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Wetterlund, ElisabethORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4597-4082
Publications (10 of 49) Show all publications
Nwachukwu, C. M., Toffolo, A. & Wetterlund, E. (2020). Biomass-based gas use in Swedish iron and steel industry: Supply chain and process integration considerations. Renewable energy, 146, 2797-2811
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass-based gas use in Swedish iron and steel industry: Supply chain and process integration considerations
2020 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 146, p. 2797-2811Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Substitution of fossil gaseous fuels with biomass-based gases is of interest to the iron and steel industry due to its role in the mitigation of anthropogenic CO2emissions. In switching from fossil fuels to biomass-based gases, a systems analysis of the full value chain from biomass supply to the production and supply of final gas products becomes crucial. This study uses process and heat integration methods in combination with a supply chain evaluation to analyse full value chains of biomass-based gases for fossil gas replacement within the iron and steel industry. The study is carried out as a specific case study in order to understand the implications of utilizing bio-syngas/bio-SNG as heating fuels in iron- and steel-making, and to provide insights into the most sensitive parameters involved in fuel switching. The results show a significant cost difference in the fuel production of the two gas products owing to higher capital and biomass use in the bio-SNG value chain option. When tested for sensitivity, biomass price, transportation distance, and capital costs show the most impact on fuel production costs across all options studied. Trade-offs associated with process integration, plant localisation, feedstock availability and supply were found to varying extents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
biomass supply, integrated production, bio-SNG, bio-syngas, iron and steel industry, system analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75727 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2019.08.100 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071493628 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Schmidt, J., Gruber, K., Klingler, M., Klöckl, C., Camargo, L. R., Regner, P., . . . Wetterlund, E. (2019). A new perspective on global renewable energy systems: why trade in energy carriers matters. Energy & Environmental Science, 12(7), 2022-2029
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new perspective on global renewable energy systems: why trade in energy carriers matters
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2019 (English)In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 2022-2029Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent global modelling studies suggest a decline of long-distance trade in energy carriers in future global renewable energy systems, compared to today's fossil fuel based system. In contrast, we identify four drivers that facilitate trade of renewable energy carriers. These drivers may lead to trade volumes remaining at current levels or even to an increase during the transition to an energy system with very high shares of renewables. First, new land-efficient technologies for renewable fuel production become increasingly available and technically allow for long-distance trade in renewables. Second, regional differences in social acceptance and land availability for energy infrastructure support the development of renewable fuel import and export streams. Third, the economics of renewable energy systems, i.e. the different production conditions globally and the high costs of fully renewable regional electricity systems, will create opportunities for spatial arbitrage. Fourth, a reduction of stranded investments in the fossil fuel sector is possible by switching from fossil fuels to renewable fuel trade. The impact of these drivers on trade in renewable energy carriers is currently under-investigated by the global energy systems research community. The importance of the topic, in particular as trade can redistribute profits and losses of decarbonization and may hence support finding new partners in climate change mitigation negotiations, warrants further research efforts in this area therefore.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Centre - Bio4Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75419 (URN)10.1039/c9ee00223e (DOI)000477950000001 ()2-s2.0-85069043430 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-13 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Mandova, H., Patrizio, P., Leduc, S., Kjärstad, J., Wang, C., Wetterlund, E., . . . Gale, W. (2019). Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Journal of Cleaner Production, 218, 118-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 218, p. 118-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 30 integrated steel plants operating in the European Union (EU) are among the largest single-point CO 2 emitters in the region. The deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (bio-CCS) could significantly reduce their emission intensities. In detail, the results demonstrate that CO 2 emission reduction targets of up to 20% can be met entirely by biomass deployment. A slow CCS technology introduction on top of biomass deployment is expected, as the requirement for emission reduction increases further. Bio-CCS could then be a key technology, particularly in terms of meeting targets above 50%, with CO 2 avoidance costs ranging between €60 and €100 t CO2 −1 at full-scale deployment. The future of bio-CCS and its utilisation on a larger scale would therefore only be viable if such CO 2 avoidance cost were to become economically appealing. Small and medium plants in particular, would economically benefit from sharing CO 2 pipeline networks. CO 2 transport, however, makes a relatively small contribution to the total CO 2 avoidance cost. In the future, the role of bio-CCS in the European iron and steelmaking industry will also be influenced by non-economic conditions, such as regulations, public acceptance, realistic CO 2 storage capacity, and the progress of other mitigation technologies. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
BECCS, Bio-CCS, Blast furnace, CCS, Charcoal, Industry
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72967 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.247 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061317532 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-21 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Jafri, Y., Wetterlund, E., Anheden, M., Kulander, I., Håkansson, Å. & Furusjö, E. (2019). Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance. Energy, 166, 401-413
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance
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2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 401-413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forest-based biofuels are strategically important in forest-rich countries like Sweden but the technical performance of several promising production pathways is poorly documented. This study examines product yields and energy efficiencies in six commercially relevant forest-based “drop-in” and “high blend” biofuel production pathways by developing detailed spreadsheet energy balance models. The models are in turn based on pilot-scale performance data from the literature, supplemented with input from technology developers and experts. In most pathways, biofuel production is integrated with a market pulp mill and/or a crude oil refinery. Initial conversion is by pyrolysis, gasification or lignin depolymerization and intermediate products are upgraded by hydrotreatment or catalytic synthesis.

