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Wetterlund, ElisabethORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4597-4082
Publications (10 of 74) Show all publications
Lundmark, R., Wetterlund, E. & Olofsson, E. (2024). On the green transformation of the iron and steel industry: Market and competition aspects of hydrogen and biomass options. Biomass and Bioenergy, 182, Article ID 107100.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the green transformation of the iron and steel industry: Market and competition aspects of hydrogen and biomass options
2024 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 182, article id 107100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The iron and steel industry is a major emitter of carbon dioxide globally. To reduce their carbon footprint, the iron and steel industry pursue different decarbonization strategies, including deploying bio-based materials and energy carriers for reduction, carburisation and/or energy purposes along their value-chains. In this study two potential roles for biomass were analysed: (a) substituting for fossil fuels in iron-ore pellets induration and (b) carburisation of DRI (direct reduced iron) produced via fully hydrogen-based reduction. The purpose of the study was to analyse the regional demand-driven price and allocative effects of biomass assortments under different biomass demand scenarios for the Swedish iron and steel industry. Economic modelling was used in combination with spatial biomass supply assessments to predict the changes on relevant biomass markets. The results showed that the estimated demand increases for forest biomass will have significant regional price effects. Depending on scenario, the biomass demand will increase up to 25 percent, causing regional prices to more than doubling. In general, the magnitude of the price effects was driven by the volumes and types of biomasses needed in the different scenarios, with larger price effects for harvesting residues and industrial by-products compared to those of roundwood. A small price effect of roundwood means that the incentives for forest-owners to increase their harvests, and thus also the availability of harvest residues, are small. Flexibility in the feedstock sourcing (both regarding quality and geographic origin) will thus be important if forest biomass is to satisfy demands in iron and steel industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Forest sector model, Climate, Forest biomass, Bioeconomy, Spatial price effects
National Category
Energy Systems Economics and Business
Research subject
Economics; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104326 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2024.107100 (DOI)001179343600001 ()2-s2.0-85184595718 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-04-08 (marisr);

Full text license: CC BY 4.0;

Available from: 2024-02-21 Created: 2024-02-21 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
Wetterlund, E., Andreas, L., Bagheri, M., Bauer, T., Falk, J., Hannl, T. K., . . . Öhman, M. (2024). Smart Waste Treatment in the Circular Economy. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart Waste Treatment in the Circular Economy
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2024 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

This project has targeted utilisation of infrastructure for organic waste treatment in Sweden, in particular sewage sludge, to achieve increased production of high-value materials and energy carriers, reduced use of primary resources, and improved economic performance. We have investigated the sewage sludge management system as a socio-technical system facing a change, with integral connections to the energy and waste systems.

In conclusion, there is no silver bullet for the future of sewage sludge management. Indeed, it would have to be a full clip of silver bullets, as we found that a mishmash of different barriers –technical, economic, legal, and related to public perception – creates uncertainty that hinders progress regarding both sustainable long-term strategies and technological advancement. The Swedish sewage sludge management is largely fragmented, highlighting the need to shift directionto a more holistic approach. This can help actors address common issues rather than focussing solely on activity-specific problems. Introducing new legislation could be a key step, as the current specific legislation on sewage sludge has a seemingly insignificant role for today’s sludge management, compared to other legislation and the voluntary certification.

