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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Kour, R., Tretten, P., Karim, R. & Singh, S. (2019). Cybersecurity Workforce in Railway: A Case Study. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019: . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cybersecurity Workforce in Railway: A Case Study
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Railway will continue to adapt new digital solutions which are necessary and vulnerable to cyber threats. The history of cyber-attacks on critical infrastructures including railway suggests that there is a need for cybersecurity awareness. Both for employees and the general public. The very first step in cyber hygiene is cybersecurity training and awareness for the workforce. A well-educated workforce plays a vital role in building more cyber resiliency across the organization's operation and maintenance. The objective of this research is to evaluate the cybersecurity maturity level for workforce management in three railway organizations. The results show that there is a cybersecurity workforce gap and there is a need to eliminate this gap by enhancing cybersecurity workforce culture. Henceforth, this gap can be improved by developing cybersecurity culture, including cybersecurity training and awareness and by following recommendations provided in this paper.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75936 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-10
Illankoon, P., Tretten, P. & Singh, S. (2019). Decision Support System for Flight Maintenance Technicians: Issues and Challenges. In: Miguel Casta ̃no Arranz (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th international workshop and congress on eMaintenace: eMaintenance Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications. Paper presented at 5th international workshop and congress on eMaintenace (pp. 88-94). Luleå, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision Support System for Flight Maintenance Technicians: Issues and Challenges
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th international workshop and congress on eMaintenace: eMaintenance Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Miguel Casta ̃no Arranz, Luleå, Sweden, 2019, p. 88-94Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this article, we summarize the key insights into the fast-rising areas in decision support and integration of flight maintenance information. The study elaborates the need and challenges of decision support for flight maintenance technicians. The major focus is on the decision support that allows maintenance technicians as end users to interact and get a better understanding of the systems (flights) they are dealing with. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå, Sweden: , 2019
Keywords
Decision support, fight maintenance, Situation Awareness
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76499 (URN)978-91-7790-475-5 (ISBN)
Conference
5th international workshop and congress on eMaintenace
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2019-10-24 Created: 2019-10-24 Last updated: 2019-10-28
Illankoon, P., Manathunge, Y., Tretten, P., Abeysekara, J. & Singh, S. (2019). Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective. Safety, 5(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Safety, ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) applications. Few studies have examined LOTO effectiveness from a user perspective. This article studies LOTO processes at a manufacturing organization from a situation awareness (SA) perspective. Technicians and machine operators were interviewed, a focus group discussion was conducted, and operators were observed. Qualitative content analysis revealed perceptual, comprehension and projection challenges associated with different phases of LOTO applications. The findings can help lockout/tagout device manufacturers and organizations that apply LOTO to achieve maximum protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
lockout, tagout, qualitative content analysis, situation awareness
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73795 (URN)10.3390/safety5020025 (DOI)000474934600008 ()2-s2.0-85071440225 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-05-29 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2020-01-30Bibliographically approved
Martinetti, A., Costa Marques, H., Singh, S. & van Dongen, L. (2019). Reflections on the Limited Pervasiveness of Augmented Reality in Industrial Sectors. Applied Sciences, 9(16), Article ID 3382.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflections on the Limited Pervasiveness of Augmented Reality in Industrial Sectors
2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 16, article id 3382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper aims to investigate the reasons why Augmented Reality (AR) has not fully broken the industrial market yet, or found a wider application in industries. The main research question the paper tries to answer is: what are the factors (and to what extent) that are limiting AR? Firstly, a reflection on the state of art of AR applications in industries is proposed, to discover the sectors more commonly chosen for deploying the technology so far. Later, based on a survey conducted after that, three AR applications have been tested on manufacturing, automotive, and railway sectors, and the paper pinpoints key aspects that are conditioning its embedding in the daily working life. In order to compare whether the perception of employees from railway, automotive, and manufacturing sectors differs significantly, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used. Later, suggestions are formulated in order to improve these aspects in the industry world. Finally, the paper indicates the main conclusions, highlighting possible future researches to start.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
augmented reality, augmented reality integration, augmented reality limitations, automotive, manufacturing, railway
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75903 (URN)10.3390/app9163382 (DOI)000484444100176 ()2-s2.0-85070926761 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-09 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Kyriakidis, M., Simanjuntak, S., Singh, S. & Majumdar, A. (2019). The indirect costs assessment of railway incidents and their relationship to human error: The case of Signals Passed at Danger. Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, 9, 34-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The indirect costs assessment of railway incidents and their relationship to human error: The case of Signals Passed at Danger
