37 Wm −2 (ARIMA).

  • Jansson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lext, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Effekter på posturalt svaj och bålstyrka efter fyra veckors knäböjsträning på stabilt respektive instabilt underlag: En experimentell pilotstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Knäböj är en populär dynamisk övning som involverar bålen. Övningen kan utföras på stabilt eller instabilt underlag. Tidigare studier har visat på att bålmuskelaktiviteten mätt med EMG har varit liknande oavsett underlag. Kraftutvecklingen har däremot visat sig minska vid knäböj utfört på instabilt underlag jämfört med stabilt underlag. Ett begränsat antal studier har tidigare undersökt kraftutveckling efter en interventionsperiod på endast fyra veckor. Vidare har inga tidigare studier undersökt kraftutvecklingen i bålen mätt med Biodex efter en interventionsperiod med knäböjsträning. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur posturalt svaj samt utvecklingen av maximal styrka vid flexion och extension i bål påverkades av en träningsperiod med instabilt underlag kontra stabilt underlag vid belastade knäböj. Metod: En experimentell kvantitativ randomiserad pilotstudie gjordes. Under en fyra veckors interventionsperiod genomförde fem kvinnor och tre män en knäböjsövning två gånger per vecka. Deltagarna delades slumpvis in i två grupper; grupp 1 (n=4) utförde knäböjsövningen på stabilt underlag och grupp 2 (n=4) på instabilt underlag. Maximal bålmuskelstyrka under flexion och extension samt posturalt svaj på instabilt underlag (quiet stance) mättes innan och efter interventionsperioden. Resultat: Både träning på stabilt och instabilt underlag kan ge effekter på styrka efter en kort träningsperiod på fyra veckor. Träning på instabilt underlag kan förbättra posturalt svaj på liknande underlag. Konklusion: Sammanfattningsvis så går det att få styrkeökningar både vid träning på stabilt och instabilt underlag på en fyra veckors träningsperiod med tung belastning. Den instabila gruppen visade även stora förbättringar i posturalt svaj.

  • Rifalk, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Framtagande av principritningar för tillgänglighetsanpassade gång- och cykelkorsningar i Luleå Kommun2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt plan- och bygglagen ska allmänna platser kunna användas av personer med nedsatt rörelse- eller orienteringsförmåga. Anpassningar måste därför byggas in i trafikmiljöerna. I Luleå Kommun har anpassningar gjorts under årens lopp för att uppfylla dessa krav, problemet är bara att utformningarna av dessa anpassningar inte följer ett enhetligt mönster. Dessa anpassningar kan bli ett drift- och underhållsproblem om inte genomtänka lösningar byggs. I detta arbete har teori och praktiska erfarenheter legat till grund för upprättandet av förslag till principritningar. En undersökning skickades ut till intresseorganisationer där medlemmar är i behov av dessa anpassningar för att kunna färdas i de allmänna trafikmiljöerna. Fokus har legat på att utforma kanstenslinjen vid gång- och cykelkorsningar, höjdsättning och taktila ytor. Målet med detta arbete var att resultatet skulle kunna nyttjas av Luleå Kommun som stöd vid planering och projektering av trafikmiljöer för att få en enhetlig utformning. Ritningarna presenterade i detta arbete ska ligga till grund för ett fortsatt arbete med principritningar som senare kan införlivas i Luleå Kommuns projekteringsanvisningar.

  • Savran, Niyazi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Integration of an Attitude Simulation Framework in a Multi Satellite Formation Flying Simulation Framework2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Soto, Chris
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Do Clay Minerals affect the thickener operationin Chuquicamata mine, Calama, Chile?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chuquicamata mine mineralogy has been studied performing both X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-RayFluorescence (XRF) to determine whether there is any influence in the thickener operations. Thetargeted minerals were the clay group because of their detrimental effect on mining operations asmodify the rheology of the suspensions. The operation stages most affected by the presence of the clayminerals are gravity separation, milling, conveyor belts, flotation and specially thickener operations. Inorder to cope with Chuquicamata production, the plant is constantly fed from a neighboring ore calledRadomiro Tomic (RT) ore, a secondary sulfide enrichment. At Chuquicamata, the thickener operatorfeedback has been pointed out that every time the concentrator plant is fed in high ratio with this so-called RT ore the mineral processing is hindered. For this reason, RT ore samples from a criticaloperation day were sent to Sweden for mineralogical analysis. In addition, flotation tailings from thethree Chuquicamata concentrator plants were also sent aimed to perform thickener pilot tests. In thismanner, it was seen if it could be possible to achieve new operational strategies in Chuquicamatathickener operations given the current Chuquicamata mineralogy and physical conditions in the flotationtailings.From the XRD analysis, the following clay minerals were identified in order of abundance:

