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Elsadek, M., Mousa, E. & Ahmed, H. (2024). Green approach to ironmaking: Briquetting and hydrogen reduction of mill scale using novel binders. International journal of hydrogen energy, 62, 732-738
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green approach to ironmaking: Briquetting and hydrogen reduction of mill scale using novel binders
2024 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 62, p. 732-738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The most prominent solutions are the establishment of a circular economy by recirculating the iron-rich residues from steelworks and the adoption of hydrogen as a clean reducing agent to mitigate fossil CO2 emission. One such residue is mill scale, which is generated during steelmaking, casting, and rolling processes. However, the fine particles and easy reoxidation of the mill scale make it difficult to be used directly in iron and steel production without proper compaction. This paper aims to demonstrate the feasibility of mill scale briquetting using organic binders to meet the requirements of hydrogen-based direct reduction. The study will investigate the influence of binder type, binder dosage, moisture content, and compaction pressure on the briquetting process and the briquettes quality. Moreover, the reducibility of optimized briquettes will be examined by hydrogen at 900 °C using a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a quadrupole mass spectroscopy (TGA-QMS). The optimal combination for achieving the best mechanical strength and reducibility was a briquette produced with 1% Alcotac® CB6, 1% KemPel, and 2.5% moisture content, compressed at a pressure of 125 kN.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Briquetting, Circular economy, Green transition, Hydrogen reduction, Ironmaking, Mill scale, Organic binders
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104890 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2024.03.152 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187792388 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-04-05 (marisr);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2024-03-26 Created: 2024-03-26 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Parathodiel, H., Mousa, E., Ahmed, H., Elsadek, M., Forsberg, K. & Andersson, C. (2023). Developing Iron Ore Pellets Using Novel Binders for H2-Based Direct Reduction. Sustainability, 15(14), Article ID 11415.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing Iron Ore Pellets Using Novel Binders for H2-Based Direct Reduction
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2023 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 14, article id 11415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transformation from traditional iron- and steelmaking technologies to green H2-based new technologies will require an improvement in the quality and purity of iron ore burden materials. Iron ore pellets are essential inputs for producing direct reduced iron (DRI), but the conventional binders, used in iron ore pelletizing, introduce gangue oxides to the DRI and consequently increase the slag generation and energy consumption in the steelmaking unit. Partial and/or full replacement of the traditional binders with novel organic binders would significantly contribute to improving the process efficiency, particularly in the next-generation H2-based direct reduction technology. This study illustrates the feasibility of pelletizing magnetite iron ore concentrate using four organic binders: KemPel, Alcotac CS, Alcotac FE16, and CMC, in comparison to bentonite as a reference. The study explores the influence of binder type, binder dosage, and moisture content on the characteristics and properties of the pellets. The efficiency of binders was characterized by the moisture content, drop number test, cold compression strength, and H2 reduction of pellets. For dry pellets, CMS was superior among other binders including bentonite in developing dry strength. After firing, the pellets produced by the partial replacement of bentonite with 0.1 wt.% KemPel demonstrate a performance nearly identical to the reference pellets. While the complete replacement of bentonite with organic binder shows a lower performance of fired pellets compared to the reference, it may still be suitable for use in DR shaft furnaces. The cold-bonded pellets demonstrate a superior reduction rate compared to fired pellets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
Keywords
agglomeration, CO2 emission, direct reduction, H2, magnetite concentrate, organic binders, pelletizing, strength
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99544 (URN)10.3390/su151411415 (DOI)001071292700001 ()2-s2.0-85166242515 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, InnoAgglo project, 2020-02089
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-14 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved
Ali, H., Elsadek, M. & Ahmed, H. (2023). Investigation of transformations of low-grade manganese ore during the roasting process. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 132(1), 62-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of transformations of low-grade manganese ore during the roasting process
2023 (English)In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2572-6641, E-ISSN 2572-665X, Vol. 132, no 1, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transformations of low-grade manganese ore were investigated during roasting in the air at different temperatures up to 1200 degrees C. The transformations were followed up by XRD and TGA-DTA. Moreover, the morphology and magnetic properties were determined by SEM and VSM. It was observed that MnO2 transformed to the lower oxide Mn5O8 at 500 degrees C and then to bixbyite (Mn2O3) at 600 degrees C. Finally, the bixbyite decomposed to hausmannite (Mn3O4) at 800 degrees C. Increasing the roasting temperature to 900 degrees C induced a reaction between hematite and hausmannite and led to the formation of a small amount of solid solution of the ferrite spinel MnFe2O4. Further increase in temperature to 1000 degrees C led to the formation of a solid solution of braunite (Mn7SiO12) which decomposed to rhodonite (MnSiO3) at 1200 degrees C. The magnetic susceptibility of the original ore gradually increased with the roasting temperature, from 0.119 x 10(-3) at ambient temperature to a maximum value of 80 x 10(-3) at 1200 degrees C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Low-grade manganese ore, roasting process, transformations, manganese ferrite, magnetic properties
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95298 (URN)10.1080/25726641.2022.2161736 (DOI)000904693500001 ()2-s2.0-85145485625 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-18 (joosat);

Available from: 2023-02-02 Created: 2023-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Manu, K., Mousa, E., Ahmed, H., Elsadek, M. & Yang, W. (2023). Maximizing the Recycling of Iron Ore Pellets Fines Using Innovative Organic Binders. Materials, 16(10), Article ID 3888.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maximizing the Recycling of Iron Ore Pellets Fines Using Innovative Organic Binders
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2023 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 3888Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research work focuses on the practicality of using organic binders for the briquetting of pellet fines. The developed briquettes were evaluated in terms of mechanical strength and reduction behavior with hydrogen. A hydraulic compression testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis were incorporated into this work to investigate the mechanical strength and reduction behavior of the produced briquettes. Six organic binders, namely Kempel, lignin, starch, lignosulfonate, Alcotac CB6, and Alcotac FE14, in addition to sodium silicate, were tested for the briquetting of pellet fines. The highest mechanical strength was achieved using sodium silicate, Kempel, CB6, and lignosulfonate. The best combination of binder to attain the required mechanical strength even after 100% reduction was found to be a combination of 1.5 wt.% of organic binder (either CB6 or Kempel) with 0.5 wt.% of inorganic binder (sodium silicate). Upscaling using an extruder gave propitious results in the reduction behavior, as the produced briquettes were highly porous and attained pre-requisite mechanical strength.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
agglomeration, pellet fines, organic binders, briquettes, reduction, green steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98285 (URN)10.3390/ma16103888 (DOI)000997006800001 ()37241517 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160659088 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-02089
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-13 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Part of Special Issue: Advances in Mineral Processing, Waste Recycling and Extractive Metallurgy

Available from: 2023-06-13 Created: 2023-06-13 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Elsadek, M., Ahmed, H., Suup, M., Sand, A., Heikkinen, E., Khoshkhoo, M. & Sundqvist-Öqvist, L. (2023). Recycling of pyrite and gypsum mining residues through thermochemical conversion into valuable products. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 199, Article ID 107219.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of pyrite and gypsum mining residues through thermochemical conversion into valuable products
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2023 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 199, article id 107219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101825 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2023.107219 (DOI)001159422000001 ()2-s2.0-85174184746 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-10-30 (hanlid);

Funder: CAMM2 (Center for advanced mining & metallurgy), Luleå University of Technology

Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3833-0817

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