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Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Ren, Z., Bergmann, U., Uwayezu, J. N., Carabante, I., Kumpiene, J., Lejon, T. & Leiviskä, T. (2023). Combination of adsorption/desorption and photocatalytic reduction processes for PFOA removal from water by using an aminated biosorbent and a UV/sulfite system. Environmental Research, 228, Article ID 115930.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of adsorption/desorption and photocatalytic reduction processes for PFOA removal from water by using an aminated biosorbent and a UV/sulfite system
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 228, article id 115930Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are stable organic chemicals, which have been used globally since the 1940s and have caused PFAS contamination around the world. This study explores perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) enrichment and destruction by a combined method of sorption/desorption and photocatalytic reduction. A novel biosorbent (PG-PB) was developed from raw pine bark by grafting amine groups and quaternary ammonium groups onto the surface of bark particles. The results of PFOA adsorption at low concentration suggest that PG-PB has excellent removal efficiency (94.8%–99.1%, PG-PB dosage: 0.4 g/L) to PFOA in the concentration range of 10 μg/L to 2 mg/L. The PG-PB exhibited high adsorption efficiency regarding PFOA, being 456.0 mg/g at pH 3.3 and 258.0 mg/g at pH 7 with an initial concentration of 200 mg/L. The groundwater treatment reduced the total concentration of 28 PFAS from 18 000 ng/L to 9900 ng/L with 0.8 g/L of PG-PB. Desorption experiments examined 18 types of desorption solutions, and the results showed that 0.05% NaOH and a mixture of 0.05% NaOH + 20% methanol were efficient for PFOA desorption from the spent PG-PB. More than 70% (>70 mg/L in 50 mL) and 85% (>85 mg/L in 50 mL) of PFOA were recovered from the first and second desorption processes, respectively. Since high pH promotes PFOA degradation, the desorption eluents with NaOH were directly treated with a UV/sulfite system without further adjustment. The final PFOA degradation and defluorination efficiency in the desorption eluents with 0.05% NaOH + 20% methanol reached 100% and 83.1% after 24 h reaction. This study proved that the combination of adsorption/desorption and a UV/sulfite system for PFAS removal is a feasible solution for environmental remediation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Adsorption/desorption, Advanced reduction process, Biomass sorbent, Perfluorooctanoic acid, UV/Sulfite system
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97021 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2023.115930 (DOI)000990600700001 ()37076033 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152700599 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sustainable management of PFAS-contaminated materials
Funder
Interreg NordNorrbotten County Council
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-05-05 (hanlid);

Funder: Regional Council of Lapland; Troms og Finnmark County Municipality

Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Uwayezu, J. N., Zhongfei, R., Sonnenschein, S., Leiviskä, T., Lejon, T., van Hees, P., . . . Carabante, I. (2023). Combination of separation and degradation methods after PFAS soil washing. Science of the Total Environment, 907, Article ID 168137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of separation and degradation methods after PFAS soil washing
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 907, article id 168137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study evaluated a three-stage treatment to remediate PFAS-contaminated soil. The treatment consisted of soil washing, foam fractionation (FF), and electrochemical oxidation (EO). The possibility of replacing the third stage, i.e., EO, with an adsorption process was also assessed. The contamination in the studied soils was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with a concentration of 760 and 19 μg kg−1 in soil I and in soil II, accounting for 97 % and 70 % of all detected per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Before applying a pilot treatment of soil, soil washing was performed on a laboratory scale, to evaluate the effect of soil particle size, initial pH and a liquid-to-soil ratio (L/S) on the leachability of PFAS. A pilot washing system generated soil leachate that was subsequently treated using FF and EO (or adsorption) and then reused for soil washing. The results indicated that the leaching of PFAS occurred easier in 0.063–1 mm particles than in the soil particles having a size below 0.063 mm. Both alkaline conditions and a continual replacement of the leaching solution increased the leachability of PFAS. The analysis using one-way ANOVA showed no statistical difference in means of PFOS washed out in laboratory and pilot scales. This allowed estimating twenty washing cycles using 120 L water to reach 95 % PFOS removal in 60 kg soil. The aeration process removed 95–99 % PFOS in every washing cycle. The EO and adsorption processes achieved similar results removing up to 97 % PFOS in concentrated soil leachate. The current study demonstrated a multi-stage treatment as an effective and cost-efficient method to permanently clean up PFAS-contaminated soil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Soil washing, PFAS contaminated soil, foam fractionation, adsorption, electrochemical oxidation
National Category
Environmental Sciences Soil Science
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101112 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.168137 (DOI)37890625 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85175055164 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord, NYPS 20202462Norrbotten County CouncilSwedish Geotechnical Institute, Tuffo research and technology development program
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-13 (joosat);

