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Alm, Håkan
Publications (10 of 82) Show all publications
Rouchitsas, A. & Alm, H. (2023). Smiles and Angry Faces vs. Nods and Head Shakes: Facial Expressions at the Service of Autonomous Vehicles. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 7(2), Article ID 10.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smiles and Angry Faces vs. Nods and Head Shakes: Facial Expressions at the Service of Autonomous Vehicles
2023 (English)In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, E-ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When deciding whether to cross the street or not, pedestrians take into consideration information provided by both vehicle kinematics and the driver of an approaching vehicle. It will not be long, however, before drivers of autonomous vehicles (AVs) will be unable to communicate their intention to pedestrians, as they will be engaged in activities unrelated to driving. External human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been developed to fill the communication gap that will result by offering information to pedestrians about the situational awareness and intention of an AV. Several anthropomorphic eHMI concepts have employed facial expressions to communicate vehicle intention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of emotional (smile; angry expression) and conversational (nod; head shake) facial expressions in communicating vehicle intention (yielding; non-yielding). Participants completed a crossing intention task where they were tasked with deciding appropriately whether to cross the street or not. Emotional expressions communicated vehicle intention more efficiently than conversational expressions, as evidenced by the lower latency in the emotional expression condition compared to the conversational expression condition. The implications of our findings for the development of anthropomorphic eHMIs that employ facial expressions to communicate vehicle intention are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
external human-machine interfaces, autonomous vehicles, pedestrians, traffic flow, virtual human characters, emotional facial expressions, conversational facial expressions
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90171 (URN)10.3390/mti7020010 (DOI)000941015100001 ()2-s2.0-85148725161 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-01-24 (johcin);

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2022-04-12 Created: 2022-04-12 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved
Rouchitsas, A. & Alm, H. (2022). Communicating Vehicle Non-Yielding Intention via Emotional Facial Expressions: Angry vs. Surprised.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicating Vehicle Non-Yielding Intention via Emotional Facial Expressions: Angry vs. Surprised
2022 (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90168 (URN)
Available from: 2022-04-12 Created: 2022-04-12 Last updated: 2022-05-03
Rouchitsas, A. & Alm, H. (2022). Ghost on the Windshield: Employing a Virtual Human Character to Communicate Pedestrian Acknowledgement and Vehicle Intention. Information, 13(9), Article ID 420.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ghost on the Windshield: Employing a Virtual Human Character to Communicate Pedestrian Acknowledgement and Vehicle Intention
2022 (English)In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pedestrians base their street-crossing decisions on vehicle-centric as well as driver-centric cues. In the future, however, drivers of autonomous vehicles will be preoccupied with non-driving related activities and will thus be unable to provide pedestrians with relevant communicative cues. External human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) hold promise for filling the expected communication gap by providing information about a vehicle’s situational awareness and intention. In this paper, we present an eHMI concept that employs a virtual human character (VHC) to communicate pedestrian acknowledgement and vehicle intention (non-yielding; cruising; yielding). Pedestrian acknowledgement is communicated via gaze direction while vehicle intention is communicated via facial expression. The effectiveness of the proposed anthropomorphic eHMI concept was evaluated in the context of a monitor-based laboratory experiment where the participants performed a crossing intention task (self-paced, two-alternative forced choice) and their accuracy in making appropriate street-crossing decisions was measured. In each trial, they were first presented with a 3D animated sequence of a VHC (male; female) that either looked directly at them or clearly to their right while producing either an emotional (smile; angry expression; surprised expression), a conversational (nod; head shake), or a neutral (neutral expression; cheek puff) facial expression. Then, the participants were asked to imagine they were pedestrians intending to cross a one-way street at a random uncontrolled location when they saw an autonomous vehicle equipped with the eHMI approaching from the right and indicate via mouse click whether they would cross the street in front of the oncoming vehicle or not. An implementation of the proposed concept where non-yielding intention is communicated via the VHC producing either an angry expression, a surprised expression, or a head shake; cruising intention is communicated via the VHC puffing its cheeks; and yielding intention is communicated via the VHC nodding, was shown to be highly effective in ensuring the safety of a single pedestrian or even two co-located pedestrians without compromising traffic flow in either case. The implications for the development of intuitive, culture-transcending eHMIs that can support multiple pedestrians in parallel are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
external human–machine interfaces, autonomous vehicles, vehicle-to-pedestrian communication, traffic safety, gaze direction, emotional facial expressions, conversational facial expressions, neutral facial expressions
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90165 (URN)10.3390/info13090420 (DOI)000856467300001 ()2-s2.0-85138736115 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-09-12 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-04-12 Created: 2022-04-12 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Rouchitsas, A. & Alm, H. (2019). External Human-Machine Interfaces for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication: A Review of Empirical Work. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 2757.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External Human-Machine Interfaces for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication: A Review of Empirical Work
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2757Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interaction between drivers and pedestrians is often facilitated by informal communicative cues, like hand gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. In the near future, however, when semi- and fully autonomous vehicles are introduced into the traffic system, drivers will gradually assume the role of mere passengers, who are casually engaged in non-driving-related activities and, therefore, unavailable to participate in traffic interaction. In this novel traffic environment, advanced communication interfaces will need to be developed that inform pedestrians of the current state and future behavior of an autonomous vehicle, in order to maximize safety and efficiency for all road users. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive account of empirical work in the field of external human–machine interfaces for autonomous vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. In the great majority of covered studies, participants clearly benefited from the presence of a communication interface when interacting with an autonomous vehicle. Nevertheless, standardized interface evaluation procedures and optimal interface specifications are still lacking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
traffic interaction, human–vehicle interaction, autonomous vehicles, vehicle-to-pedestrian communication, external human–machine interfaces, vulnerable road users
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77420 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02757 (DOI)000504252200001 ()31920810 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077251777 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-01-29 (johcin);

