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Lin, C.-F., Myronycheva, O., Karlsson, O., Jones, D. & Sandberg, D. (2023). A new wood-modification process based on grafted urethane groups: Durability of carbamated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.. In: C. Crestini; H. Lange; M. Gigli; M. Sgarzi (Ed.), 21st ISWFPC Conference Proceedings: Vol. II Poster presentations. Paper presented at 21st International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry (ISWFPC 2023), Venice, Italy, June 4–7, 2023 (pp. 78-81). Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems,, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new wood-modification process based on grafted urethane groups: Durability of carbamated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.
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2023 (English)In: 21st ISWFPC Conference Proceedings: Vol. II Poster presentations / [ed] C. Crestini; H. Lange; M. Gigli; M. Sgarzi, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, , 2023, Vol. 2, p. 78-81Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems,, 2023
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103166 (URN)
Conference
21st International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry (ISWFPC 2023), Venice, Italy, June 4–7, 2023
Projects
Advanced research supporting the forestry and wood-processing sector’s adaptation to global change and the 4th industrial revolutionBiobased fire protection of wood panel for exterior conditions by using phosphorylated lignin from wheat straw
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2021-00818
Note

Funder: OP RDE (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000803); CT WOOD; Swedish wood industry

ISBN for host publication: 9788831461580

Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Lin, C.-f., Myronycheva, O., Karlsson, O., Mantanis, G. I., Jones, D. & Sandberg, D. (2023). A new wood-modification process based on in situ grafting of urethane groups: biological resistance and dimensional stability of carbamylated Scots pine wood. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(3), 1160-1162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new wood-modification process based on in situ grafting of urethane groups: biological resistance and dimensional stability of carbamylated Scots pine wood
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2023 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 1160-1162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical modification of wood typically requires the impregnation of wood with reactive compounds capable of undergoing covalent bonding to functional groups present in the cell wall. Creating such reactive agents in situ, with the use of low-priced chemicals, would prove more attractive for commercial applications. In this study, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was impregnated with an aqueous solution of urea (30%), dried at 40°C for 24 h, and subsequently heat treated in an oven at 150°C for 24 h to produce the reactive isocyanic acid. By using accelerated fungal tests under laboratory conditions, provisional tests demonstrated a high biological resistance against selected moulds and rots. Migration of urea into the wood structure and grafting to its polymers during subsequent heat treatment, led to a bulked cell wall and enhanced resistance to water swelling, even after cycling water treatments. The bending strength (MOR) of modified pine wood was reduced by the treatment applied, while its modulus of elasticity (MOE) remained unchanged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Biological durability, distortion, sawn timber, thermal modified timber, Wood protection
National Category
Wood Science Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97268 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2023.2207541 (DOI)000991623500001 ()2-s2.0-85159810327 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Biobased fire protection of wood panel for exterior conditions by using phosphorylated lignin from wheat straw
Funder
Luleå University of Technology, CT-WOODSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas, 2021-00818
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-30 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY-NC-ND License

Available from: 2023-05-22 Created: 2023-05-22 Last updated: 2023-06-30Bibliographically approved
Han, L., Kutnar, A., Sandak, J., Šušteršič, I. & Sandberg, D. (2023). A Review on Adhesive- and Metal-Free Assembly Techniques for Prefabricated Multi-Layer Engineered Wood Products. In: Victoria Herian (Ed.), Proceedings: Society of Wood Science and Technologyof, 2023 SWST International Conference Asheville, North Carolina, USA: . Paper presented at 66th SWST International Convention (SWST 2023), Asheville, North Carolina, USA, June 25-30, 2023 (pp. 22). SWST - International Society of Wood Science and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review on Adhesive- and Metal-Free Assembly Techniques for Prefabricated Multi-Layer Engineered Wood Products
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings: Society of Wood Science and Technologyof, 2023 SWST International Conference Asheville, North Carolina, USA / [ed] Victoria Herian, SWST - International Society of Wood Science and Technology , 2023, p. 22-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SWST - International Society of Wood Science and Technology, 2023
National Category
Wood Science Building Technologies
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103425 (URN)
Conference
66th SWST International Convention (SWST 2023), Asheville, North Carolina, USA, June 25-30, 2023
Note

