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Holmberg, Hans-ChristerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3814-6246
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Publications (10 of 248) Show all publications
Mishica, C., Kyröläinen, H., Taskinen, S., Hynynen, E., Nummela, A., Holmberg, H.-C. & Linnamo, V. (2024). Associations between objective measures of performance-related characteristics and perceived stress in young cross-country skiers during pre-season training. Journal of Sports Sciences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between objective measures of performance-related characteristics and perceived stress in young cross-country skiers during pre-season training
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103996 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2024.2304499 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182863795 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-29 Created: 2024-01-29 Last updated: 2024-01-29
Ekenros, L., von Rosen, P., Norrbom, J., Holmberg, H.-C., Sundberg, C. J., Fridén, C. & Lindén Hirschberg, A. (2024). Impact of Menstrual cycle-based Periodized training on Aerobic performance, a Clinical Trial study protocol—the IMPACT study. Trials, 25(1), Article ID 93.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Menstrual cycle-based Periodized training on Aerobic performance, a Clinical Trial study protocol—the IMPACT study
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2024 (English)In: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 25, no 1, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The menstrual cycle and its impact on training and performance are of growing interest. However, evidence is lacking whether periodized exercise based on the menstrual cycle is beneficial. The primary purpose of this proposed randomized, controlled trial, the IMPACT study, is to evaluate the effect of exercise periodization during different phases of the menstrual cycle, i.e., comparing follicular phase-based and luteal phase-based training with regular training during the menstrual cycle on physical performance in well-trained women.

Methods: Healthy, well-trained, eumenorrheic women between 18 and 35 years (n = 120) will be recruited and first assessed for physical performance during a run-in menstrual cycle at different cycle phases and then randomized to three different interventions: follicular phase-based training, luteal phase-based training, or regular training during three menstrual cycles. The training intervention will consist of high-intensity spinning classes followed by strength training. The menstrual cycle phases will be determined by serum hormone analysis throughout the intervention period. Assessment of aerobic performance (primary outcome) and muscle strength, body composition, and blood markers will be performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention.

Discussion: With a robust methodology, this study has the potential to provide evidence of the differential effects of exercise periodization during different phases of the menstrual cycle in female athletes.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05697263 . Registered on 25 January 2023

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Aerobic performance, Female athlete, Female sex hormones, Follicular phase-based training, Luteal phase-based training, Menstrual cycle, Periodized training
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104176 (URN)10.1186/s13063-024-07921-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85183447132 (Scopus ID)
Note

FUll text license: CC-BY

Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-02-05
Dunst, A. K., Hesse, C., Feldmann, A. & Holmberg, H. C. (2023). A Novel Approach to Determining the Alactic Time Span in Connection with Assessment of the Maximal Rate of Lactate Accumulation in Elite Track Cyclists. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 18(2), 157-163
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Approach to Determining the Alactic Time Span in Connection with Assessment of the Maximal Rate of Lactate Accumulation in Elite Track Cyclists
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 157-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Following short-term all-out exercise, the maximal rate of glycolysis is frequently assessed on the basis of the maximal rate of lactate accumulation in the blood. Since the end of the interval without significant accumulation (talac) is 1 of 2 denominators in the calculation employed, accurate determination of this parameter is crucial. Although the very existence and definition of talac, as well as the validity of its determination as time-to-peak power (tPpeak), remain controversial, this parameter plays a key role in anaerobic diagnostics. Here, we describe a novel approach to determination of talac and compare it to the current standard. Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists performed 3 maximal sprints (3, 8, and 12 s) and a high-rate, low-resistance pedaling test on an ergometer with monitoring of crank force and pedaling rate. Before and after each sprint, capillary blood samples were taken for determination of lactate accumulation. Fatigue-free force–velocity and power–velocity profiles were generated. talac was determined as tPpeak and as the time point of the first systematic deviation from the force–velocity profile (tFf). Results: Accumulation of lactate after the 3-second sprint was significant (0.58 [0.19] mmol L−1; P < .001, d = 1.982). tFf was <3 seconds and tPpeak was ≥3 seconds during all sprints (P < .001, d = − 2.111). Peak power output was lower than maximal power output (P < .001, d = −0.937). Blood lactate accumulation increased linearly with increasing duration of exercise (R2 ≥ .99) and intercepted the x-axis at ∼tFf. Conclusion: Definition of talac as tPpeak can lead to incorrect conclusions. We propose determination of talac based on tFf, the end of the fatigue-free state that may reflect the beginning of blood lactate accumulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2023
Keywords
anaerobic diagnostics, fatigue-free time span, force–velocity profile, maximal rate of blood lactate accumulation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiotherapy; Centre - Swedish Sports Technology and Performance Research Centre (SPORTC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95606 (URN)10.1123/ijspp.2021-0464 (DOI)36596309 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147234247 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-02-24 (joosat);

