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Valizadeh, A., Faust, R., Skoglund, N., Forsberg, F., Öhman, M. & Knutsson, P. (2024). Role of Particle Geometry on the Structural Integrity of Sand and Rock Ilmenite Used as Oxygen Carrier in Combustion of Woody Biomass. Energy & Fuels, 38(11), 10114-10129
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Role of Particle Geometry on the Structural Integrity of Sand and Rock Ilmenite Used as Oxygen Carrier in Combustion of Woody Biomass
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2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 10114-10129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of particle geometry in the structural integrity of sand and rock ilmenite bed particles was studied under prolonged exposure to oxygen carrier-aided combustion (OCAC) conditions in a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Woody biomass was used as fuel. Bed particles were collected at different stages of the exposure. Fresh bed particles were used as reference samples. All the materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray microtomography (XMT). The obtained results showed that over time, sphericity diminishes in sand ilmenite, whereas the sphericity of rock ilmenite particles remains unchanged. For both bed types, it was noticed that cracks are mainly connected to the concave areas on the bed particle surface. It was also observed that in sand ilmenite, the bed particle layer predominantly forms on convex areas, resulting in nonuniform distribution, whereas in rock ilmenite, with infrequent convex and concave features, the layer is thicker and exhibits a more uniform distribution. Consequently, the bed particle layer in rock ilmenite plays a higher protection against the outward migration of iron. This, coupled with a lower frequency of concave areas, contributes to a reduced average volume fraction of porous regions and cracks, which makes rock ilmenite structurally more resistant to breakage than sand ilmenite. Notably, the difference in the structural integrity of the two bed types becomes even more pronounced with longer exposure times.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2024
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik; Experimentell mekanik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105155 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c00658 (DOI)001225282000001 ()2-s2.0-85192850521 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, P46533-1Vetenskapsrådet, 2023-03500
Anmärkning

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-06-28 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY;

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Tillgänglig från: 2024-04-19 Skapad: 2024-04-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Valizadeh, A., Skoglund, N., Forsberg, F., Lycksam, H. & Öhman, M. (2024). Role of surface morphology in bed particle layer formation on quartz bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass. Fuel, 357(part A), Article ID 129702.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Role of surface morphology in bed particle layer formation on quartz bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass
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2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 357, nr part A, artikel-id 129702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of quartz bed particle surface morphology on the bed particle layer and crack layer formation process in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass was investigated in this work. Bed material samples were collected at different sampling times from the startup with a fresh bed in industrial scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, both utilizing woody biomass. X-ray microtomography (XMT) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) were employed to characterize bed particle layers and crack layers in the samples. Results showed that there is a noticeable difference between the bed layer characteristics over the so-called “concave” and “convex”-shaped morphologies on the bed particle surface with respect to layer formation. The concave areas are mainly covered with a thin inner layer, whilst the convex display a comparably thick inner layer and an outer layer. In addition, 3D images of the particles revealed that the crack layers mainly originate from concave areas where the particle is less protected by an outer bed particle layer in conjunction with cracks in the inner layer.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Nyckelord
Bed material, Industrial-scale, Time-resolved, X-ray tomography
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik; Experimentell mekanik; Strömningslära
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101365 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.129702 (DOI)001070700200001 ()2-s2.0-85170026881 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, no. 46533-1
Anmärkning

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-18 (joosat);

CC BY 4.0 License;

For correction, see: Valizadeh A., Skoglund N., Forsberg F., Lycksam H., Öhman M., (2024). Corrigendum to “Role of surface morphology in bed particle layer formation on quartz bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass” [Fuel 357(Part A) (2024) 129702]. Fuel. 364 131320. doi https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2024.131320

Tillgänglig från: 2023-09-18 Skapad: 2023-09-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Valizadeh, A. (2024). Role of Surface Morphology on Bed Particle Layer Formation During Thermal Conversion of Woody Biomass in Fluidized Beds. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Role of Surface Morphology on Bed Particle Layer Formation During Thermal Conversion of Woody Biomass in Fluidized Beds
2024 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Bed particle layer formation is a crucial aspect of fluidized bed conversion of woody biomass, which can positively and negatively impact the process performance. The layer formation may lead to issues such as bed agglomeration and bed material deposition or reduced oxygen transport capacity of oxygen carriers. However, bed layer formation may positively affect the product gas composition in gasification. While extensive research has been conducted on the interactions between the ash-forming constituents from various wood-derived fuels and different bed materials, the influence of the bed particle surface properties on the bed layer characteristics remains largely unexplored in the existing literature.

