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Stenström, ChristerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0188-4624
Publications (10 of 70) Show all publications
Stenström, C., Eriksson, K., Bobaru, F., Golling, S. & Jonsén, P. (2023). The essential work of fracture in peridynamics. International Journal of Fracture, 242(2), 129-152
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The essential work of fracture in peridynamics
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 242, no 2, p. 129-152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the essential work of fracture (EWF) method is introduced for a peridynamic (PD) material model to characterize fracture toughness of ductile materials. First, an analytical derivation for the path-independence of the PD J-integral is provided. Thereafter, the classical J-integral and PD J-integral are computed on a number of analytical crack problems, for subsequent investigation on how it performs under large scale yielding of thin sheets. To represent a highly nonlinear elastic behavior, a new adaptive bond stiffness calibration and a modified bond-damage model with gradual softening are proposed. The model is employed for two different materials: a lower-ductility bainitic-martensitic steel and a higher-ductility bainitic steel. Up to the start of the softening phase, the PD model recovers the experimentally obtained stress-strain response of both materials. Due to the high failure sensitivity on the presence of defects for the lower-ductility material, the PD model could not recover the experimentally obtained EWF values. For the higher-ductility bainitic material, the PD model was able to match very well the experimentally obtained EWF values. Moreover, the J-integral value obtained from the PD model, at the absolute maximum specimen load, matched the corresponding EWF value.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Peridynamics, J-integral, Essential work of fracture, Nonlocal model, Fracture, Crack tip, Center cracked tension, Double edge notched tension, Fracture toughness, Softening, Thin sheet, Peridynamik
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98645 (URN)10.1007/s10704-023-00705-y (DOI)001025601000001 ()2-s2.0-85164524536 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-18 (marisr);

License fulltext: CC-BY

Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Stenström, C. (2022). Modelling of fracture toughness using peridynamics: A Study of J-integral, essential work and homogenisation. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of fracture toughness using peridynamics: A Study of J-integral, essential work and homogenisation
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Modellering av brottseghet med peridynamik : En studie av J-integralen, brottarbete och homogenisering
Abstract [en]

Fracture toughness is one of the most important properties of a material. Being able toaccurately estimate the energy that goes into forming new crack surfaces is essential for the development of new materials, quality assurance, structural monitoring and failure analysis. Fracture toughness parameters are routinely determined by mechanical testing and are often used in numerical tools. Furthermore, fracture toughness is a common property in material specification. Numerical simulation of fracture toughness can reduce the need of mechanical testing and is sometimes the only viable alternative when mechanical testing is not an option, for example in component optimisation and in the assessment of operational structural components.  However, complex fracture is a challenge in material modelling, which comes from that a material body is assumed to remain continuous in classical continuum mechanics. Classical continuum mechanics is formulated assuming a continuous body and that spatial derivatives are defined. However, this is not the case at cracks and other dis­ continuities. Complementing continuum mechanics with supplementary procedures for modelling discontinues can also add further challenges. Besides, the assumption of locality, that each material point only interacts with is immediate neighbouring points, becomes invalid for nanoscale geometries. Thus, fracture cannot easily be modelled. An alternative is therefore of interest. Peridynamics is a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics with the constitutive model formulated as an integro-differential equation. The advantages of using an integral expression are foremost that long-range forces can be handled and that the theory is valid even in the presence of discontinuities, such as cracks, allowing unguided modelling of fracture. Since damage is introduced to the constitutive model of peridynamics, there is no requirement of supplementary procedures that can add further complications. Due to its nonlocal formulation, the method is also capable of capturing nano-effects. However, the use and reporting of fracture toughness parameters in peridynamics is a routine in its infancy as the method is under development.In this thesis, two fracture toughness methods, the classical J-integral and the essential work of fracture (EWF), are studied with peridynamics. Also, as the nonlocality of peri­ dynamics give rise to certain boundary effects, e.g. on crack faces, homogenisation is a part of the study. The thesis consists of two parts; an introductory summary with discussion and conclu­ sions, followed by a series of appended papers. The first paper concerns application of Rice's J-integral on displacement derivatives formulation in peridynamics with comparison to an exact analytical stress-strain-displacement specimen solution. The next two papers concerns homogenisation of a peridynamic bar, to remove the end effects, arisen from the nonlocality of peridynamics, to obtain an elastic behaviour exact to a classical continuum mechanics bar. The fourth paper is an implementation of the J-area integral into peridynamics, with study of various discretisation methods. Thereafter, in the last paper, Rice's J-integral and the nonlocal peridynamic J-integral are compared on various specimens, followed by an extension of the research to study EWF with peridynamics for the first time. The study includes a novel automated calibration at the interparticle bond level to simulate nonlinear elastic behaviour, which subsequently is complemented with softening and used for EWF modelling. As a part of introducing the peridynamic J-integral, the study also includes a proof of path independence.