While lignin oil (LO) hydrodeoxygenation had the highest expanded system efficiency, considerable uncertainty surrounds product yields owing to absence of suitable experimental data on LO upgrading. Co-feeding vacuum gas oil and fast pyrolysis oil in a fluidized catalytic cracker has a complex and uncertain effect on fossil yields, which requires further investigation. Co-locating bio-oil hydrotreatment at the refinery improves heat utilization, leading to higher system efficiencies. Explicit consideration of mill type and energy requirements is required to avoid performance misestimation as an assumption of energy surplus can confer a definite advantage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biofuels, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Lignin oil, Energy efficiencies, Product yields
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71274 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.10.008 (DOI)000455694300035 ()2-s2.0-85056190528 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-07 (inah)

Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Jafri, Y., Wetterlund, E., Anheden, M., Kulander, I., Håkansson, Å. & Furusjö, E. (2019). Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 2, economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity and production potentials. Energy, 172, 1312-1328
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 2, economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity and production potentials
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2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 172, p. 1312-1328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Promoting the deployment of forest-based drop-in and high blend biofuels is considered strategically important in Sweden but many aspects of the overall performance of the foremost production technologies are as yet unexamined. This paper evaluates the technology maturity, profitability, investment requirements, GHG performance and Swedish biofuel production potential of six commercially interesting forest-based biofuel production pathways.