2019 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 9, p. 34-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The majority of railway incidents result neither in passenger nor operators harm, nor they lead to any severe damage on the rolling stock or the infrastructure. Nevertheless, such incidents result in financial loses, broadly known as indirect costs, which are difficult to identify, isolate, evaluate, and quantify. This paper introduces a framework to quantify the indirect costs in railway operations. Furthermore, as degraded human performance remains a major contributor to operational errors and railway incidents, this study explores for associations between the indirect costs and the factors that affect and contribute to degraded human performance. The framework was implemented in the calculation of the Category A1 Signals Passed at Danger (SPADs) indirect costs. Data was obtained from two UK train operators, while the associated human performance was analysed using the Railway-Performance Shaping Factors (R-PSFs) taxonomy. Employing Spearman's rank order correlation and Fisher's exact statistical tests the associations between R-PSFs and indirect costs were reviewed. Results show significant correlations between the R-PSFs and indirect costs, but only if the importance and severity of every individual R-PSFs is considered. We expect our findings to aid the relevant stakeholders on their efforts to make better decisions on improving safety performance of railway operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Railway incidents, Human performance, Indirect costs, Railway Performance Shaping Factors, Signals passed at Danger
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73039 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2019.01.001 (DOI)000467306500004 ()2-s2.0-85059800313 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-17 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-02-27 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Singh, S., Kumar, R. & Kumar, U. (2015). Applying human factor analysis tools to a railway brake and wheel maintenance facility (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 21(1), 89-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying human factor analysis tools to a railway brake and wheel maintenance facility
2015 (English)In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PurposeThis paper demonstrates three techniques to extract human factor information from specific railway maintenance tasks. It describes the techniques and shows how these tools can be applied to identify improvements in maintenance practices and workflow. Design/methodology/approachThree case studies were conducted on single group of technicians (N=19) at a railway maintenance workshop in Luleå, Sweden. Case study I examined the posture of the technicians while they were changing the brake shoes of freight wagons; the study employed the Standard Nordic Questionnaire and a videotape using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). Case study II looked at maintenance repair times required to change the wheel axle on freight wagons at the workshop. A video filming method suggested by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work was used to measure actual maintenance time. Finally, case study III considered the technicians’ (N=19) perception of work demands, their control over the work and their social support while performing maintenance tasks (brake shoe and wheel axle maintenance); to this end, the case study used a demand control support questionnaire. FindingsIn the first case study, the Standard Nordic Questionnaire confirmed that technicians at this particular railway vehicle maintenance workshop suffer from back and shoulder pain. The Ovako Working Posture Analysis showed that 21% of the working time required to fit the brake wedge and cotter pin fits into two OWAS categories: category 3, where “change is required as soon as possible,” and category 4, where “change is required immediately”. Problems stem from poor workplace layout, incorrect posture and inaccessibility of tools and components. In the second study, the video analysis indicated that the working time to change the wheel axle of a freight wagon is greatly affected by poor workplace layout. The third case study showed that the technicians have lower “psychological demands” (mean=13), “higher control over work” (mean= 16) and “high social support” (mean= 22).Practical implicationsThe objective of this study was to apply knowledge about human factors to the functional relationships between maintenance personnel, tasks and the working environment to improve safety. If the workplace layout, working posture, maintenance manuals and accessibility of tools are poorly planned, maintenance performance can be adversely affected. The results of this study should assist maintenance management to design new policies and guidelines for improving the work environment.Originality/valueThree case studies were conducted at a railway maintenance workshop in Luleå, Sweden, to collect data on how human factors affect various railway maintenance tasks.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14567 (URN)10.1108/JQME-03-2013-0009 (DOI)000211515200005 ()2-s2.0-84923923122 (Scopus ID)df3ca99a-0168-473f-a246-42f1b0d2031f (Local ID)df3ca99a-0168-473f-a246-42f1b0d2031f (Archive number)df3ca99a-0168-473f-a246-42f1b0d2031f (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20150209 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Singh, S., Baglee, D., Knowles, M. & Galar, D. (2015). Developing RCM strategy for wind turbines utilizing e-condition monitoring (ed.). Paper presented at . International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, 6(2), 150-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing RCM strategy for wind turbines utilizing e-condition monitoring
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 150-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Renewable energy sources such as wind energy are available without any limitations. In order to extract this energy efficiency, the reliability of such technologies is critical if pay back periods and power generation requirements are to be met. Due to recent developments in the field of wind engineering and in particular the expansion of installed capacity around the world, the need for reliable and intelligent diagnostic tools is of greater importance. The number of offshore wind turbines installed in the seas around Britain’s coasts is likely to increase from just fewer than 150–7,500 over the next 10 years with the potential cost of £10 billion. Operation and Maintenance activities are estimated to be 35 % against the cost of electricity. However, the development of appropriate and efficient maintenance strategies is currently lacking in the wind industry. The current reliability and failure modes of offshore wind turbines are known and have been used to develop preventive and corrective maintenance strategies which have done little to improve reliability. In addition, the failure of one minor component can cause escalated damage to a major component, which can increase repair and or replacement costs. A reliability centered maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of wind turbine operations since it includes an appreciation of the impact of faults on operations. Due to the high costs involved in performing maintenance and the even higher costs associated with failures and subsequent downtime and repair, it is critical that the impacts are considered when maintenance is planned. This paper provides an overview of the application of RCM and on line e-condition monitoring to wind turbine maintenance management. Unplanned maintenance levels can be reduced by increasing the reliability of the gear box and individual gears through the analysis of lubricants. Finally the paper will discuss the development of a complete sensor-based processing unit that can continuously monitor the wind turbines lubricated systems and provide, via wireless technology, real time data enabling on shore staff with the ability to predict degradation anticipate problems and take remedial action before damage and failure occurs