Major findings of the study includes:

• The classical J-integral on a displacement derivative formulation gives accurateestimations of fracture toughness in peridynamics.

• The peridynamic lD bar can be homogenised to obtain a linear elastic behaviour identical to that of an corresponding continuum mechanics body.

• The bond calibration method gives a nonlinear elastic peridynamic model that can accurately recover an experimentally obtained stress-strain response. Up to the start of material softening, the nonlinear elastic model recovered the experimentally obtained stress-strain response of two very different materials; a lower-ductility martensitic-bainitic steel and a higher-ductility bainitic steel.

• The nonlinear elastic model were able to match very well the experimentally measured EWF for the higher-ductility bainitic steel.

• The J-integral value obtained from the peridynamic model, matched the experimen­tally obtained EWF value for the higher-ductility bainitic steel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2022. p. 147
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Peridynamics, J-integral, Essential work of fracture, Nonlocal methods, Meshless, Meshfree, Fracture, Crack tip, Exact analytical, Center cracked tension, Double edge notched tensile, fracture toughness, Peridynamik, Brottmekanik, Sprickspets, Brottseghet, Spänningsintensitet
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91812 (URN)978-91-8048-112-0 (ISBN)978-91-8048-113-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-09-29, E632, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-06-22 Created: 2022-06-22 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Khan, S. A., Lundberg, J. & Stenström, C. (2022). The effect of third bodies on wear and friction at the wheel-rail interface. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 236(6), 662-671
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of third bodies on wear and friction at the wheel-rail interface
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 236, no 6, p. 662-671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The friction forces between the wheel and rail depend on a number of variables including the third body layer at the wheel–rail interface, the wheel and rail profiles, and the train dynamics. The third body layer significantly influences the damage mechanisms at the wheel-rail interface, especially wear, rolling contact fatigue (RCF), corrugations and other surface defects that then require maintenance. The introduction of additional constituents at the wheel–rail interface in the form of an additive with anti-wear and anti-crack properties can reduce the wear and RCF. In general, such an additive also reduces the friction. However, it is important to avoid the friction coefficient between the wheel tread and the top of the rail falling below 0.3 because the result would be wheel slip and long braking distances. Measuring friction coefficients accurately is still a challenge, as most existing tribometers are unable to replicate the wheel-rail contact conditions, specifically the contact pressure and sliding speed. The present study used a newly designed handheld tribometer that is able to match the typical contact pressure. Results obtained with the handheld tribometer have been compared with values extracted from the traction-force measurement system of a locomotive. The tribometer field measurements have shown that by using a top-of-rail friction modifier (TOR-FM), both the wear and the friction coefficients can be reduced, but also that heavy TOR-FM films may cause unacceptably low friction. Comparing the results of field and laboratory tests confirms that weather and realistic third bodies present on the track have a significant effect on friction and wear. © IMechE 2021.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2022
Keywords
Additives, Surface defects, Vehicle wheels, Wear of materials, Contact pressures, Field and laboratory test, Friction coefficients, Measurement system, Rolling contact fatigue, Wear and friction, Wheel-rail contacts, Wheel-rail interface, Friction
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86740 (URN)10.1177/09544097211034688 (DOI)000676808300001 ()2-s2.0-85110976377 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå Railway Research Centre (JVTC)Swedish Transport Administration
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-06-29 (sofila)