We have formulated six overall research highlights, to outline both published results and meta-conclusions based on combined insights. Each highlight is described separately in this report.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024. p. 27
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Waste Science and Technology; Law; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105334 (URN)978-91-8048-447-3 (ISBN)
Projects
SMart Avfallsbehandling i Cirkulär eKonomi (SMACK) (Smart waste treatment in the circular economy)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194
Available from: 2024-05-03 Created: 2024-05-03 Last updated: 2024-05-03Bibliographically approved
Bagheri, M., Bauer, T., Ekman Burgman, L. & Wetterlund, E. (2023). Fifty years of sewage sludge management research: Mapping researchers' motivations and concerns. Journal of Environmental Management, 325, Article ID 116412.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fifty years of sewage sludge management research: Mapping researchers' motivations and concerns
2023 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 325, article id 116412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sewage sludge management is torn between a desire for pollution prevention and reuse of a valuable resource. Reconciling these interests in sustainable management is a challenge for researchers. This study focuses on how research on sewage sludge management practices has evolved and scrutinizes how this research is interlinked with concerns and societal issues such as contaminants, economic efficiency, and legislation. Based on published academic papers on sewage sludge management between 1971 and 2019, this study found four trends in research focused on sewage sludge management: a decreasing interest in disposal (landfilling and sea dumping), a dominant interest in land application, a growing interest in sewage sludge as product, and a stable interest in energy recovery. Research on disposal focuses on increasing sludge volumes, legislative changes, and economic challenges with an interest in waste co-treatment. Research on land application concerns nutrient use and contaminants, mainly heavy metals. Research on sewage sludge as a product focuses on the extraction of certain resources and less on use of sewage sludge specifically. Research on energy recovery of sewage sludge focuses on volume reduction rather than contaminants. Two-thirds of the papers are detailed studies aiming to improve single technologies and assessing single risks or benefits. As management of sewage sludge is multifaceted, the narrow focus resulting from detailed studies promotes some concerns while excluding others. Therefore, this study highlights potential gaps such as the combination of nutrient use and disposal and energy recovery and nutrient use. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Land application, energy recovery, phosphorus, legislation, resource recovery, biosolid management
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93660 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116412 (DOI)000877514100006 ()36274309 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85140098755 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P46028-1Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-10-25 (hanlid);

Funder: Bio4Energy

Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
Bagheri, M. & Wetterlund, E. (2023). Introducing hydrothermal carbonization to sewage sludge treatment systems—a way of improving energy recovery and economic performance?. Waste Management, 170, 131-143
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing hydrothermal carbonization to sewage sludge treatment systems—a way of improving energy recovery and economic performance?
2023 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 170, p. 131-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can mitigate the disposal costs of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. This study analyzes the impact of integrating HTC with anaerobic digestion (AD) and combustion from a combined energy and economic performance perspective. Net energy balance and investment opportunity are investigated for a number of technical scenarios considering i) different combinations of the technologies: AD + HTC, AD + thermal dryer + combustion, and AD + HTC + combustion, ii) different options for HTC process water treatment: wet oxidation (WO) + AD, and direct return to AD, and iii) different products: heat-only, heat and electricity, hydrochar, and phosphorus.

The results show trade-offs between investment cost, self-supplement of heat, and output electricity when WO is used. In AD + HTC, net heat output decreases compared to the reference plant, but avoided disposal costs and hydrochar revenue result in profitable investment when the process water is directly returned to the AD. Although HTC has a lower heat demand than the thermal dryer, replacing the thermal dryer with HTC is only possible when AD, HTC, and combustion are connected, or when WO covers HTC’s heat demand. HTC may impair the electricity production because of the necessity for a high-temperature heat source, whereas the thermal dryer can utilize a low-temperature heat source. In conclusion, energy advantages of HTC in AD + HTC + combustion are insufficient to provide a promising investment opportunity due to high investment costs of HTC. The investment opportunity improves by co-combustion of hydrochar and external sludge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Hydrothermal carbonization, Techno-economic analysis, Sewage sludge, Char, Thermal treatment
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93661 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2023.08.006 (DOI)001058081800001 ()37573718 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85167813183 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194Bio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-15 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License;

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
Ahlström, J., Jafri, Y., Wetterlund, E. & Furusjö, E. (2023). Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 125, Article ID 103886.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 125, article id 103886Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mitigating the climate impact from aviation remains one of the tougher challenges in adapting society to fulfill stated climate targets. Long-range aviation cannot be electrified for the foreseeable future and the effects of combusting fuel at high altitude increase the climate impact compared to emissions of green-house gasses only, which further limits the range of sustainable fuel alternatives. We investigate seven different pathways for producing aviation biofuels coupled with either bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), or bio-energy carbon capture and utilization (BECCU). Both options allow for increased efficiency regarding utilization of feedstock carbon. Our analysis uses process-level carbon- and energy balances, with carbon efficiency, climate impact and levelized cost of production (LCOP) as primary performance indicators.