Significant heterogeneity in technology maturity was observed. Lack of technical demonstration in industrially representative scales renders the liquefaction-hydrotreatment route for drop-in biofuels less mature than its gasification-catalytic upgrading counterpart. It is a paradox that short-term priority being accorded to pathways with the lowest technology maturity. Nth-of-a-kind investments in (a) gasification-based methanol, (b) hydropyrolysis-based petrol/diesel, and (c) lignin depolymerization-based petrol/diesel were profitable for a range of plant sizes. The profitability of pulp mill-integrated small gasification units (<100 MW) goes against the common perception of gasification being economically feasible only in large scales. New low-cost options for debottlenecking production at recovery boiler-limited kraft mills appear worth investigating. GHG emission reductions ranged from 66 to 95%; a penalty was incurred for high consumption of natural gas-based hydrogen. Swedish biofuel production potentials ranged from 4 to 27 TWh/y but a more feasible upper limit is 12–15 TWh/y.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biofuels, Gasification, Lignin oil, Pyrolysis oil, Black liquor, Forest residues
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73052 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.02.036 (DOI)000464488100107 ()2-s2.0-85063629405 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-02-27 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Höltinger, S., Mikovits, C., Schmidt, J., Baumgartner, J., Arheimer, B., Lindström, G. & Wetterlund, E. (2019). The impact of climatic extreme events on the feasibility of fully renewable power systems: a case study for Sweden. Energy, 178, 695-713
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of climatic extreme events on the feasibility of fully renewable power systems: a case study for Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 178, p. 695-713Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Long term time series of variable renewable energy (VRE) generation and electricity demand (load) provide important insights into the feasibility of fully renewable power systems. The coverage of energy statistics is usually too short or the temporal resolution too low to study effects related to interannual variability or the impact of climatic extreme events. We use time series simulated from climate data to assess the frequency, duration, and magnitude of extreme residual load events of two fully renewable power scenarios with a share of VRE generation (wind and solar PV) of about 50% for the case of Sweden. We define residual load as load – wind – PV – nuclear generation. Extreme residual load events are events that exceed the balancing or ramping capacities of the current power system. For our analysis, we use 29 years of simulated river runoff and wind and PV generation. Hourly load is derived from MERRA reanalysis temperature data by applying statistical models. Those time series are used along with historic capacity and ramping restrictions of hydro and thermal power plants in an optimization model to minimize extreme residual load events. Our analysis shows that even highly flexible power systems, as the Swedish one, are affected by climatic extreme events if they increase their VRE shares. Replacing current nuclear power capacities by wind power results on average in three extreme residual load events per year that exceed the current power system’s flexibility. Additional PV generation capacities instead of wind increase the number of extreme residual load events by about 4 %, as most events occur during the winter month when solar generation is close to zero and thus not able to counterbalance low wind events. Contrarily, overproduction and the need to curtail VRE generation become more pressing with higher shares of PV. In the discussion we highlight measures that could provide additional balancing capabilities to cope with the more frequent and severe residual load events in a fully renewable power system with high shares of VRE generation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
High share of renewables, Extreme Events, Reanalysis data, Sweden, Optimization, Simulation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73832 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.128 (DOI)000472686300057 ()2-s2.0-85065500314 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-11 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Ouraich, I., Wetterlund, E., Forsell, N. & Lundmark, R. (2018). A spatial-explicit price impact analysis of increased biofuel production on forest feedstock markets: a scenario analysis for Sweden. Biomass and Bioenergy, 119, 364-380
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A spatial-explicit price impact analysis of increased biofuel production on forest feedstock markets: a scenario analysis for Sweden
2018 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 119, p. 364-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present paper introduces an integrated spatially explicit framework for assessing price impact on forestry markets in Sweden. The framework is based on the “soft-link” of a price determination model, the SpPDM model with the BeWhere Sweden model. The aim is to analyse the impacts of increased forest-based biofuel production for transportation within the Swedish context by 2030. To that effect, we develop scenarios analyses based on the simulations of successive biofuel production targets, under different assumptions concerning the competition intensity for forest biomass and the use of industrial by-products. The results suggest marginal impacts on the prices of forest biomass. The average across spatial-explicit prices varies from 0% to 2.8% across feedstocks and scenario types. However, the distribution of the spatial-explicit price impacts displays large variation, with price impacts reaching as high as 8.5%. We find that the pattern of spatial distribution of price impacts follows relatively well the spatial distribution of demand pressure. However, locations with the highest price impacts show a tendency of mismatch with the locations of the highest demand pressure (e.g. sawlogs). This is a counterintuitive conclusion compared to results from non-spatial economic models. The spatial-explicit structure of the framework developed, and its refined scale allows such results to be reported. Hence, from a policy-making perspective, careful analysis should be devoted to the locational linkages for forestry markets of increased biofuel production in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering Economics
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71257 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.09.029 (DOI)000449265800040 ()2-s2.0-85054729952 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-18 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, L., Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Lundgren, J., Hedlund, J., . . . Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis. Energy, 165(Part B), 471-482
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, no Part B, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning systemcomprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reductionwith zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol productionallowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantagederived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biomass gasification, Catalysis, Entrained-flowBio-methanol, Techno-economic analysis
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Chemical Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68206 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.09.159 (DOI)000455171600039 ()2-s2.0-85056197830 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Carvalho, L., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance. Energy, 157, 96-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture.

Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production.

Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68753 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.097 (DOI)000440876600010 ()2-s2.0-85048465146 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, R., Forsell, N., Leduc, S., Lundgren, J., Ouraich, I., Pettersson, K. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation
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2018 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018. p. 34
National Category
Economics Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Economics; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71060 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 213-2014-184
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4597-4082

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