Available from: 2023-02-13 Created: 2023-02-13 Last updated: 2023-09-11Bibliographically approved
Dunst, A. K., Hesse, C., Ueberschär, O. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2023). A Novel Approach to the Determination of Time- and Fatigue-Dependent Efficiency during Maximal Cycling Sprints. Sports, 11(2), Article ID 29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Approach to the Determination of Time- and Fatigue-Dependent Efficiency during Maximal Cycling Sprints
2023 (English)In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: During maximal cycling sprints, efficiency (η) is determined by the fiber composition of the muscles activated and cadence-dependent power output. To date, due to methodological limitations, it has only been possible to calculate gross efficiency (i.e., the ratio of total mechanical to total metabolic work) in vivo without assessing the impact of cadence and changes during exercise. Eliminating the impact of cadence provides optimal efficiency (ηopt), which can be modeled as a function of time. Here, we explain this concept, demonstrate its calculation, and compare the values obtained to actual data. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the time course of maximal power output (Pmax) reflects time-dependent changes in ηopt. Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists performed four maximal sprints (3, 8, 12, 60 s) and a maximal-pedaling test on a cycle ergometer. Crank force and cadence were monitored continuously to determine fatigue-free force-velocity profiles (F/v) and fatigue-induced changes in Pmax. Respiratory gases were measured during and for 30 min post-exercise. Prior to and following each sprint, lactate in capillary blood was determined to calculate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔBLC). Lactic and alactic energy production were estimated from ΔBLC and the fast component of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. Aerobic energy production was determined from oxygen uptake during exercise. Metabolic power (MP) was derived from total metabolic energy (WTOT). ηopt was calculated as Pmax divided by MP. Temporal changes in Pmax, WTOT, and ηopt were analyzed by non-linear regression. Results: All models showed excellent quality (R2 > 0.982) and allowed accurate recalculation of time-specific power output and gross efficiency (R2 > 0.986). The time-constant for Pmax(t) (τP) was closely correlated with that of ηopt (τη; r = 0.998, p < 0.001). Estimating efficiency using τP for τη led to a 0.88 ± 0.35% error. Conclusions: Although efficiency depends on pedal force and cadence, the latter influence can be eliminated by ηopt(t) using a mono-exponential equation whose time constant can be estimated from Pmax(t).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
all-out exercise, efficiency, F/v profile, performance modelling, track cycling
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiotherapy; Centre - Swedish Sports Technology and Performance Research Centre (SPORTC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95806 (URN)10.3390/sports11020029 (DOI)2-s2.0-85148707769 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-03-07 (joosat);

Funder: Federal Ministry of the Interior and Community, Germany (AD-5-17)

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-03-07 Created: 2023-03-07 Last updated: 2023-09-11Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, J., Kalliorinne, K., Hindér, G., Holmberg, H.-C., Almqvist, A. & Larsson, R. (2023). A Novel Free-Gliding Ski Tribometer for Quantification of Ski–Snow Friction with High Precision. Tribology letters, 71(4), Article ID 111.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Free-Gliding Ski Tribometer for Quantification of Ski–Snow Friction with High Precision
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2023 (English)In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 71, no 4, article id 111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nature of snow and the ever-changing environment makes measuring friction on snow and ice challenging. Additionally, due to the low friction involved, the equipment used must exhibit high sensitivity. Previous investigations of ski–snow friction have ranged from small-scale model experiments performed in the laboratory to experiments with full-sized skis outdoors. However, few have been conducted under conditions similar to those encountered during actual skiing. Here, we present a novel sled tribometer which provides highly reproducible coefficient of friction (COF) values for full-sized skis gliding at relevant speeds (approximately 5.9 m/s) in a controlled indoor environment. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the COF is as low as 0.5%. The continuous recording of velocity allows for innovative investigations into COF variations when skis are permitted to free-glide in a natural setting. Different methods of analysing the results are presented which shows that the precision is not a single number, but a function of the range of velocities over which the average COF is calculated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Winter sports, Full-size skis, Narrow skis, Cross-country, Biathlon, Ski–snow friction, Ski tribometers, Sled systems
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Machine Elements; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101471 (URN)10.1007/s11249-023-01781-w (DOI)2-s2.0-85171473273 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations, JCK-2107
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-28 (hanlid);