The results show that CCS can achieve a negative carbon footprint for four out of the seven pathways, at a lower cost of GHG reduction than the base process option. Conversely, as a consequence of the electricity-intensive CO2 upgrading process, the CCU option shows less encouraging results with higher production costs, carbon footprints and costs of GHG reduction. Overall, pathways with large amounts of vented CO2, e.g., gasification of black liquor or bark, as well as fermentation of forest residues, reach a low GHG reduction cost for the CCS option. These are also pathways with a larger feedstock and corresponding production potential. Our results enable a differentiated comparison of the suitability of various alternatives for BECCS or BECCU in combination with aviation biofuel production. By quantifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of BECCS and BECCU and by highlighting cost, climate and carbon-efficient pathways, these results can be a source of support for both policymakers and the industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96686 (URN)10.1016/j.ijggc.2023.103886 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152301363 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-21 (sofila);

Available from: 2023-04-21 Created: 2023-04-21 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Jafri, Y., Ahlström, J. M., Furusjö, E., Harvey, S., Pettersson, K., Svensson, E. & Wetterlund, E. (2022). Double Yields and Negative Emissions? Resource, Climate and Cost Efficiencies in Biofuels With Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilization. Frontiers in Energy Research, 10, Article ID 797529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double Yields and Negative Emissions? Resource, Climate and Cost Efficiencies in Biofuels With Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilization
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, article id 797529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As fossil-reliant industries turn to sustainable biomass for energy and material supply, the competition for biogenic carbon is expected to intensify. Using process level carbon and energy balance models, this paper shows how the capture of residual CO2 in conjunction with either permanent storage (CCS) or biofuel production (CCU) benefits fourteen largely residue-based biofuel production pathways. With a few noteworthy exceptions, most pathways have low carbon utilization efficiencies (30–40%) without CCS/U. CCS can double these numbers and deliver negative emission biofuels with GHG footprints below −50 g CO2 eq./MJ for several pathways. Compared to CCS with no revenue from CO2 sequestration, CCU can offer the same efficiency gains at roughly two-third the biofuel production cost (e.g., 99 EUR/MWh vs. 162 EUR/MWh) but the GHG reduction relative to fossil fuels is significantly smaller (18 g CO2 eq./MJ vs. −99 g CO2 eq./MJ). From a combined carbon, cost and climate perspective, although commercial pathways deliver the cheapest biofuels, it is the emerging pathways that provide large-scale carbon-efficient GHG reductions. There is thus some tension between alternatives that are societally best and those that are economically most interesting for investors. Biofuel pathways vent CO2 in both concentrated and dilute streams Capturing both provides the best environomic outcomes. Existing pathways that can deliver low-cost GHG reductions but generate relatively small quantities of CO2 are unlikely to be able to finance the transport infrastructure required for transformative bio-CCS deployment. CCS and CCU are accordingly important tools for simultaneously reducing biogenic carbon wastage and GHG emissions, but to unlock their full benefits in a cost-effective manner, emerging biofuel technology based on the gasification and hydrotreatment of forest residues need to be commercially deployed imminently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
BECCS, BECCU, bio-CCS, negative emissions, biofuels, carbon capture, GHG footprint, carbon utilization
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91969 (URN)10.3389/fenrg.2022.797529 (DOI)000820273300001 ()2-s2.0-85128342022 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Renewable transportation fuels and systems (förnybara drivmedel och system) [P48363-1]
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P48363-1Bio4EnergyThe Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-06-28 (sofila)