ISBN for host publication: 978-1-7340405-4-4

Available from: 2024-01-02 Created: 2024-01-02 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Han, L., Kutnar, A., Sandak, J., Šušteršič, I. & Sandberg, D. (2023). Adhesive- and Metal-Free Assembly Techniques for Prefabricated Multi-Layer Engineered Wood Products: A Review on Wooden Connectors. Forests, 14(2), Article ID 311.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesive- and Metal-Free Assembly Techniques for Prefabricated Multi-Layer Engineered Wood Products: A Review on Wooden Connectors
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2023 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 311Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Engineered wood products (EWPs) are being increasingly used as construction materials. EWPs are currently being made using synthetic adhesives or metal fasteners, which lead to poor recyclability and reusability. Therefore, this review paper focused on emerging adhesive- and metal-free assembling techniques including wood dowels, rotary-dowel welding, wooden nails, and dovetail joining as alternative ways of making prefabricated EWPs. This will contribute towards green construction and optimising the building process to minimise its negative impact on the environment and its inhabitants, while maximising the positive aspects of the finished structure. The respective advantages and shortcomings will be compared with those of equivalent EWPs. In general, the dowel-laminated timber (DLT) provides sufficient load-bearing capacity and even better ductility than EWPs of equivalent size, but its relatively low stiffness under a bending load limits its application as a structural element. Optimised manufacturing parameters such as dowel species, dowel spacing, dowel diameter, dowel insertion angle, dowel shape, etc. could be studied to improve the stiffness. The improved mechanical properties and tight fitting due to set-recovery of densified wood support its use as sustainable alternatives to hardwood dowels in DLT to overcome problems such as the loosening of connections over time and dimensional instability. The rotary welding technology could also enhance the strength and long-term performance of dowel-type joints, but its poor water resistance needs further investigation. The main obstacles to implementing DLT products in the market are missing technical information and design guidelines based on national codes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
EWPs, wood welding, densified wood, wood modification
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95589 (URN)10.3390/f14020311 (DOI)2-s2.0-85148998062 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 739574
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-02-13 (hanlid);

Funder: Republic of Slovenia;  Slovenian Research Agency ARRS (J4-3087); CT WOOD, Luleå University of Technology

Available from: 2023-02-10 Created: 2023-02-10 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, D., Gorbacheva, G., Lichtenegger, H., Niemz, P. & Teischinger, A. (2023). Advanced Engineered Wood-Material Concepts. In: Peter Niemz, Alfred Teischinger, Dick Sandberg (Ed.), Springer Handbook of Wood Science and Technology: (pp. 1835-1888). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced Engineered Wood-Material Concepts
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2023 (English)In: Springer Handbook of Wood Science and Technology / [ed] Peter Niemz, Alfred Teischinger, Dick Sandberg, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 1835-1888Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The variety of wood-based products is huge; some are produced and marketed in large volumes while others are for a very specific use and therefore also often only produced in small volumes. This chapter introduces a group of new materials, existing mainly only in laboratories or in production at pilot scale. These materials often go under the name bioinspired materials and smart wood-based materials. The second part of the chapter presents engineered wood products (EWPs) with other or additional functions than only the load-bearing capacity related not only to properties such as acoustic, heat transfer, light-weight, and extraordinary shape stability, but also to functions such as hybrid functions, improved possibility to form to a given shape, installation solutions, and esthetic and tactile performance. These materials are already on the market since many years and are in this chapter briefly introduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Series
Springer Handbooks, ISSN 2522-8692, E-ISSN 2522-8706
Keywords
Bilayer construction, Bioinspired materials, Engineered wood products, Hybrid wood elements, Ski cores, Smart wood-based materials, Thermal-insulation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97059 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-81315-4_35 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152959544 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-81314-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-81315-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-05-10 Created: 2023-05-10 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Hajdarevic, S., Obućina, M., Kitek Kuzman, M. & Sandberg, D. (2023). Bending moment of mortise-and-tenon joints in a crossed chair base.: [Moment savijanja spojeva s čepom i rupom na križnoj potkonstrukciji sjedala stolice]. Drvna industrija, 74(1), 3-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bending moment of mortise-and-tenon joints in a crossed chair base.: [Moment savijanja spojeva s čepom i rupom na križnoj potkonstrukciji sjedala stolice]
2023 (English)In: Drvna industrija, ISSN 0012-6772, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigated the bending moment of chair base joints. The ultimate bending moments (maximum moment), calculated on the base of the measured maximum applied loads (maximum force), were compared for the front leg and rear leg joints of a chair base. The joints had different angles between the stretcher and the leg (joint angle) as well different tenon lengths (30 mm and 32 mm). The results of the tests indicated that for different test specimen configurations but the same tenon-and-mortise geometry, the maximum force of joints with a smaller value of joint angle (front leg joints) was higher than the force values of joints with a larger angle (rear leg joints) for all tenon lengths. However, the results showed less difference among the calculated bending moments of the analysed sets of joints. A significant difference was not revealed between the bending moments of joints with a smaller value of joint angle and the bending moments of joints with a larger angle for all tenon lengths. A significant difference between the bending moments for the tenon length of 30 mm and tenon length of 32 mm was determined for rear leg joints but not for front leg joints. The presented approach of joint strength analysis through the testing of specimens with different shapes and dimensions are applicable to research and practice.