Funder: Swedish Olympic Committee (SOK)

Available from: 2023-09-28 Created: 2023-09-28 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Fornasiero, A., Fornoni, S., Callovini, A., Todesco, B., Savoldelli, A., Schena, F., . . . Bortolan, L. (2023). Analysis of Sprint Ski Mountaineering Performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Sprint Ski Mountaineering Performance
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics Publ Inc, 2023
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103525 (URN)10.1123/ijspp.2023-0075 (DOI)001125495400001 ()
Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-08
Galvan-Alvarez, V., Gallego-Selles, A., Martinez-Canton, M., García-Gonzalez, E., Gelabert-Rebato, M., Ponce-Gonzalez, J. G., . . . Calbet, J. A. .. (2023). Antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2/Keap1 in human skeletal muscle: Influence of age, sex, adiposity and aerobic fitness. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 209(Part 2), 282-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2/Keap1 in human skeletal muscle: Influence of age, sex, adiposity and aerobic fitness
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2023 (English)In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 209, no Part 2, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whether a higher aerobic fitness is associated with increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and their regulatory factors in skeletal muscle remains unknown. Although oestrogens could promote a higher antioxidant capacity in females, it remains unknown whether a sex dimorphism exists in humans regarding the antioxidant capacity of skeletal muscle. Thus, the aim was to determine the protein expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) and their regulatory factors Nrf2 and Keap1 in 189 volunteers (120 males and 69 females) to establish whether sex differences exist and how age, VO2max and adiposity influence these. For this purpose, vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained in all participants under resting and unstressed conditions. No significant sex differences in Nrf2, Keap1, SOD1, SOD2, catalase and GR protein expression levels were observed after accounting for VO2max, age and adiposity differences. Multiple regression analysis indicates that the VO2max in mL.kg LLM−1.min−1can be predicted from the levels of SOD2, Total Nrf2 and Keap1 (R = 0.58, P < 0.001), with SOD2 being the main predictor explaining 28 % of variance in VO2max, while Nrf2 and Keap1 explained each around 3 % of the variance. SOD1 protein expression increased with ageing in the whole group after accounting for differences in VO2max and body fat percentage. Overweight and obesity were associated with increased pSer40-Nrf2, pSer40-Nrf2/Total Nrf2 ratio and SOD1 protein expression levels after accounting for differences in age and VO2max. Overall, at the population level, higher aerobic fitness is associated with increased basal expression of muscle antioxidant enzymes, which may explain some of the benefits of regular exercise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2023
Keywords
Aging, Catalase, Free radicals, Nrf2, Obesity, Physical activity, ROS, SOD
National Category
Physiology Endocrinology and Diabetes
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102318 (URN)10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2023.10.393 (DOI)37858747 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85175336562 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-13 (joosat);

Funder: Consejo Superior de Deportes (EXP_75097); Swedish Olympic Committee (070–4058960); Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (DEP2015-71171-R, DEP2017-86409-C2-1-P, PI14/01509, PID2021-125354OB-C21); University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPAPD-08/01–4); Agencia Canaria de Investigación, Innovación y Sociedad de la Infomación (ProID2017010106); Cabildo de Gran Canaria (12/22);