Available from: 2022-06-28 Created: 2022-06-28 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Nwachukwu, C. M., Olofsson, E., Lundmark, R. & Wetterlund, E. (2022). Evaluating fuel switching options in the Swedish iron and steel industry under increased competition for forest biomass. Applied Energy, 324, Article ID 119878.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating fuel switching options in the Swedish iron and steel industry under increased competition for forest biomass
2022 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 324, article id 119878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Significant use of forest biomass in the iron and steel industry (ISI) to mitigate fossil CO2 emissions will affect the biomass availability for other users of the same resource. This paper explores the market effects of increased forest biomass competition when promoting the use of forest-based bio-products in the ISI, as well as the interactions between the ISI and the forest industries. We employ a soft-linking approach that combines a geographically explicit techno-economic energy system model and an economic partial equilibrium model of the forest industries and forestry sectors. This allows for iterative endogenous modelling of new equilibrium price developments for different biomass assortments, determining locational choice of bio-products and assessing optimal bio-products technology choices. The results indicate an upward pressure on biomass prices when bio-products are introduced in the ISI (up to 62%), which affects both forest industries and the ISI itself. Prudence is thus warranted not to render bio-production investments uneconomical ex-post by neglecting to include potential price effects in investment decisions. The estimated price effects can be mitigated by increased domestic biomass supply, adjustments of international trade or by revising relevant policies. Even though the results suggest that the price effects will affect the geographical preferences for individual bio-production plants, proximity to the ISI production facility and integration benefits are more important than the proximity to cheaper biomass feedstocks. Product gas production integrated at ISI sites emerges as particularly attractive, while charcoal production exhibits sensitivity to fluctuating markets, both regarding resulting cost for the ISI, and preferred production locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Iron and steel industry, Soft-linking, Energy system modelling, Forest sector modelling, Biomass competition
National Category
Energy Engineering Economics
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92955 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.119878 (DOI)000858743200006 ()2-s2.0-85136619174 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 42194-1Bio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-09-13 (joosat);

Available from: 2022-09-13 Created: 2022-09-13 Last updated: 2022-11-08Bibliographically approved
Ramirez Camargo, L., Castro, G., Gruber, K., Jewell, J., Klingler, M., Turkovska, O., . . . Schmidt, J. (2022). Pathway to a land-neutral expansion of Brazilian renewable fuel production. Nature Communications, 13(1), Article ID 3157.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pathway to a land-neutral expansion of Brazilian renewable fuel production
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2022 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 3157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofuels are currently the only available bulk renewable fuel. They have, however, limited expansion potential due to high land requirements and associated risks for biodiversity, food security, and land conflicts. We therefore propose to increase output from ethanol refineries in a land-neutral methanol pathway: surplus CO2-streams from fermentation are combined with H2 from renewably powered electrolysis to synthesize methanol. We illustrate this pathway with the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol industry using a spatio-temporal model. The fuel output of existing ethanol generation facilities can be increased by 43%–49% or ~100 TWh without using additional land. This amount is sufficient to cover projected growth in Brazilian biofuel demand in 2030. We identify a trade-off between renewable energy generation technologies: wind power requires the least amount of land whereas a mix of wind and solar costs the least. In the cheapest scenario, green methanol is competitive to fossil methanol at an average carbon price of 95€ tCO2−1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91286 (URN)10.1038/s41467-022-30850-2 (DOI)000808128800046 ()35672306 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131503526 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, ERC-2017-STG 758149Bio4EnergyEU, Horizon 2020, 950408
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-06-13 (joosat);

Funder: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamentode Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES);

For correction, see: Ramirez Camargo, L., Castro, G., Gruber, K. et al. Author Correction: Pathway to a land-neutral expansion of Brazilian renewable fuel production. Nature Communications 13, 3450 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31235-1