This thesis thoroughly studied the role of bed particle surface morphology on the bed layer formation and its characteristics across different bed particle types within various fluidized bed conversion processes of woody biomass. The bed particle samples were collected from different bench-scale, semi-industrialscale, and industrial-scale conversion units at different time intervals from the start-up to assess the bed particle layer formation process throughout the bed particle age in different conversion processes of woody biomass. Natural sand bed samples (consisting mainly of quartz and K-feldspar) were taken from a 30 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB30) combustion unit and a 90 MWth circulating fluidized bed (CFB90) combustion unit. K-feldspar and olivine were obtained from a dual fluidized bed (DFB12-4) indirect gasification unit comprising a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed combustor and a 2-4 MWth bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Different types of ilmenite samples were taken from a 5 kWth bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB5) and a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed (CFB12) combustion unit. Additionally, quartz and natural sand samples (comprising mainly quartz, K-feldspar, and Na-feldspar) were gathered from three different industrial fast pyrolysis plants. Bed particles found in the samples were subjected to different analysis methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), served as a primary tool for obtaining information regarding the morphology and elemental composition of different layers present on the surface of bed particles and inside the bed particle core. In instances where layers were too thin to be adequately examined via SEM/EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed as a complementary analysis method. X-ray microtomography (XMT) was also utilized to explore the distribution of bed particle layers on the particle surfaces. This method facilitated both qualitative and quantitative assessments, including observation of the surface morphology of the bed particles, analysis of the bed layer distribution on the bed particle surface, along with measurements of bed particle layer thickness and the volume fraction of various features throughout the bed particles.

Comprehensive analysis of the results from different characterization techniques showed that for all studied bed particles, regardless of their chemical composition, the inner layer (i.e., the Ca-reaction layer) was thicker on convex areas and thinner or entirely missing in the concave regions. The outer layer, mainly consisting of Ca compounds (i.e., the ash-deposition layer), was more likely to be found on the convex areas of the bed particle surface. Overall, the total bed particle layer thickness (inner and outer layer) was larger on the convex areas compared to the concaves. Consequently, the concave regions can facilitate mass transfer to and from the bed particle core even after the full development of the Ca-rich inner layer. Therefore, in the case of using quartz and Na-feldspar particles where there was a high chemical potential to react with fuel-derived gaseous alkali, the inner-inner layer and the crack layers (together referred to as the K-reaction layers) were connected to concaves on the bed particle surface. For the studied oxygen carrier (i.e., ilmenite), where most of the convex regions at the bed particle surface were covered with the Ca-rich layer, Fe could still migrate to the bed particle surface through concaves.

Bed particle layer characteristics observed in the fast pyrolysis plants were, to some extent, different compared to those in the combustion and gasification of woody biomass. In general, the layers were considerably thinner in the fast pyrolysis process, with a similar exposure time compared to combustion and gasification. Crack layers were not detected in quartz and Na-feldspar bed particles in any of the studied fast pyrolysis plants, and the inner layer had a lower Ca concentration than that in the combustion or gasification. Further, only the Ca-reaction layer was identified on feldspar bed particles. However, the distribution pattern of the bed particle layers at different morphologies on the bed particle surface resembled that in combustion and gasification.