For correction, see: Rouchitsas A and Alm H (2020) Corrigendum: External Human–Machine Interfaces for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication: A Review of Empirical Work. Front. Psychol. 11:575151. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.575151

Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Gotcheva, N., Oedewald, P., Wahlström, M., Macchi, L., Osvalder, A.-L. & Alm, H. (2016). Cultural features of design and shared learning for safety: A Nordic nuclear industry perspective (ed.). Safety Science, 81, 90-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultural features of design and shared learning for safety: A Nordic nuclear industry perspective
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 81, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Safe and functional nuclear industry design is a topic of growing interest due to new builds and modernization projects in the operating nuclear power plants. Provided that good design of components and systems is critical for safe operation of the plants, understanding what influences the process of learning for safety in design activities is of utmost importance. The existing literature emphasizes tensions of design activity but pays insufficient attention to the culture of design and its relation to safety and learning. This paper aims at identifying cultural features of design organizations, such as shared conceptions, assumptions, norms, beliefs, and exploring their influence on the process of shared learning for safety. Case studies were carried out in Finland and Sweden to generate insights on cultural characteristics of design in the nuclear domain. The paper indicates the importance of requirements as a media for sharing knowledge and learning in nuclear industry design projects. As the networked aspects of the design work are gradually acknowledged, the need to learn how to systematically manage the requirements and understand the big picture of the overall design project are highlighted.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6986 (URN)10.1016/j.ssci.2015.04.014 (DOI)000366341500010 ()2-s2.0-84947126482 (Scopus ID)5518e886-699f-4687-86ce-e2189b081655 (Local ID)5518e886-699f-4687-86ce-e2189b081655 (Archive number)5518e886-699f-4687-86ce-e2189b081655 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20150504 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Håkansson, A., Nergård, H. & Alm, H. (2015). Communicating the realization process during technology implementation (ed.). International Journal of Intelligent Decision Technologies, 9(1), 55-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicating the realization process during technology implementation
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Intelligent Decision Technologies, ISSN 1872-4981, E-ISSN 1875-8843, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New technology implies improved efficiency. This potential is not always realized. It has been observed that implementation of new technology within Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, (SMEs), is not as widely spread as it could be. There are several likely grounds for this, e.g. difficulties to keep up to date on the latest technology, financial grounds due to expensive technology and uncertainty regarding what gain one would get from the new technology. Looking at technology implementation, a major part of the failed implementation attempts are caused by non-technological reasons, such as organizational and human reasons. Visualizing the expected result and also the implementation process to the SME prior to the actual implementation, the communication is much more direct and the actions the SME has to perform before, during and after the implementation is made clear. When implementing new technology, the information process is crucial. This paper discusses the value of communicating the entire process and the results thereof when evaluating a technology for eventual implementation. The results is viewed in two ways, first the realization of the products whether they meet the needs of the companies or not, second the actual realization process is developed and analysed to suit each company.