Abstract [hr]

 U radu je proučavan moment savijanja spojeva na križnoj potkonstrukciji sjedala stolice. Krajnji momenti savijanja (najveći moment), izračunani na temelju izmjerenih najvećih opterećenja (najveća sila), uspoređeni su za spojeve prednjih i stražnjih nogu križne potkonstrukcije sjedala stolice. Spojevi su imali različite kutove između poveznika i noge (kut spoja), kao i različitu duljinu čepova (30 i 32 mm). Rezultati ispitivanja pokazali su da je za različitu konfiguraciju ispitnih uzoraka, ali za istu geometriju čepa i rupe, najveća sila bila veća za spojeve s manjim kutom (spojevi prednjih nogu) nego za spojeve s većim kutom (spojevi stražnjih nogu), i to za čepove obiju duljina. Rezultati su također pokazali manju razliku između izračunanih momenata savijanja analiziranih grupa spojeva. Nije utvrđena značajna razlika momenata savijanja spojeva s manjim i većim kutom za čepove obiju duljina. Značajna razlika između momenata savijanja za čepove dužine 30 i 32 mm utvrđena je za spojeve stražnjih nogu, ali ne i za spojeve prednjih nogu stolice. Prikazani pristup analize čvrstoće spojeva ispitivanjem uzoraka različitih oblika i dimenzija primjenjiv je u istraživanju i u praksi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology University of Zagreb, 2023
Keywords
chair, mortise-and-tenon joint, bending moment, joint angle, tenon length, stolica, spoj s čepom i rupom, moment savijanja, kut spoja, duljina čepa
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96257 (URN)10.5552/drvind.2023.0004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152617494 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-17 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-03-28 Created: 2023-03-28 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Lin, C.-F., Scharf, A., Karlsson, O., Sandberg, D. & Jones, D. (2023). Biobased adesive derived from citric acid and sorbitrol for wood-composite manufacture.. In: Morwenna Spear, Simon Curling, Athanasious Dimitriou, Rob Elias, Ceri Loxton (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Panel Production Symposium 2023: . Paper presented at International Panel Production Symposium 2023 (IPPS23), Llandudno, Wales, United Kingdom, October 3-4, 2023 (pp. 183-187). The BioComposite Centre, Bangor University, UK
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biobased adesive derived from citric acid and sorbitrol for wood-composite manufacture.
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Panel Production Symposium 2023 / [ed] Morwenna Spear, Simon Curling, Athanasious Dimitriou, Rob Elias, Ceri Loxton, The BioComposite Centre, Bangor University, UK , 2023, p. 183-187Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The BioComposite Centre, Bangor University, UK, 2023
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103637 (URN)
Conference
International Panel Production Symposium 2023 (IPPS23), Llandudno, Wales, United Kingdom, October 3-4, 2023
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2021-00818
Note

Funder: OP RDE (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000803), CT WOOD