The findings indicated that apart from the chemical composition, the surface morphology of the bed particles plays a vital role in determining their performance throughout the fuel conversion process in the fluidized bed. Specifically, as the crack layer formation in quartz bed particles is linked to the concave-shaped areas on the bed particle surface, quartz bed particles characterized by fewer concaves experience less fragmentation during the conversion process. Conversely, when employing ilmenite as an oxygen carrier, the presence of concaves on the particle surface facilitates the outward migration of Fe over prolonged exposures, albeit potentially compromising the structural integrity of the bed materials. Thus, a trade-off exists between achieving a desired oxygen-carrying capacity and maintaining structural integrity over extended durations. Previous studies have suggested that the formation of a Ca-rich layer on bed particles can positively influence the composition of the product gas in the gasification process. Results from this work showed that the Ca-rich layer on bed particles intended for gasification, such as K-feldspar and olivine, is thicker and more evenly distributed on particles possessing a surface morphology featuring more frequent convex shapes.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105164 (URN)978-91-8048-546-3 (ISBN)978-91-8048-547-0 (ISBN)
Disputation
2024-06-11, E632, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2024-04-19 Skapad: 2024-04-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-05-21Bibliografiskt granskad
Valizadeh, A., Skoglund, N., Forsberg, F., Lycksam, H. & Öhman, M. (2023). A comparative study in 3D of bed particle layer characteristics in quartz and K-feldspar from fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass using X-ray microtomography. Paper presented at 28th International Conference on the Impact of Fuel Quality on Power Production and the Environment, Åre, Sweden, September 19-23, 2022. Fuel, 342, Article ID 127707.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A comparative study in 3D of bed particle layer characteristics in quartz and K-feldspar from fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass using X-ray microtomography
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 342, artikel-id 127707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Bed particle layer and crack layer characteristics at different ages were studied for quartz and K-feldspar bed particles from a 30 MWth bubbling fluidized bed and a 90 MWth circulating fluidized bed, both using woody biomass as fuel. X-ray microtomography (XMT) was utilized to determine the bed particle layer distribution on the bed particles' surface. For each bed particle type, the average bed particle layer thickness as well as average volume fractions of the bed particle layer and crack layers to the entire bed particle volume were determined at three different bed particle ages by utilizing XMT analysis. Comparison of the two different bed particle types showed that K-feldspar retains a thinner bed particle layer in both conversion processes compared to quartz. Crack layers were observed extensively in quartz bed particles to the extent of 19.3 vol% and 32.1 vol% after 13 days in the BFB and the CFB, respectively, which could cause deposition of the bed particle fragments. On the contrary, K-feldspar has almost no tendency toward forming crack layers.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Nyckelord
Bed particle layer formation, Combustion, Fluidized bed, Woody biomass, X-ray microtomography
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik; Experimentell mekanik; Strömningslära
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95819 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.127707 (DOI)000946690800001 ()2-s2.0-85148664496 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
28th International Conference on the Impact of Fuel Quality on Power Production and the Environment, Åre, Sweden, September 19-23, 2022
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, 46533-1
Anmärkning

Godkänd;2023;Nivå 0;2023-03-08 (joosat);Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Part of special issue: 28th International Conference on the Impact of Fuel Quality on Power Production and the Environment, Edited by Flemming J. Frandsen, Stanley Harding, Terry Wall, Markus Broström, Maria Zevenhoven

