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Publikationer (10 of 31) Visa alla publikationer
Jafri, Y., Wetterlund, E., Anheden, M., Kulander, I., Håkansson, Å. & Furusjö, E. (2019). Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance. Energy, 166, 401-413
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, s. 401-413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Forest-based biofuels are strategically important in forest-rich countries like Sweden but the technical performance of several promising production pathways is poorly documented. This study examines product yields and energy efficiencies in six commercially relevant forest-based “drop-in” and “high blend” biofuel production pathways by developing detailed spreadsheet energy balance models. The models are in turn based on pilot-scale performance data from the literature, supplemented with input from technology developers and experts. In most pathways, biofuel production is integrated with a market pulp mill and/or a crude oil refinery. Initial conversion is by pyrolysis, gasification or lignin depolymerization and intermediate products are upgraded by hydrotreatment or catalytic synthesis.

While lignin oil (LO) hydrodeoxygenation had the highest expanded system efficiency, considerable uncertainty surrounds product yields owing to absence of suitable experimental data on LO upgrading. Co-feeding vacuum gas oil and fast pyrolysis oil in a fluidized catalytic cracker has a complex and uncertain effect on fossil yields, which requires further investigation. Co-locating bio-oil hydrotreatment at the refinery improves heat utilization, leading to higher system efficiencies. Explicit consideration of mill type and energy requirements is required to avoid performance misestimation as an assumption of energy surplus can confer a definite advantage.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nyckelord
Biofuels, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Lignin oil, Energy efficiencies, Product yields
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71274 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.10.008 (DOI)000455694300035 ()2-s2.0-85056190528 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-07 (inah)

Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-18 Skapad: 2018-10-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Jafri, Y., Wetterlund, E., Anheden, M., Kulander, I., Håkansson, Å. & Furusjö, E. (2019). Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 2, economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity and production potentials. Energy, 172, 1312-1328
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 2, economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity and production potentials
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 172, s. 1312-1328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Promoting the deployment of forest-based drop-in and high blend biofuels is considered strategically important in Sweden but many aspects of the overall performance of the foremost production technologies are as yet unexamined. This paper evaluates the technology maturity, profitability, investment requirements, GHG performance and Swedish biofuel production potential of six commercially interesting forest-based biofuel production pathways.

Significant heterogeneity in technology maturity was observed. Lack of technical demonstration in industrially representative scales renders the liquefaction-hydrotreatment route for drop-in biofuels less mature than its gasification-catalytic upgrading counterpart. It is a paradox that short-term priority being accorded to pathways with the lowest technology maturity. Nth-of-a-kind investments in (a) gasification-based methanol, (b) hydropyrolysis-based petrol/diesel, and (c) lignin depolymerization-based petrol/diesel were profitable for a range of plant sizes. The profitability of pulp mill-integrated small gasification units (<100 MW) goes against the common perception of gasification being economically feasible only in large scales. New low-cost options for debottlenecking production at recovery boiler-limited kraft mills appear worth investigating. GHG emission reductions ranged from 66 to 95%; a penalty was incurred for high consumption of natural gas-based hydrogen. Swedish biofuel production potentials ranged from 4 to 27 TWh/y but a more feasible upper limit is 12–15 TWh/y.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nyckelord
Biofuels, Gasification, Lignin oil, Pyrolysis oil, Black liquor, Forest residues
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73052 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.02.036 (DOI)000464488100107 ()2-s2.0-85063629405 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-11 (johcin)

Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-27 Skapad: 2019-02-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Bach-Oller, A., Furusjö, E. & Umeki, K. (2019). On the role of potassium as a tar and soot inhibitor in biomass gasification. Applied Energy, 254, Article ID 113488.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>On the role of potassium as a tar and soot inhibitor in biomass gasification
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 254, artikel-id 113488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The work investigates in a drop tube furnace the effect of potassium on carbon conversion for three different types of fuels: an ash lean stemwood, a calcium-rich bark and a silicon-rich straw. The study focuses on an optimal method for impregnating the biomass with potassium. The experiments are conducted for 3 different impregnation methods; wet impregnation, spray impregnation, and dry mixing to investigate different levels of contact between the fuel and the potassium. Potassium is found to catalyse both homogenous and heterogeneous reactions. All the impregnation methods showed a significant effect of potassium on heterogeneous reactions (char conversion). The fact that dry mixing of potassium in the biomass shows an effect reveals the existence of a gas-induced mechanism that supply and distributes potassium on the char particles. Concerning the effect of potassium on homogenous reactions, it is found that potassium in the gas phase leads to much lower yields of C2 hydrocarbons, heavy tars and soot. The results indicate that potassium reduces the likelihood of light aromatic to progress toward heavier polyaromatic hydrocarbons clusters, thereby inhibiting the formation of soot-like material. A moderate interaction between the added potassium and the inherent ash forming elements is also observed: Potassium has a smaller effect when the fuel is naturally rich in silicon. The combined results are of interest for the design of a gasification process that incorporates recirculation of naturally occurring potassium to improve entrained flow gasification of biomass.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nyckelord
Potassium, Biomass, Gasification, Alkali, Soot, Tar
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75762 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113488 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070904380 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-29 (johcin)

Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-29 Skapad: 2019-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Jafri, Y., Furusjö, E., Kirtania, K., Gebart, R. & Granberg, F. (2018). A study of black liquor and pyrolysis oil co-gasification in pilot scale. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 8(1), 113-124
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A study of black liquor and pyrolysis oil co-gasification in pilot scale
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 113-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of the blend ratio and reactor temperature on the gasification characteristics of pyrolysis oil (PO) and black liquor (BL) blends with up to 20 wt% PO was studied in a pilot-scale entrained-flow gasifier. In addition to unblended BL, three blends with PO/BL ratios of 10/90, 15/85, and 20/80 wt% were gasified at a constant load of 2.75 MWth. The 15/85 PO/BL blend was used to investigate the effect of temperature in the range 1000–1100 °C. The decrease in fuel inorganic content with increasing PO fraction resulted in more dilute green liquor (GL), and a greater portion of the feedstock carbon ended up in syngas as CO. As a consequence, the cold gas efficiency increased by about 5%-units. Carbon conversion was in the range 98.8–99.5% and did not vary systematically with either fuel composition or temperature. Although the measured reactor temperatures increased slightly with increasing PO fraction, both unblended BL and the 15% PO blend exhibited largely similar behavior in response to temperature variations. The results from this study show that blending BL with the more energy-rich PO can increase the cold gas efficiency and improve the process carbon distribution without adversely affecting either carbon conversion or the general process performance.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61518 (URN)10.1007/s13399-016-0235-5 (DOI)000425594800011 ()2-s2.0-85042226433 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-20 (rokbeg)

Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-18 Skapad: 2017-01-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Carvalho, L., Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Lundgren, J., Hedlund, J., . . . Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis. Energy, 165(Part B), 471-482
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, nr Part B, s. 471-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning systemcomprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reductionwith zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol productionallowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantagederived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018
Nyckelord
Biomass gasification, Catalysis, Entrained-flowBio-methanol, Techno-economic analysis
Nationell ämneskategori
Energisystem Energiteknik Kemiska processer
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik; Kemisk teknologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68206 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.09.159 (DOI)000455171600039 ()2-s2.0-85056197830 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-03 (johcin)

Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-05 Skapad: 2018-04-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Carvalho, L., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance. Energy, 157, 96-105
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, s. 96-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture.

Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production.

Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Energisystem Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68753 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.097 (DOI)000440876600010 ()2-s2.0-85048465146 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-25 (andbra)

Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-16 Skapad: 2018-05-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Imai, A., Hardi, H., Lundqvist, P., Furusjö, E., Kirtania, K., Karagöz, S., . . . Yoshikawa, K. (2018). Alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment of sawdust for production of a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification. Applied Energy, 231, 594-599
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment of sawdust for production of a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 231, s. 594-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effects of reaction temperature and catalyst loading on product yields and fuel properties of produced slurry during the alkali catalyzed hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of pine sawdust. The yield of the liquid fraction, or the aqueous product (AP), at process temperatures of 180–260 °C obtained after solid/liquid separation of the slurry ranged from 11.1 to 34.3 wt% on a dry, ash free basis. The fuel quality of the produced slurry, such as the elemental composition and the higher heating value (HHV), was mainly affected by the catalyst loading. An increase in the catalyst loading caused the ash content to increase. Although the increase in temperature leads to a higher liquid fraction in the slurry making it more homogeneous, its contribution to the elemental composition of the whole slurry was limited. HHV of the produced slurry ranged from 12.0 to 16.4 MJ/kg. These values are comparable to that of black liquor (BL), which has previously been shown to be a promising feedstock for gasification in a pilot scale entrained flow gasifier. These results imply the possibility of a fuel switch from BL to the HTT slurry for entrained flow gasification though its gasification reactivity and conversion characteristics must be investigated further.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018
Nyckelord
Biomass, Hydrothermal treatment, Alkali catalyst, Gasification, Slurry
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71008 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.150 (DOI)000452345400045 ()2-s2.0-85053770126 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-27 (svasva)

Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-27 Skapad: 2018-09-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Hardi, F., Imai, A., Theppitak, S., Kirtania, K., Furusjö, E., Umeki, K. & Yoshikawa, K. (2018). Gasification of Char Derived from Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Pine Sawdust under a CO2 Atmosphere. Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on the Sustainable Energy and Environmental Development (SEED), Krakow, Poland, Nov 14-17 2017. Energy & Fuels, 32(5), 5999-6007
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gasification of Char Derived from Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Pine Sawdust under a CO2 Atmosphere
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 5999-6007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration between K2CO3 catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and gasification is explored to improve the gasification process. In this study, the CO2 gasification characteristics and the activation energies of the chars derived from four kinds of HTL products, black liquor (BL), and virgin pine sawdust (PS) are investigated non-isothermally using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The complete conversion of BL char and HTL product chars was achieved at lower temperatures (1150 K) than that of PS char (1300 K). BL char showed the highest derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) peak, an indicator of high reactivity, followed by HTL product chars and PS char. HTL liquid product chars exhibited the lowest DTG peak temperature (1023–1058 K), which is advantageous for the low-temperature gasification. The activation energies were calculated isoconversionally using the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO), and Starink approximations. On the basis of the KAS method, the range of the activation energy for the HTL aqueous product char sample was 127–259 kJ/mol, which was wider than that for BL char (171–190 kJ/mol). The HTL process can improve the gasification feedstock reactivity, and the use of the HTL liquid product allows for the gasification at a low temperature.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68549 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b00589 (DOI)000432754700035 ()
Konferens
2nd International Conference on the Sustainable Energy and Environmental Development (SEED), Krakow, Poland, Nov 14-17 2017
Anmärkning

Konferensartikel i tidskrift;2018-06-07 (andbra)

Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-30 Skapad: 2018-04-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Carvalho, L., Lundgren, J., Wetterlund, E., Wolf, J. & Furusjö, E. (2018). Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment. Applied Energy, 225, 570-584
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, s. 570-584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Entrained flow gasification of black liquor combined with downstream-gas-derived synthesis of biofuels in Kraft pulp mills has shown advantages regarding energy efficiency and economic performance when compared to combustion in a recovery boiler. To further increase the operation flexibility and the profitability of the biofuel plant while at the same time increase biofuel production, black liquor can be co-gasified with a secondary feedstock (blend-in feedstock). This work has evaluated the prospects of producing biofuels via co-gasification of black liquor and different blend-in feedstocks (crude glycerol, fermentation residues, pyrolysis liquids) at different blend ratios. Process modelling tools were used, in combination with techno-economic assessment methods. Two methanol grades, crude and grade AA methanol, were investigated. The results showed that the co-gasification concepts resulted in significant increases in methanol production volumes, as well as in improved conversion efficiencies, when compared with black liquor gasification; 5-11 and 4-10 percentage point in terms of cold gas efficiency and methanol conversion efficiency, respectively. The economic analysis showed that required methanol selling prices ranging from 55-101 €/MWh for crude methanol and 58-104 €/MWh for grade AA methanol were obtained for an IRR of 15%. Blend-in led to positive economies-of-scale effects and subsequently decreased required methanol selling prices, in particular for low cost blend-in feedstocks (prices below approximately 20 €/MWh). The co-gasification concepts showed economic competitiveness to other biofuel production routes. When compared with fossil fuels, the resulting crude methanol selling prices were above maritime gas oil prices. Nonetheless, for fossil derived methanol prices higher than 80 €/MWh, crude methanol from co-gasification could be an economically competitive option. Grade AA methanol could also compete with taxed gasoline. Crude glycerol turned out as the most attractive blend-in feedstock, from an economic perspective. When mixed with black liquor in a ratio of 50/50, grade AA methanol could even be cost competitive with untaxed gasoline.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018
Nyckelord
Bio-methanol, Gasification, Black liquor, Pyrolysis liquid, Crude Glycerol, Fermentation residues
Nationell ämneskategori
Energisystem Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68207 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.052 (DOI)000438181000043 ()2-s2.0-85047259948 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-04 (andbra)

Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-05 Skapad: 2018-04-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Furusjö, E. & Jafri, Y. (2018). Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of entrained flow gasification of spent pulping liquors. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 8(1), 19-31
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of entrained flow gasification of spent pulping liquors
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 19-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

he main goal of this work is to investigate if thermodynamic equilibrium calculations can be useful for understanding and predicting process performance and product composition for entrained flow gasification of spent pulping liquors, such as black liquor. Model sensitivity to input data is studied and model results are compared to published pilot plant data. The high temperature and the catalytic activity of feedstock alkali make thermodynamic equilibrium a better predictor of product composition than for many other types of biomass and gasification technologies. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations can predict the flows of the main syngas and slag products with high accuracy as shown by comparison with experimental data with small measurement errors. The main process deviations from equilibrium are methane formation and sulfur distribution between gas and slag. In order to study real process deviations from equilibrium, it is very important to use consistent experimental data. Relatively small errors in the model input, primarily related to fuel composition, can lead to grossly erroneous conclusions. The model sensitivity to fuel composition also shows that the gasification process is sensitive to naturally occurring feedstock variations. Simulations of a commercial-scale gasification process show that cold gas efficiency on sulfur-free basis can reach over 80 % and that greatly improved efficiency can be obtained by reducing ballast present in the form of water or inorganics.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60579 (URN)10.1007/s13399-016-0225-7 (DOI)000425594800003 ()2-s2.0-85042227019 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Energimyndigheten, 38026-1
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-20 (rokbeg)

Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-21 Skapad: 2016-11-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1806-4187

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