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15275 (URN)10.1007/s13198-014-0259-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-84929393300 (Scopus ID)ec61de39-2408-442b-9865-ff18202f0c31 (Local ID)ec61de39-2408-442b-9865-ff18202f0c31 (Archive number)ec61de39-2408-442b-9865-ff18202f0c31 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20140822 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Singh, S., Kumar, R. & Kumar, U. (2015). Modelling factors affecting human operator failure probability in railway maintenance tasks: an ISM-based analysis (ed.). Paper presented at . International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, 6(2), 129-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling factors affecting human operator failure probability in railway maintenance tasks: an ISM-based analysis
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 129-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the factors affecting human operators’ probability of failure when performing railway maintenance tasks. The objective is to understand the interaction of the various factors and to identify driving and dependent factors. The factors are identified through a survey of the literature and ranked using a Likert scale. The reliability of measures is pretested by applying Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to responses to the questionnaire given to maintenance personnel. An interpretive structural model is presented, and factors are classified using matrice d’impacts croises-multiplication appliquéà un classement (MICMAC). The research may help maintenance management understand the interaction of factors affecting human failure probability in railway maintenance and help management devise policies and guidelines for railway maintenance related tasks.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-2566 (URN)10.1007/s13198-014-0255-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-84929408169 (Scopus ID)02fff261-e119-455a-8eb4-1194dbe3aa9b (Local ID)02fff261-e119-455a-8eb4-1194dbe3aa9b (Archive number)02fff261-e119-455a-8eb4-1194dbe3aa9b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20140423 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Aalipour, M. & Singh, S. (2014). Identification of Factors affecting Human performance in Mining Maintenance tasks (ed.). In: (Ed.), Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications. Paper presented at International Workshop and Congress on eMaintenance : 17/06/2014 - 18/06/2014 (pp. 71-76). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of Factors affecting Human performance in Mining Maintenance tasks
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications / [ed] Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, p. 71-76Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the factors affecting humanperformance in maintenance task in mining sector. Theobjective is identify various factors and to classify them asdriving (strong driving power and weak dependence) anddependent factors (weak driving power and strongdependence). The factors were identified through literaturesurvey and are ranked using mean score of data questionnaire.The reliability of measures is pretested by applyingCronbach’s alpha coefficient to responses to a questionnairegiven to maintenance personnel. The interrelationshipsbetween human factors have been recognized by interpretivestructural modeling (ISM). Further, these factors have beenclassified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplicationappliqué à un classement (MICMAC) analysing. This casestudy will figure out the factors affecting human performancefor deriving maintenance management insights to improveproductivity in the mining sector. Further, this understandingmay be helpful in framing the policies and strategies formining industry. Temperature, lighting, documentation,communication and fitness are driving factors. Moreover,Work layout, tools availability, complex tasks, time pressure,safety, boss decisions, training, fatigue and motivation havestrong driving power as well as high dependencies and itcomes under the category of linkage factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37208 (URN)b28f9b20-d2b1-49a3-a849-e54aff51ef86 (Local ID)978-91-7439-972-1 (ISBN)978-91-7439-973-8 (ISBN)b28f9b20-d2b1-49a3-a849-e54aff51ef86 (Archive number)b28f9b20-d2b1-49a3-a849-e54aff51ef86 (OAI)
Conference
International Workshop and Congress on eMaintenance : 17/06/2014 - 18/06/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140619 (andbra)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Singh, S., Galar, D., Baglee, D. & Björling, S.-E. (2014). Self-maintenance techniques: a smart approach towards self-maintenance system (ed.). Paper presented at . International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, 5(1), 75-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-maintenance techniques: a smart approach towards self-maintenance system
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The modern systems operating at varying conditions brought a new paradigm shift to in-machine renovation and repair. These systems often encounter an infinite collection of clumsy diagnostic tools and applications that decrease agility, increase time-to-repair, and increase management overheads. One approach is to remove the human and potential costly and time consuming human errors, from the diagnosis of faults and implementation of a maintenance strategy. In order to achieve this it is necessary to develop systems that support advanced intelligent maintenance systems or smart maintenance technologies. Self-maintenance machines can be a better option with the capabilities of condition monitoring, diagnosing, repair planning and executing in order to extend the life and performance of equipment. The objective of this paper is to discuss the concept of self-maintenance, need of self-maintenance, potential scenarios where self-maintenance can be successfully implemented and issues related to self-maintenance machines. It has been concluded that the aim is to have self-maintenance system in order to make a machine capable of reconfiguration, compensation, and self-maintenance.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9275 (URN)10.1007/s13198-013-0200-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-84894648892 (Scopus ID)7ddfbdbf-5ae5-48df-8e39-46676dfd267c (Local ID)7ddfbdbf-5ae5-48df-8e39-46676dfd267c (Archive number)7ddfbdbf-5ae5-48df-8e39-46676dfd267c (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140304 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7229-4050

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