Keywords
Implementation, communication, visualization, realization, prototypes, CogInfoCom
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Industrial Design; Product Innovation; Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-2958 (URN)10.3233/IDT-140205 (DOI)000357256900006 ()2-s2.0-84921019415 (Scopus ID)0b45b99b-9a48-4670-b03e-c201f686cf06 (Local ID)0b45b99b-9a48-4670-b03e-c201f686cf06 (Archive number)0b45b99b-9a48-4670-b03e-c201f686cf06 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20140402 (ahak)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2022-08-30Bibliographically approved
Davidsson, S. & Alm, H. (2014). Context adaptable driver information: Or, what do whom need and want when? (ed.). Applied Ergonomics, 45(4), 994-1002
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context adaptable driver information: Or, what do whom need and want when?
2014 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 994-1002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study deals with a first step towards context adaptive functionality of a Driver Information System.Driving a car is a complex task for which the driver needs appropriate information to fulfil his or her goals. New technologies enable adaptability to driver state, task, personality etcetera and also to the context.The aim of this study was therefore to investigate what information people perceive that they need and want from the car in different contexts and to what extent there is consensus about the function. A new methodology was developed, and 33 private car drivers were interviewed and asked to rate a number of possible abstract functions in a car in different contexts.It was shown that people need and want different types of information in different contexts. It was furthermore indicated that there is sometimes a difference in drivers' opinions about what should be presented by the car and that there is varying consensus over different functions in different contexts. The rating result was illustrated by an easily perceived Context Function Matrix. The results may be used in the design of a context adaptive driver information system.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6899 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2013.12.004 (DOI)000337013300020 ()24534693 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84899064791 (Scopus ID)53b1cd21-9120-44c7-a673-88826a85c964 (Local ID)53b1cd21-9120-44c7-a673-88826a85c964 (Archive number)53b1cd21-9120-44c7-a673-88826a85c964 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140217 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Grane, C. & Alm, H. (2013). Project: Life on Board.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Life on Board
2013 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

New generation of gear shifters in cars

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36260 (URN)ceb9f6f4-ca5d-41a6-bdfe-c0c188ecd509 (Local ID)ceb9f6f4-ca5d-41a6-bdfe-c0c188ecd509 (Archive number)ceb9f6f4-ca5d-41a6-bdfe-c0c188ecd509 (OAI)
Note

Status: Ongoing; Period: 01/04/2013 → 30/09/2015

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Grane, C. & Alm, H. (2013). Project: MODAS - Methods for Designing Future Autonomous Systems.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: MODAS - Methods for Designing Future Autonomous Systems
2013 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Research project with Scania. My research will focus driving simulation methods for evaluating driver safety and driver system functionality.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36038 (URN)3b1fd990-fccd-40b3-b991-bc13658d81f1 (Local ID)3b1fd990-fccd-40b3-b991-bc13658d81f1 (Archive number)3b1fd990-fccd-40b3-b991-bc13658d81f1 (OAI)
Note

Publikationer: Automated driving put new demands on driving evaluation methods; The Methods for Designing Future Autonomous Systems (MODAS) project: Developing the cab for a highly autonomous truck; Status: Ongoing; Period: 26/02/2013 → 28/02/2015

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Alm, H., Gärling, A., Saellström Bonnevier, S. & Danielsson, M. (2012). How to increase safety in complex systems - an ongoing project (ed.). Paper presented at World Congress on Ergonomics : 12/02/2012 - 16/02/2012. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, 41(Suppl. 1), 3234-3237
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to increase safety in complex systems - an ongoing project
2012 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3234-3237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to describe an ongoing project with the aim of improving safety in an organization working with maintenance and development of the railway infrastructure in Sweden. The first sub goal was to investigate the Genta method, with 62 employees resulted in a description of these latent errors in the organization.eral Failure Types in the organization. Seminars and interviews, based on the Tripod Del Recommendations for an improvement toward a safety culture was suggested, action plans were formulated and, in some cases, implemented. A follow up study is planned in a two year perspective.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35152 (URN)10.3233/WOR-2012-0588-3234 (DOI)000306361803058 ()22317210 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84859823916 (Scopus ID)991dd81b-8e4c-48b4-bf22-e5aebe584b4e (Local ID)991dd81b-8e4c-48b4-bf22-e5aebe584b4e (Archive number)991dd81b-8e4c-48b4-bf22-e5aebe584b4e (OAI)
Conference
World Congress on Ergonomics : 12/02/2012 - 16/02/2012
Note

Validerad; 2012; 20120213 (andbra); Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2024-03-28Bibliographically approved
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