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Tillgänglig från: 2023-03-08 Skapad: 2023-03-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Priščák, J., Valizadeh, A., Öhman, M., Hofbauer, H. & Kuba, M. (2023). Effect of time-dependent layer formation on the oxygen transport capacity of ilmenite during combustion of ash-rich woody biomass. Fuel, 353, Article ID 129068.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of time-dependent layer formation on the oxygen transport capacity of ilmenite during combustion of ash-rich woody biomass
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 353, artikel-id 129068Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC) is a novel technology that aims to enhance combustion of heterogenous fuels by replacing the inert bed material with an active oxygen carrier. One of the promising oxygen carriers is natural ilmenite which shows decent oxygen transport capacity and mechanical stability under OCAC operating conditions. However, interactions between ilmenite and woody biomass ash lead to the formation of a calcium-rich ash layer, which affects the ability of the oxygen carrier (OC) to transfer oxygen throughout the boiler and subsequently decreases the combustion efficiency. This paper focuses on the time-dependent morphological and compositional changes in ilmenite bed particles and the consequence effects on the oxygen transport capacity and reactivity of ilmenite. Ilmenite utilized in this study was investigated in a 5 kW bubbling fluidized bed combustion unit, utilizing ash-rich bark pellets as fuel. A negative effect of iron migration on the oxygen transport capacity was observed in ilmenite bed particles after 6 h of operation in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The decrease in the oxygen transport capacity of ilmenite was found to correlate with the increased exposure time in the fluidized bed reactor and was caused by the migration and subsequent erosion of Fe from the ilmenite particles. On the other hand, the older bed particles show an increase in reaction rate, presumably due to the catalytic activity of the calcium-enriched outer layer on the bed particle surface.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Nyckelord
Ash layer, Ilmenite, OCAC, Oxygen transport
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik Annan kemiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99289 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.129068 (DOI)001047077300001 ()2-s2.0-85164690459 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, P46533-1
Anmärkning

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-08 (joosat);

Tillgänglig från: 2023-08-08 Skapad: 2023-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Faust, R., Valizadeh, A., Qiu, R., Tormachen, A., Maric, J., Berdugo Vilches, T., . . . Knutsson, P. (2023). Role of Surface Morphology on Bed Material Activation during Indirect Gasification of Wood. Fuel, 333, Part 1, Article ID 126387.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Role of Surface Morphology on Bed Material Activation during Indirect Gasification of Wood
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 333, Part 1, artikel-id 126387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Olivine and alkali-feldspar were utilized in separate campaigns in an indirect dual fluidized bed gasification campaign with woody biomass as fuel. After three days, both bed materials were reported to be active towards tar removal and exhibited oxygen-carrying abilities and had formed an ash layer consisting of an outer ash deposition layer and an inner interaction layer.

X-ray microtomography analysis concluded that a preferred deposition of ash happens onto convex regions of the bed particles, which results in an increase in thickness of the ash layer over convex regions. This effect is most pronounced for the outer layer which is a product of ash deposition. The inner layer exhibits a homogeneous thickness and is probably formed by interaction of Ca from the outer layer with the particles. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of Fe and Mn on the surface of the particles in a solid solution with Mg. The oxygen-carrying effect which is found for aged particles is therefore attributed to the presence of Fe and Mn on the surface of aged particles. Alkali were found on the surface of both particles which are likely contributing to the catalytic activity of the material towards tar removal.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2023
Nyckelord
Fluidized bed, Bed material, Layer formation, Olivine, Feldspar, Material characterization
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik Bioenergi
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93675 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2022.126387 (DOI)000880106400002 ()2-s2.0-85140309835 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, 50450-1, P46533-1
Anmärkning

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-02 (sofila);

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis

Tillgänglig från: 2022-10-21 Skapad: 2022-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Valizadeh, A. (2022). The effect of surface morphology on bed particle layer characteristics in fluidized bed combustion and gasification of woody biomass. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The effect of surface morphology on bed particle layer characteristics in fluidized bed combustion and gasification of woody biomass
2022 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

A critical process phenomenon in fluidized bed combustion and gasification is the bed particle layer formation which might be problematic in cases where it instigates bed agglomeration and bed material deposition or could improve the process performance in cases where it has a positive effect on tar reduction in biomass gasification. The interactions between ash forming matter for a wide variety of wood-derived fuels with different types of bed materials in fluidized bed combustion and gasification have been profusely studied, and the underlying mechanism of bed particle layer formation has been suggested. Howbeit, the influence of bed material’s surface properties on bed layer characteristics has not been elaborated in the literature.