ISBN for host publication: 978-1-84220-200-5

Available from: 2024-01-14 Created: 2024-01-14 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Garskaite, E., Balciunas, G., Drienovsky, M., Sokol, D., Sandberg, D., Bastos, A. C. & Salak, A. N. (2023). Brushite mineralised Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood – revealing mineral crystallization withina wood matrix by in situ XRD. RSC Advances, 13, 5813-5825
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brushite mineralised Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood – revealing mineral crystallization withina wood matrix by in situ XRD
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2023 (English)In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 13, p. 5813-5825Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O, DCPD, brushite) crystals were synthesised within Scots pine sapwood via a wet-chemistry route from aqueous solutions of Ca(CH3COO)2 and NH4H2PO4 salts. SEM/EDS analysis was used to assess the saturation of the wood cell lumina and cell wall as well as morphological features and elemental composition of the co-precipitated mineral. Brushite mineral crystallization and crystallite growth within the wood matrix was studied by in situ XRD. The chemical composition of the mineral before and after the dissolution was evaluated using FTIR spectroscopy. The overall impact of brushite on the thermal behaviour of wood was studied by TGA/DSC and TGA/DTA/MS analysis under oxidative and pyrolytic conditions. Bending and compression strength perpendicular and parallel to the fibre directions as well as bending strengths in longitudinal and transverse directions of the mineralised wood were also evaluated. Results indicate the viability of the wet-chemistry processing route for wood reinforcement with crystalline calcium phosphate (CaP)-based minerals, and imply a potential in producing hybrid bio-based materials that could be attractive in the construction sector as an environmentally friendly building material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
National Category
Wood Science Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95651 (URN)10.1039/d3ra00305a (DOI)2-s2.0-85148995455 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01198Brandforsk, 2021-13
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-02-16 (hanlid);

Funder:  FCT/MEC (PIDDAC) (UIDB/50011/2020,UIDP/50011/2020, LA/P/0006/2020)

Available from: 2023-02-16 Created: 2023-02-16 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Neyses, B., Scharf, A. & Sandberg, D. (2023). Continuous densification of wood with a belt press: how knot features impact the densification outcome. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(4), 1587-1596
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous densification of wood with a belt press: how knot features impact the densification outcome
2023 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 1587-1596Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Densification, i.e. the transverse compression of sawn timber has been studied and commercialised for well over 100 years but remains an expensive niche product with low annual production volumes. One reason for this is the reliance on time-consuming batch processes in a hot press. To solve this, a continuous densification process using a belt press, capable of densifying full-sized sideboards was developed. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the effect of knots on the densification outcome. The objective of this study was to assess how different knot parameters affect the densified wood in terms of damage and deformation to the knot itself and the surrounding wood material. Multivariate data analysis methods were applied to a dataset of 171 knots, described by 23 variables. The data showed that it is possible to densify knots in a continuous process without causing damage. Especially sound knots are often unproblematic, even at relatively large sizes, while densifying dead knots often resulted in unacceptable damage to the knot or the surrounding wood. From a material selection standpoint, any knots bleeding into the board edge and dead knots greater than 20 mm in diameter should be avoided altogether.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2023
Keywords
Compression of wood, full-size samples, surface densification, wood defects, wood industry
National Category
Wood Science Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99295 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2023.2228278 (DOI)001012945900001 ()2-s2.0-85163005843 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe FoundationsLuleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-08 (joosat);

Full text license: CC BY-NC-ND

Available from: 2023-08-08 Created: 2023-08-08 Last updated: 2023-11-08Bibliographically approved
Scharf, A., Neyses, B. & Sandberg, D. (2023). Continuous densification of wood with a belt press: the process and properties of the surface-densified wood. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(4), 1573-1586
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous densification of wood with a belt press: the process and properties of the surface-densified wood
2023 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 1573-1586Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermo-mechanical densification of sawn timber results in improved mechanical properties, but densified wood remains a fairly expensive niche product, partially because of high-cost batch processing. Densification in a continuous process could address this problem and was shown to be possible in previous research. The outcomes were limited to proofs-of-concept, partially due to insufficient cooling capabilities of the used densification equipment, resulting in high spring-back. Therefore, a novel continuous process using a belt press to densify full-sized sawn timber has been conceived. The press ensures almost constant contact between the wood and the heating and cooling elements. The study aimed to analyse how the processing temperature, speed and compression ratio affected the density profile, spring-back, set-recovery, Brinell hardness, and bending properties. Results showed a density increase concentrated close beneath the surface in contact with the heating element and approx. 20% spring-back. Belt speeds above 2 m min−1 caused higher spring-back due to the reduced contact time between the wood and the heating element. Brinell hardness increased by up to 250% at a compression ratio of 27% while bending properties were unaffected. Belt temperature and speed were shown to be critical factors to consider for the future optimisation of the belt-press process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Compression of wood, set-recovery, mechanical properties, density profile
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97745 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2023.2216660 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161407224 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of Technology, CT WOOD Centre of ExcellenceThe Kempe Foundations
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-08 (joosat);

Full text license: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Available from: 2023-05-31 Created: 2023-05-31 Last updated: 2023-11-08Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4526-9391

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