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Bagheri, M., Öhman, M. & Wetterlund, E. (2022). Techno-Economic Analysis of Scenarios on Energy and Phosphorus Recovery from Mono- and Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge. Sustainability, 14(5), Article ID 2603.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-Economic Analysis of Scenarios on Energy and Phosphorus Recovery from Mono- and Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge
2022 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2603Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of energy and phosphorus (P) fertilizer (PF) recovery from municipal sewage sludge (MSS) through incineration in new combustion plants. We evaluated the economic impact of five critical process design choices: (1) boiler type, (2) fuel (MSS mono-combustion/co-combustion with wheat straw), (3) production scale (10/100 MW), (4) products (heat, electricity, PF), and (5) ash destination. Aspen Plus modeling provided mass and energy balances of each technology scenario. The economic feasibility was evaluated by calculating the minimum selling price of the products, as well as the MSS gate fees required to reach profitability. The dependency on key boundary conditions (operating time, market prices, policy support) was also evaluated. The results showed a significant dependency on both energy and fertilizer market prices and on financial support in the form of an MSS gate fee. Heat was preferred over combined heat and power (CHP), which was feasible only on the largest scale (100 MW) at maximum annual operating time (8000 h/y). Co-combustion showed lower heat recovery cost (19–30 €/MWh) than mono-combustion (29–66 €/MWh) due to 25–35% lower energy demand and 17–25% higher fuel heating value. Co-combustion also showed promising performance for P recovery, as PF could be recovered without ash post-treatment and sold at a competitive price, and co-combustion could be applicable also in smaller cities. When implementing ash post-treatment, the final cost of ash-based PF was more than four times the price of commercial PF. In conclusion, investment in a new combustion plant for MSS treatment appears conditional to gate fees unless the boundary conditions would change significantly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
municipal sewage sludge, energy recovery, phosphorus recovery, techno-economic analysis, mono-combustion, co-combustion
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89866 (URN)10.3390/su14052603 (DOI)000770990400001 ()2-s2.0-85125328366 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-25 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-03-25 Created: 2022-03-25 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Mossberg, J., Jafri, Y. & Wetterlund, E. (2022). We need stable, long-term policy support! — Evaluating the economic rationale behind the prevalent investor lament for forest-based biofuel production. Applied Energy, 318, Article ID 119044.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>We need stable, long-term policy support! — Evaluating the economic rationale behind the prevalent investor lament for forest-based biofuel production
2022 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 318, article id 119044Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Uncertain and unstable policy support has often been claimed to be a major cause of the slower than expected deployment of technologies for production of advanced biofuels. We investigate the economic rationale of this claim by applying a real options framework incorporating uncertainties regarding energy prices, investment costs, and prevalence of policy support, in terms of an economic support per produced unit of biofuel depending on the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Six industrially relevant forest-based technologies for production of drop-in biofuels were evaluated. The technologies were integrated with a pulp mill and an oil refinery and are at different stages of their technical development. The results show that there is a limited economic rationale behind the claim that policy uncertainties are a major source for the stalled deployment of forest-based biorefinery technologies. Only technologies that require very high policy support to become economically viable, with associated low likeliness of investment, showed any significant sensitivity to the policy uncertainty. The results show that the stalled deployment is mainly related to the uncertainties regarding investment costs and future energy prices — and not related to the specific policy uncertainty. The results show that the stalled deployment is mainly related to the uncertainties regarding investment costs and future energy prices. This results in technologies with lower sensitivity with respect to these uncertainties have a larger chance of becoming commercially relevant investment options. The findings show that reduced policy uncertainty will neither lead to earlier investments nor improve the commercial viability of emerging biorefinery technologies. Literature citing policy uncertainty as the main hindrance for commercial deployment cannot do so from an economic perspective without simultaneously investigating the impacts from investment cost and market price uncertainties. Additionally we find that if policy support is intended to promote investment in technologies with high GHG performance, it must be directed specifically to these technologies, otherwise, it is more beneficial to invest in technologies with more favourable conditions for investment and operational costs, but lower GHG performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Real options, Drop-in biofuels, Pulp mill, Integration, Uncertainty
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84584 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.119044 (DOI)000799559500009 ()2-s2.0-85129765573 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 39740-1Bio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-12 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2022-06-10Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4597-4082

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