In this thesis, the effect of surface morphology on the formation of bed particle layers and crack layers has been investigated for different bed material types in combustion and gasification of woody biomass. Samples were selected from different full-scale and bench-scale conversion units at different ages from the start-up to investigate the development of the bed layer at different surface morphologies over the bed particle. Natural sand samples (consisting mainly of quartz and K-feldspar) were taken from a 30 MWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB30) combustion unit and a 90 MWth circulating fluidized bed (CFB90) combustion unit, K-feldspar and olivine bed samples were taken from a dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification unit (consisting of a 2-4 MWth bubbling fluidized bed gasifier and a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed combustor), and ilmenite bed samples were taken from a 5 kWth bench scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB5)combustion unit. 

X-ray microtomography analysis (XMT) was utilized to inspect the bed layer distribution and determine surface morphology in 3D, including measurements of the bed particle layer thickness over the particle surface. Distribution of the crack layers inside the bed core was also observed through the XMT images. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to investigate the elemental compositional distribution and to support interpretation of XMT results.  

The results revealed that for all types of bed materials, regardless of the conversion process, both inner and outer layers could be observed over the convex-shaped regions on the bed particle surfaces after some days, while the concave-shaped regions are mainly covered with a thin inner layer. Consequently, a thicker overall layer could be observed over the convex-shaped regions compared to the concave regions. Results from the combustion processes units show that K-feldspar bed particles retain a thinner overall layer compared to quartz when both are exposed to the same process condition and fuel ash composition. Moreover, almost no tendency for crack layer formation was observed in K-feldspar particles while up to 19% and 32% of the quartz bed particle could be engaged by the crack layers in bed samples taken from the BFB30 and CFB90, respectively. It was also observed that the crack layers are initiated from the concave-shaped regions on the bed surface where gaseous alkali can penetrate into the bed core through the inward cracks in the thin inner layer.

In the BFB5 combustor, it was observed for the samples taken 6 and 12 hours after the start-up that a thin Fe-rich layer ascends over the convex areas over the ilmenite surface due to the outward migration of Fe from the bed particle core. Over time, this iron-rich layer is covered with a Ca-rich outer layer that obstructs further migration of the Fe through the convex areas. For the older particles (i.e., 30 and 42 hours from the start-up) high concentration of Fe was observed in the concaves and more porous areas inside the bed particle core. 

Measurement of the average overall layer thickness for typical K-feldspar and olivine bed particles from the DFB gasifier showed that the latter exhibits thinner overall bed layer thickness. The elemental composition of the bed layer over the concave and convex regions was observed to be different for both bed materials. A slightly higher Fe concentration was observed over the convex areas on olivine. A similar trend was likewise noticed for Mn on both bed types.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2022
Serie
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93678 (URN)978-91-8048-198-4 (ISBN)978-91-8048-199-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2022-12-15, E231, Luleå tekniska univerisitet, Luleå, 13:30 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2022-10-21 Skapad: 2022-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-09-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Valizadeh, A., Forsberg, F., He, H., Skoglund, N. & Öhman, M.3-dimensional Morphology Analysis of Bed Particle Layers in Quartz Bed Particles from Fluidized Bed Combustion of Woody Biomass Using X-ray microtomography.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>3-dimensional Morphology Analysis of Bed Particle Layers in Quartz Bed Particles from Fluidized Bed Combustion of Woody Biomass Using X-ray microtomography
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(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik; Experimentell mekanik; Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93668 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-10-21 Skapad: 2022-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-09-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Valizadeh, A., Skoglund, N., Forsberg, F. & Öhman, M.Bed Layer Formation Characteristics in Quartz and K-Feldspar Bed Particles during Fluidized Bed Combustion of Woody Biomass: A comparative study Using X-ray Microtomography.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bed Layer Formation Characteristics in Quartz and K-Feldspar Bed Particles during Fluidized Bed Combustion of Woody Biomass: A comparative study Using X-ray Microtomography
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93676 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-10-21 Skapad: 2022-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-09-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Priscák, J., Valizadeh, A., Kuba, M., Öhman, M. & Hofbauer, H.Effect of Ash Layer Thicknesses on the Oxygen Transport Capacity of Ilmenite.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of Ash Layer Thicknesses on the Oxygen Transport Capacity of Ilmenite
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(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93677 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-10-21 Skapad: 2022-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-09-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1203-0410

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