Available from: 2021-08-18 Created: 2021-08-18 Last updated: 2022-06-29Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K. & Stenström, C. (2021). Homogenization of the 1D Peri-static/dynamic Bar with Triangular Micromodulus. Journal of Peridynamics and Nonlocal Modeling, 3(2), 85-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Homogenization of the 1D Peri-static/dynamic Bar with Triangular Micromodulus
2021 (English)In: Journal of Peridynamics and Nonlocal Modeling, ISSN 2522-896X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 85-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In peridynamics, boundary effects generally appear due to nonlocality of interparticle forces; in particular, end effects are found in 1D bars. In a previous work by Eriksson and Stenström (J Peridyn Nonlocal Model 2(2):205–228, 2020), a simple method to remove end effects in certain types of 1D bars, or to homogenize such bars, was presented for bars with constant micromodulus. In this work, which is a continuation of Eriksson and Stenström (J Peridyn Nonlocal Model 2(2):205–228, 2020), the homogenizing procedure is applied to bars with a linear, or “triangular,” micromodulus. For the examples studied, common in practice, the linear elastic behavior of a homogenized bar, is identical to that of a corresponding classical continuum mechanics bar, independently of the interparticle force range and total number of material points of the bar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Peridynamics, Peristatics, Homogenization, Nonlocal methods, Peridynamik, Peristatik, Homogenisering, Punktbaserade metoder
National Category
Applied Mechanics Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81215 (URN)10.1007/s42102-020-00042-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85106168391 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 1;2021-06-01 (marisr)

Available from: 2020-10-23 Created: 2020-10-23 Last updated: 2022-07-04Bibliographically approved
Khan, S. A., Lundberg, J. & Stenström, C. (2021). Life cycle cost analysis for the top-of-rail friction-modifier application: A case study from the Swedish iron ore line. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 235(1), 83-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle cost analysis for the top-of-rail friction-modifier application: A case study from the Swedish iron ore line
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 235, no 1, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of top-of-rail friction modifiers (TOR-FMs) is claimed by their manufacturers as a well-established technique for minimising the damages in the wheel–rail interface. There are various methods for applying friction modifiers at the wheel–rail interface, among which stationary wayside systems are recommended by TOR-FM manufacturers when a distance of a few kilometres is to be covered. An on-board system is recommended when an area of many kilometres has to be covered and focus is more on particular trains. Trafikverket in Sweden is considering the implementation of the TOR-FM technology on the iron ore line. Directly implementing such technology can be inappropriate and expensive, because the life cycle cost of a TOR-FM system has never been assessed for the conditions of the iron ore line. In the present study, the life cycle cost is calculated for wayside and on-board application systems, by taking inputs from the research performed on iron ore line. The present research has taken the iron ore line as a case study, but the results will be applicable to other infrastructure with similar conditions. The results have shown that the wayside equipment is economically unfeasible for the iron ore line. In this case, the life cycle cost increases by 4% when the friction modifier is applied on all curves with a radius smaller than 550 m and by 19% when the friction modifier is applied on all curves with a radius smaller than 850 m. The on-board system used in this study is shown to be economically feasible, as it has a significantly lower operation and maintenance cost than the wayside equipment. The reduction in the maintenance (grinding and rail replacement) cost when the cost of the friction modifier application is added is 27% when the friction modifier is applied on curves with a radius smaller than 550 m and 23% when the friction modifier is applied on curves with a radius smaller than 850 m.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
Friction modifier, life cycle cost, lubrication, iron ore line
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77866 (URN)10.1177/0954409720904255 (DOI)000512499700001 ()2-s2.0-85079409992 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-01-18 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-02-25 Created: 2020-02-25 Last updated: 2022-06-29Bibliographically approved
Stenström, C. & Eriksson, K. (2021). The J-area integral applied in peridynamics. International Journal of Fracture, 228(2), 127-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The J-area integral applied in peridynamics
2021 (English)In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 228, no 2, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The J-integral is in its original formulation expressed as a contour integral. The contour formulation was, however, found cumbersome early on to apply in the finite element analysis, for which method the more directly applicable J-area integral formulation was later developed. In a previous study, we expressed the J-contour integral as a function of displacements only, to make the integral directly applicable in peridynamics (Stenström and Eriksson in Int J Fract 216:173–183, 2019). In this article we extend the work to include the J-area integral by deriving it as a function of displacements only, to obtain the alternative method of calculating the J-integral in peridynamics as well. The properties of the area formulation are then compared with those of the contour formulation, using an exact analytical solution for an infinite plate with a central crack in Mode I loading. The results show that the J-area integral is less sensitive to local disturbances compared to the contour counterpart. However, peridynamic implementation is straightforward and of similar scope for both formulations. In addition, discretization, effects of boundaries, both crack surfaces and other boundaries, and integration contour corners in peridynamics are considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Peridynamics, J-integral, Nonlocal methods, Fracture, Crack tip, Exact analytical
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82596 (URN)10.1007/s10704-020-00505-8 (DOI)000606314200001 ()2-s2.0-85099223323 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-06-01 (marisr);