                                              Illite>>Kaolinite>SmectiteThus, illite reached up to 23.3vol% being the highest clay amount, followed by lower case kaolinite up to2.5% and up to 1% of smectite values correspond for the RT sample. However, the clay content in theflotation tailings samples were less than expected. Also, clay Crystallinity was also assessed for its abilityto interfere negatively with the pulp rheology, and the results showed that there is a strong link amongpoor crystallized smectite clay with the semi-autogenous mill compare to those samples where themilling was performed in the traditional steel media. Along with the three clay minerals found, quartz,potassic feldspar, and plagioclase were also identified, accounting for up to 76% of the representativesample. The silicate minerals are thought to be problematic in Chuquicamata thickener operations givenits high amount, especially in <2 µm size.For the thickener tests, three types of polyacrylamide were used plus the current Chuquicamataflocculant. Prior to the sedimentation batch test, the rheology of the flocculants was measured in arange of 0.02%w/w to 1%. It was found that flocculant concentrations between 0.02 to 0.05%w/w themost suitable in terms of avoiding suspension rheology increase. After establishing suitable flocculantconcentrations solutions, these were used in the thickener pilot tests at conditions similar to thoseperformed in Chuquicamata thickener operations. Two criteria were used to analyze the bestsedimentation conditions: Initial settling rate (ISR); and Turbidimeter. At pH in a range of 11-12 and 15%solid, bridging flocculation probed to be the most suitable conditions for Chuquicamata thickeneroperations. Moreover, a polyacrylamide blend was tested aiming to achieve high sedimentationperformances. The flocculant blend reached both the highest initial sedimentations rate up to 48m/hand turbidity values below 20NTU at addition rate 5g/t and 7g/t. On the other hand, Chuquicamatacurrent flocculant only reached the highest values of 36m/h and turbidity of 40NTU at an addition rateof 5g/t. In this way, the current work established that conditions at Chuquicamata thickener operation

    4can be improved by understanding the absorption process among particle-polymer and mineralogy ofthe mine.Hence, the implication of this work to Chuquicamata mine is a better knowledge of its mineralogyespecially concerned with it is believed that clay minerals are not the only mineralogical factors thatcould be hindering thickener operations in Chuquicamata. Other factors that also could be problematicare: high content of silicates; clay crystallinity, particle size and mixed clay. In addition, the improvementin the thickener sedimentation operations will bring better use of the water by increasing therecirculation towards the concentrator area in a friendly way with the environment and communitiesthat also demand water in the arid region of the Atacama Desert.

  • Vairavan, Arvind
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Measuring of Channel-Energy relationship for the SVOM/ECLAIRs camera2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Zainy, Maher T.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bauer, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Geometric Analysis of the Minor Structures in Iraqi Part of the Zagros Belt, NE Iraq2018In: 9th International Symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology 07-11 May 2018 Antalya-Turkey: Abstracts and Proceedings Book / [ed] M. Gurhan Yalcin, Yasemin Leventeli, Turkey: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2018, p. 324-324Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometric analysis was carried out on part of the Zagros Belt, along the border between Iraq andIran, within rocks of Cretaceous age, which are composed of alternative sequences of competentand incompetent layers, and it contains a number of minor structures. The minor folds identifiedwithin the study area have different shapes, orientations and sizes, and exhibit high intensityfolding. Their wave length and amplitude range from few centimeters up to tens of meters. They areranged from gentle to tight according to the Fleuty, 1964 classification. Class 1B is dominated andfollowed by class 1C according to the Ramsay, 1967. The orientation of the minor folds, theirrelation with the major structures, variance in their shapes and sizes and difference interlimb angle,all indicate that they were developed progressively and in harmony with the major structuredevelopment. It can be concluded that the congruous and subcongruous minor folds weredeveloped successively during a single phase of deformation with simulation of variouscompressive stress directions (generally, at NE-SW and E-W), and the reorientation of the stressfield from one direction to another is attributed to the oblique collision between the Arabian andEurasian plates and to the anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian plate relative to Eurasian plate.