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Shanmugam, VigneshwaranORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5247-3390
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Mensah, R. A., Wang, D., Shanmugam, V., Sas, G., Försth, M. & Das, O. (2024). Fire behaviour of biochar-based cementitious composites. Composites Part C: Open Access, 14, Article ID 100471.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire behaviour of biochar-based cementitious composites
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2024 (English)In: Composites Part C: Open Access, ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 14, article id 100471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study aimed to test the hypothesis that biochar's unique properties, such as its microporous structure, can enhance concrete's resilience to high temperatures. Despite expectations of reduced crack formation and enhanced fire resistance, the experimental results revealed a limited impact on concrete's fire behaviour. The investigation involved the use of two biochar types, fine and coarse biochar as replacements for cement and aggregates, respectively. Fine biochar exhibited higher water absorption and Young's modulus than coarse biochar, but both resisted ignition at 35 kW/m2 radiative heat flux and had peak heat release rates below 40 kW/m2. Incorporating these biochars at varying weight percentages (10, 15, and 20 wt.%) into concrete led to a gradual decline in compressive and tensile strength due to reduced binding ability with increased biochar content. Exposure to 1000 °C compromised mechanical properties across all the samples. However, the biochar concrete maintained compressive strength (compared to the control) with up to 20 wt.% biochar as a fine aggregate substitute after exposure to 600 °C, and as a cement replacement after exposure to 200 °C. This substitution also yielded a significant reduction in CO2 emissions (50 % reduction as the biochar loading amount doubled) from concrete manufacturing, showcasing biochar's potential for sustainable construction practices. Despite not fully supporting the initial hypothesis, the study demonstrated biochar's viability in reducing carbon footprint while maintaining concrete strength under certain fire conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Biochar concrete, Elevated temperatures, Mechanical properties
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105626 (URN)10.1016/j.jcomc.2024.100471 (DOI)2-s2.0-85193825752 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Brandforsk, 322-003Swedish Research Council Formas, 2022-00676Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF), 14062
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 1;2024-05-30 (signyg);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2024-05-30 Created: 2024-05-30 Last updated: 2024-05-30Bibliographically approved
Das, O., Mensah, R. A., Balasubramanian, K. B., Shanmugam, V., Försth, M., Hedenqvist, M. S., . . . Misra, M. (2023). Functionalised biochar in biocomposites: The effect of fire retardants, bioplastics and processing methods. Composites Part C: Open Access, 11, Article ID 100368.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functionalised biochar in biocomposites: The effect of fire retardants, bioplastics and processing methods
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2023 (English)In: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 11, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fire retardants, although can impart fire-safety in polymeric composites, are detrimental to the mechanical properties. Biochar can be used, in conjunction with fire retardants, to create a balance between fire-safety and mechanical performance. It is possible to thermally dope fire retardants into the pores of biochar to make it functionalised. Thus, the current work is intended in identifying a composite having the combination of the most desirable fire retardant, bioplastic, and a suitable processing method. A comparison was made between two fire retardants (lanosol and ammonium polyphosphate), bioplastics (wheat gluten and polyamide 11), and composite processing methods (compression and injection moulding). It was found that wheat gluten containing ammonium polyphosphate-doped biochar made by compression moulding had the best fire-safety properties with the lowest peak heat release rate (186 kW/m2), the highest fire performance index (0.6 m2s/kW), and the lowest fire growth index (1.6 kW/ms) with acceptable mechanical properties compared to the corresponding neat bioplastic. Thus, for gluten-based polymers, the use of ammonium polyphosphate thermally doped into biochar processed by compression moulding is recommended to both simultaneously improve fire-safety and conserve the mechanical strength of the resulting biocomposites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Biochar, Bioplastics, Compression moulding, Fire retardants, Injection moulding
National Category
Materials Chemistry Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98229 (URN)10.1016/j.jcomc.2023.100368 (DOI)001016720900001 ()2-s2.0-85160716623 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Brandforsk, 321–002
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-13 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-06-13 Created: 2023-06-13 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved
Edwin Samson, P., Senthil Kumaran, S., Shanmugam, V. & Das, O. (2023). The effect of fiber orientation and stacking sequence on carbon/E-glass/epoxy intraply hybrid composites under dynamic loading conditions. Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 34(1), 363-376
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of fiber orientation and stacking sequence on carbon/E-glass/epoxy intraply hybrid composites under dynamic loading conditions
2023 (English)In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the dynamic mechanical properties of hybrid intraply carbon/E-glass epoxy composites with different orientations and stacking sequences under different loading conditions with increasing temperature. A neat epoxy and five various hybrid composites such as Carbon (0°)/E-glass (90°), Carbon (45°)/E-glass (135°), Carbon (90°)/E-glass (0°), Carbon/E-glass (alternating layer), and Carbon/E-glass (alternating layer 45°) were manufactured. Three-point bending test and dynamic mechanical test were conducted to understand the flexural modulus and viscoelastic behavior (storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent) of the composites. Dynamic mechanical test was performed with the dual cantilever method, at four different frequencies (1, 5, 10, and 20 Hz) and temperatures ranging from 30 to 150°C. The experimental results of storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangents were compared with the theoretical findings of neat epoxy and various hybrid composites. The glass transition temperature (Tg) increased with the increase in frequency. A linear fit of the natural log of frequency to the inverse of absolute temperature was plotted in the activation energy estimation. The interphase damping (tanδi) between plies and the strength indicator (Si) of the hybrid composites were estimated. It was observed that the neat epoxy had more insufficient storage and loss modulus and a high loss tangent at all the frequencies whereas hybrid composites had high storage and loss modulus and a low loss tangent for all the frequencies. Compared with other hybrid composites, Carbon (90°)/E-glass (0°) had higher strength and activation energy. The result of reinforcement of hybrid fiber in neat epoxy significantly increases the material's strength and stability at higher temperatures whereas decreasing free molecular movement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
activation energy, dynamic mechanical analyzer, glass transition temperature, loss tangent
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93657 (URN)10.1002/pat.5893 (DOI)000866102600001 ()2-s2.0-85139681340 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-12-05 (joosat);

Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2022-12-05Bibliographically approved
Mensah, R. A., Vennström, A., Shanmugam, V., Försth, M., Li, Z., Restas, A., . . . Das, O. (2022). Influence of biochar and flame retardant on mechanical, thermal, and flammability properties of wheat gluten composites. Composites Part C: Open Access, 9, Article ID 100332.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of biochar and flame retardant on mechanical, thermal, and flammability properties of wheat gluten composites
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2022 (English)In: Composites Part C: Open Access, ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 9, article id 100332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of environmentally friendly materials such as bio-sourced plastics is being driven by increased awareness of environmental issues caused by synthetic plastics. However, bio-sourced plastics have poor fire behaviour that limits their application. The addition of a flame retardant to these plastics is one effective way to increase the fire resistance property; however, the flame retardant should not interfere with the mechanical performance of the plastic. Most flame retardants act as stress concentration points, reducing tensile strength. Hence, to create a balance between tensile strength and fire resistance, biochar (to conserve strength) and lanosol (to improve fire resistance) were added to wheat gluten bioplastic in various ratios and the optimal ratio was identified. Wheat gluten composites were fabricated using compression moulding at four different concentrations of lanosol (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%) and biochar (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%). From the test results, the composite with 4 wt.% lanosol and 6 wt.% biochar exhibited a good balance between the mechanical and fire properties; it conserved the strength and improved the fire properties (39 % reduction in peak heat release rate).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Biochar, Wheat gluten, Fire, Mechanical test
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94384 (URN)10.1016/j.jcomc.2022.100332 (DOI)000906616900039 ()2-s2.0-85142761803 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-30 (sofila)

Available from: 2022-11-30 Created: 2022-11-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Selvam, A., Mayilswamy, S., Whenish, R., Naresh, K., Shanmugam, V. & Das, O. (2022). Multi-objective optimization and prediction of surface roughness and printing time in FFF printed ABS polymer. Scientific Reports, 12, Article ID 16887.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-objective optimization and prediction of surface roughness and printing time in FFF printed ABS polymer
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2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, article id 16887Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, fused filament fabrication (FFF) printing parameters were optimized to improve the surface quality and reduce the printing time of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), it is a statistical analysis tool. A multi-objective optimization technique was employed to predict the optimum process parameter values using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and response surface methodology (RSM) techniques. Printing time and surface roughness were analyzed as a function of layer thickness, printing speed and nozzle temperature. A central composite design was preferred by employing the RSM method, and experiments were carried out as per the design of experiments (DoE). To understand the relationship between the identified input parameters and the output responses, several mathematical models were developed. After validating the accuracy of the developed regression model, these models were then coupled with PSO and RSM to predict the optimum parameter values. Moreover, the weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) ranking method was employed to compare the RSM and PSO to identify the best optimization technique. WASPAS ranking method shows PSO has finer optimal values [printing speed of 125.6 mm/sec, nozzle temperature of 221 °C and layer thickness of 0.29 mm] than the RSM method. The optimum values were compared with the experimental results. Predicted parameter values through the PSO method showed high surface quality for the type of the surfaces, i.e., the surface roughness value of flat upper and down surfaces is approximately 3.92 µm, and this value for the other surfaces is lower, which is approximately 1.78 µm, at a minimum printing time of 24 min.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93637 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-20782-8 (DOI)000865124900034 ()36207348 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85139571689 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-10-18 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-10-18 Created: 2022-10-18 Last updated: 2022-11-11Bibliographically approved
Babu, N. K., Mensah, R. A., Shanmugam, V., Rashedi, A., Athimoolam, P., Aseer, J. R. & Das, O. (2022). Self‐reinforced polymer composites: An opportunity to recycle plastic wastes and their future trends. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 139(46), Article ID e53143.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self‐reinforced polymer composites: An opportunity to recycle plastic wastes and their future trends
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 139, no 46, article id e53143Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polymers and their composites have played an important role in industrial development. Polymer composites are becoming much stronger and more competitive than other materials as a result of ongoing research and development. This was made possible by newly developed techniques that could alter the physical and chemical properties of constituents. One of them is the self-reinforcement technique, which allows for the fabrication of high-strength thermoplastic polymer composites with reserved degradability, which is not possible with glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforcement. A self-reinforced polymer composite is made of a single polymeric material, which serves as both the matrix and the reinforcement. This review article discusses the use of self-reinforcement in various polymers and its impact on mechanical, thermal, and fire properties. Furthermore, the effects of process parameters (such as temperature and time, an), reinforcement structure, and mechanical property variation on the structure of self-reinforced composites are reviewed and presented in detail. In addition, the effect of foreign filler addition (such as flame retardants, inorganic particles, natural fibers, etc.) on self-reinforced composites is highlighted. In the end, the need for future research and its scope is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
mechanical properties, recycling, thermoplastics
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93361 (URN)10.1002/app.53143 (DOI)000857105100001 ()2-s2.0-85138608237 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-29 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-09-30 Created: 2022-09-30 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5247-3390

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