Fore correction, see: Stenström, C., Eriksson, K. Correction to: The J-area integral applied in peridynamics. Int J Fract (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10704-021-00521-2

Available from: 2021-01-21 Created: 2021-01-21 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K. & Stenström, C. (2020). Homogenization of the 1D Peri-static/dynamic Bar with Constant Micromodulus. Journal of Peridynamics and Nonlocal Modeling, 2(2), 205-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Homogenization of the 1D Peri-static/dynamic Bar with Constant Micromodulus
2020 (English)In: Journal of Peridynamics and Nonlocal Modeling, ISSN 2522-896X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 205-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Because of the nonlocal interparticle forces inherent in peridynamics, surface, boundary, and end effects appear in 3D, 2D and 1D body problems, respectively. In certain situations, the effect is seen as a disturbance, and various efforts, mostly centering on 2D and 1D problems, have been made to reduce it. A simple method has been derived to remove the end effects in a 1D body by homogenizing the body. When a certain body type, common in practice, is homogenized, its linear elastic behavior, independent of the interparticle force range and with a finite number of material points, in the limit infinite, is identical to that of a corresponding classical continuum mechanics body.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Peridynamics, Peristatics, Homogenization, Nonlocal methods, Peridynamik
National Category
Applied Mechanics Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78063 (URN)10.1007/s42102-019-00028-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85099235597 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-08-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-03-15 Created: 2020-03-15 Last updated: 2022-07-04Bibliographically approved
Anandika, R., Lundberg, J. & Stenström, C. (2020). Phased array ultrasonic inspection of near-surface cracks in a railhead and its verification with rail slicing. Insight: Non-Destructive Testing & Condition Monitoring, 62(7), 387-395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phased array ultrasonic inspection of near-surface cracks in a railhead and its verification with rail slicing
2020 (English)In: Insight: Non-Destructive Testing & Condition Monitoring, ISSN 1354-2575, E-ISSN 1754-4904, Vol. 62, no 7, p. 387-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, near-surface cracks in a railhead are inspected thoroughly using phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT). This research finds an alternative technique to inspect for near-surface cracks because the conventional non-destructive testing method for rail inspection lacks the capacity to inspect the near-surface crack profile. This study shows that PAUT can determine not only the crack depth but also the near-surface crack profile, so that the inspector can estimate the stage of crack growth and how the crack propagates. This information is valuable to the rail maintainer as one of the considerations for deciding the thickness of metal to remove when grinding the rail. In this study, after the measurement, the inspected region of the cracked railhead is sliced into thin pieces so that crack network information can be extracted. A 3D image reconstruction of the surface cracks based on the crack marks from all of the sliced rail pieces is performed. This image is then used as a reference to confirm the PAUT results. The results show that PAUT can clearly deliver crack profile estimation and provide an accurate estimation of a 3.51 mm crack-tip depth with an absolute error range of 8%-18%. The results also suggest that PAUT is a potential method for installation in a measurement train for near-surface crack inspection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom: The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, 2020
Keywords
3D CRACK IMAGE, CRACK MEASUREMENT, NEAR-SURFACE CRACK, PHASED ARRAY, RAIL SLICING, RAILHEAD, RAILWAY, ULTRASONIC
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80308 (URN)10.1784/insi.2020.62.7.387 (DOI)000546140500003 ()2-s2.0-85090427026 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-08-18 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-08-05 Created: 2020-08-05 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Stenström, C. & Söderholm, P. (2019). Applying Eurostat’s ESS handbook for quality reportson Railway Maintenance Data. In: P.O. Larsson-Kråik; A. Ahmadi (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Heavy Haul Association STS Conference (IHHA 2019): . Paper presented at International Heavy Haul STS Conference (IHHA 2019), Narvik, Norway, June 12-14, 2019 (pp. 473-480). International Heavy Haul Association (IHHA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying Eurostat’s ESS handbook for quality reportson Railway Maintenance Data
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Heavy Haul Association STS Conference (IHHA 2019) / [ed] P.O. Larsson-Kråik; A. Ahmadi, International Heavy Haul Association (IHHA) , 2019, p. 473-480Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The importance of data quality has become more evident with the digitalization trend and development of new asset management frameworks. Digitalization has changed maintenance work by an increasing share of condition monitoring and digitalized work order processes, which for rail infrastructure and rolling stock give rise to data sets qualifying as big data. Asset management in turn, has progressed significantly the last decades as a response to digitalization, as well as due to a changing organisational culture. ISO 55000, perhaps the best known asset management guidelines, has been adapted to railways by UIC (International Union of Railways), and the EU-projects In2Rail and In2Smart. However, the quality of the data collected has become a growing concern that has not been adequately addressed in asset management. In this study, Eurostat’s ESS (European Statistical System) handbook for quality reports has been adapted and applied to railway maintenance data. The results include a case study on data quality reporting and performance indicator specification. Practical implications are believed to be that the study will support a more structured process towards data quality management, which in turn can aid decision-making, for example by more accurate cost-benefit analysis of preventive maintenance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Heavy Haul Association (IHHA), 2019
Keywords
data quality, quality reporting, quality assurance framework, maintenance, asset management, European Statistical System (ESS), Eurostat, railway
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance; Quality technology and logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75026 (URN)
Conference
International Heavy Haul STS Conference (IHHA 2019), Narvik, Norway, June 12-14, 2019
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 9780911382709; 9780911382716 

Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2022-06-29Bibliographically approved
Anandika, R., Stenström, C. & Lundberg, J. (2019). Non-destructive measurement of artificial near-surface cracks for railhead inspection. Insight: Non-Destructive Testing & Condition Monitoring, 61(7), 373-379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-destructive measurement of artificial near-surface cracks for railhead inspection
2019 (English)In: Insight: Non-Destructive Testing & Condition Monitoring, ISSN 1354-2575, E-ISSN 1754-4904, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper delivers a study involving the inspection of artificial surface cracks with depths ranging from 0.25-2.5 mm from the surface and with a crack angle of 30°, which is a typical angle for surface cracks in railheads. The inspections were conducted using three different techniques: phased array ultrasonics, single-element ultrasonics and alternating current potential drop (ACPD). For the ultrasonic techniques, the study focused on employing either longitudinal or shear wave signals. In the railway industry, shallow surface cracks in railheads are caused by rolling contact fatigue (RCF). In this study, artificial defects were made, allowing the authors to explore the extent to which the ultrasonic measurement techniques can detect such defects. The negative effect of a dead zone near to the surface in the ultrasonic tests was reduced by using a wedge attachment. A discussion on the extent to which the techniques can be used in field tests was also provided. The most important result is that shallow cracks ranging from 0.25-2.5 mm were successfully characterised with acceptable accuracy. The 2.5 mm-deep crack can be measured with an accuracy of 0.8% using a 20 MHz single-element probe and with an accuracy of 3.5% using a 5 MHz phased array (64 elements, 0.6 mm pitch). The characterisations were performed using a filtering method that was developed in this study.

1675605

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, 2019
Keywords
near-surface cracks, artificial defect, rail, railhead, nondestructive testing, ultrasonic, phased array
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75528 (URN)10.1784/insi.2019.61.7.373 (DOI)000474598900005 ()2-s2.0-85069039233 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå Railway Research Centre (JVTC), 1675605
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-16 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0188-4624

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