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

CC BY 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-08-30 Created: 2023-08-30 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Pedersen, K. B., Lejon, T., Jensen, P. E., Ottosen, L. M., Frantzen, M. & Evenset, A. (2022). Impacts of climate change on metal leaching and partitioning for submarine mine tailings disposal. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 184, Article ID 114197.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of climate change on metal leaching and partitioning for submarine mine tailings disposal
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2022 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 184, article id 114197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At present, there are no standardised tests to assess metal leaching during submarine tailings discharge. In this study the influence of variables known to affect metal mobility and availability (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, salinity, temperature, aerated/anoxic conditions) along with variables affected by the discharge conditions (flocculant concentration, suspension) were studied in bench-scale experiments. The leaching tests were developed based on the case of a copper mine by Repparfjorden, northern Norway, which is planned to re-open in 2022.

The experiments, which had three week duration, revealed low (<6 %) leaching of metals. Multivariate analysis showed that all variables, apart from DOC, highly influenced leaching and partitioning of at least one metal (Ba, Cr, Cu, and/or Mn). The high quantity of the planned annual discharge of mine tailings to the fjord (1–2 million tonnes) warranted estimation of the leached quantity of metals. Multivariate models, using present-day conditions in the fjord, estimated leaching of up to 124 kg Ba, 154 kg Cu and 2400 kg Mn per year during discharge of tailings. Future changes in the fjord conditions caused by climate change (decreased pH, increased temperature) was predicted by the multivariate models to increase the leaching up to 55 %, by the year 2065.

The bench-scale experiments demonstrated the importance of including relevant variables (such as pH, salinity, and temperature) for metal leaching and -partitioning in leaching tests. The results showed that metal leaching during discharge is expected and will increase in the future due to the changed conditions caused by the foreseen climate change, and thereby underline the importance of monitoring metal concentrations in water during operations to determine the fate of metals in the fjord.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Magnafloc10, Metal leaching, Metal partitioning, Submarine mine tailings disposal
National Category
Environmental Sciences Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93625 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.114197 (DOI)000867669700003 ()36208554 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85139307988 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-10-17 (joosat);

Funder: The Northern Environmental Waste Management (EWMA) project, Research Council of Norway through NORD-SATSNING (grant number 195160); Eni Norge AS; PAMERA project, MIKON (Environmental Impacts of Industrial Development in the North) of FRAM – High North Research Centre for Climate and Environment

Available from: 2022-10-17 Created: 2022-10-17 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Pedersen, K. B., Lejon, T. & Evenset, A. (2022). Tailored Leaching Tests as a Tool for Environmental Management of Mine Tailings Disposal at Sea. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(3), Article ID 405.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailored Leaching Tests as a Tool for Environmental Management of Mine Tailings Disposal at Sea
2022 (English)In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The expanding human activities in coastal areas increase the need for developing solutions to limit impacts on the marine environment. Sea disposal affects the marine environment, but despite the growing knowledge of potential impacts, there are still no standardized leaching tests for sea disposal. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of leaching tests, exemplified using mine tailings, planned for submarine disposal in the Repparfjord, Norway. The mine tailings had elevated concentrations of Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni compared to background concentrations in the Repparfjord. Variables known to affect metal leaching in marine environments (DOC, pH, salinity, temperature, aerated/anoxic) were studied, as was the effect of flocculant (Magnafloc10), planned to be added prior to discharge. Stirred/non-stirred setups simulated the resuspension and disposal phases. Leaching of metals was below 2% in all experiments, with the highest rate observed for Cu and Mn. Multivariate analysis revealed a different variable importance for metals depending on their association with minerals. Higher leaching during resuspension than disposal, and lower leaching with the addition of Magnafloc10, especially for Cu and Mn, was observed. The leaching tests performed in this study are transferable to other materials for sea disposal. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
leaching tests, metals, mine tailings, sea disposal, multivariate models, PLS
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89915 (URN)10.3390/jmse10030405 (DOI)000774945800001 ()2-s2.0-85126510107 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-30 (hanlid);

Funder: FRAM (MIKON);

Part of special issue: Sediment Remediation at Harbour

Available from: 2022-03-30 Created: 2022-03-30 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Pour, F. S., Jensen, P. E., Pedersen, K. B. & Lejon, T. (2021). Comparison of 2- and 3-Compartment Electrodialytic Remediation Cells for Oil Polluted Soil from Northwest Russia. Paper presented at 10th International Symposium on Waste Management Problems in Agro-Industries (AGRO2019). Environmental technology, 42(25), 3900-3906
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of 2- and 3-Compartment Electrodialytic Remediation Cells for Oil Polluted Soil from Northwest Russia
2021 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 42, no 25, p. 3900-3906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrodialytic remediation is a method based on electrokinetics, in which an electric field of low intensity increases the availability of pollutants in solid waste materials. The electric field induces processes that mobilize and transport inorganic and organic pollutants. The transport of ions in the electrodialytic cell is controlled by employing ion-exchange membranes, allowing separation of the electrodes from the solids. In this study, using a two cell design, electrodialytic experiments were conducted to compare remediation of a heavily oil-polluted soil from Arkhangelsk, Russia. The 2-compartment cell has not previously been employed for electrodialytic removal of organic pollutants and was tested along with the traditional 3-compartment design. The influence of experimental variables (current density, remediation time, stirring and light) and settings on the two cell designs was investigated. The highest removal (77%) of total hydrocarbons (THC) was observed in the 3-compartment cell at high current density (0.68 mA/cm2), longer remediation time (28 days), stirring and exposure to daylight. High current density and stirring increased the removal efficiencies in both cell designs. Within the studied experimental domain, the removal efficiencies in the 3-compartment cell (10-77%) were however, higher than those observed in the 2-compartment cell (0-38%).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
oil pollution, electrodialytic remediation, EDR, experimental design, cell design
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78393 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2020.1749943 (DOI)000527279900001 ()32241239 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85083528162 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Symposium on Waste Management Problems in Agro-Industries (AGRO2019)
Note

Godkänd;2021;Nivå 0;2021-11-09 (johcin);Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2020-04-08 Created: 2020-04-08 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Uwayezu, J. N., Carabante, I., Lejon, T., van Hees, P., Karlsson, P., Hollman, P. & Kumpiene, J. (2021). Electrochemical degradation of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances using boron-doped diamond electrodes. Journal of Environmental Management, 290, Article ID 112573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical degradation of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances using boron-doped diamond electrodes
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 290, article id 112573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochemical degradation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes has been proven to be a promising technique for the treatment of water contaminated with per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Various studies have demonstrated that the extent of PFAS degradation is influenced by the composition of samples and electrochemical conditions. This study evaluated the significance of several factors, such as the current density, initial concentration of PFAS, concentration of electrolyte, treatment time, and their interactions on the degradation of PFAS. A 24 factorial design was applied to determine the effects of the investigated factors on the degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and generation of fluoride in spiked water. The best-performing conditions were then applied to the degradation of PFAS in wastewater samples. The results revealed that current density and time were the most important factors for PFOA degradation. In contrast, a high initial concentration of electrolyte had no significant impact on the degradation of PFOA, whereas it decreased the generation of F. The experimental design model indicated that the treatment of spiked water under a current density higher than 14 mA cm−2 for 3–4 h could degrade PFOA with an efficiency of up to 100% and generate an F fraction of approximately 40–50%. The observed high PFOA degradation and a low concentration of PFAS degradation products indicated that the mineralization of PFOA was effective. Under the obtained best conditions, the degradation of PFOA in wastewater samples was 44–70%. The degradation efficiency for other PFAS in these samples was 65–80% for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 42–52% for 6–2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6-2 FTSA). The presence of high total organic carbon (TOC) and chloride contents was found to be an important factor affecting the efficiency of PFAS electrochemical degradation in wastewater samples. The current study indicates that the tested method can effectively degrade PFAS in both water and wastewater and suggests that increasing the treatment time is needed to account for the presence of other oxidizable matrices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
PFAS, Electrochemical degradation, Design of experiment, Water, Wastewater, Oxidizable substances
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83724 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112573 (DOI)000656472500001 ()33873022 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85104141585 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord, NYPS 20202462
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-04-16 (alebob);

Finansiär: Swedish Geotechnical Institute; Tuffo Research and Technology Development Program

Available from: 2021-04-16 Created: 2021-04-16 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4497-6529

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