License fulltext: CC BY

Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Kalliorinne, K., Persson, B. N. J., Sandberg, J., Hindér, G., Larsson, R., Holmberg, H.-C. & Almqvist, A. (2023). Characterisation of the Contact between Cross-Country Skis and Snow: A Micro-Scale Study Considering the Ski-Base Texture. Lubricants, 11(5), Article ID 225.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of the Contact between Cross-Country Skis and Snow: A Micro-Scale Study Considering the Ski-Base Texture
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2023 (English)In: Lubricants, E-ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In winter sports, the equipment often comes into contact with snow or ice, and this contact generates a force that resists motion. In some sports, such as cross-country skiing, this resistive force can significantly affect the outcome of a race, as a small reduction in this force can give an athlete an advantage. Researchers have examined the contact between skis and snow in detail, and to fully understand this friction, the entire ski must be studied at various scales. At the macro scale, the entire geometry of the ski is considered and the apparent contact between the ski and the snow is considered and at the micro-scale the contact between the snow and the ski-base textures. In the present work, a method for characterising the contact between the ski-base texture and virtual snow will be presented. Six different ski-base textures will be considered. Five of them are stone-ground ski bases, and three of them have longitudinal linear textures with a varying number of lines and peak-to-valley heights, and the other two are factory-ground “universal” ski bases. The sixth ski base has been fabricated by a steel-scraping procedure. In general, the results show that a ski base texture with a higher 𝑆𝑝𝑘 value has less real contact area, and that the mutual differences can be large for surfaces with similar 𝑆𝑎 values. The average interfacial separation is, in general, correlated with the 𝑆𝑎 value, where a “rougher” surface exhibits a larger average interfacial separation. The results for the reciprocal average interfacial separation, which is related to the Couette type of viscous friction, were in line with the general consensus that a “rougher” texture performs better at high speed than a “smoother” one, and it was found that a texture with high 𝑆𝑎 and 𝑆𝑝𝑘 values resulted in a low reciprocal average interfacial separation and consequently low viscous friction. The reciprocal average interfacial separation was found to increase with increasing real contact area, indicating a correlation between the real area of contact and the Couette part of the viscous friction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
winter sports, sports equipment, snow, cross-country skiing, ski friction, ski-base texture
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements; Physiotherapy; Centre - Swedish Sports Technology and Performance Research Centre (SPORTC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97973 (URN)10.3390/lubricants11050225 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160250027 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019-04293
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-07 (joosat);

Part of Special Issue: Multiscale and Modern Solutions in the Simulation of Lubricated Contacts

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-06-07 Created: 2023-06-07 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Kalliorinne, K., Hindér, G., Sandberg, J., Larsson, R., Holmberg, H.-C. & Almqvist, A. (2023). Characterisation of the Contact between Cross-Country Skis and Snow: On the Multi-Scale Interaction between Ski Geometry and Ski-Base Texture. Lubricants, 11(10), Article ID 427.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of the Contact between Cross-Country Skis and Snow: On the Multi-Scale Interaction between Ski Geometry and Ski-Base Texture
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2023 (English)In: Lubricants, E-ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In elite endurance sports, marginal differences in finishing times drive ongoing equipment improvement to enhance athlete performance. In cross-country skiing, researchers, since the 1930s, have faced the challenge of minimising the resistance caused by friction in the contact between skis and snow. This study was designed to evaluate the multi-scale interaction between the macro-scale ski-camber profile and the micro-scale ski-base texture. Considerations included real contact area, average interfacial separation, and total reciprocal interfacial separation between the ski and snow, which are properties that are intimately coupled to ski–snow friction. We found that both the profile of the ski camber and the texture of the ski base play decisive roles in determining viscous friction. At the same time, the texture of the ski base exerts a greater impact on the average real contact pressure, real contact area, and minimal average interfacial separation between the ski and snow than the ski-camber profile.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
Keywords
contact mechanics, cross-country skiing, multi-scale, ski-base texture, ski-camber profile, sports equipment
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Sport and Fitness Sciences Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102313 (URN)10.3390/lubricants11100427 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175021351 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-13 (joosat);

Funder: Swedish Research Council (DNR 2019-04293);

License fulltext: CC BY

Part of: Special Issue Multiscale and Modern Solutions in the Simulation of Lubricated Contacts

Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Galvan-Alvarez, V., Martin-Rincon, M., Gallego-Selles, A., Martínez Canton, M., HamedChaman, N., Gelabert-Rebato, M., . . . Calbet, J. A. .. (2023). Determinants of the maximal functional reserve during repeated supramaximal exercise by humans: The roles of Nrf2/Keap1, antioxidant proteins, muscle phenotype and oxygenation. Redox Biology, 66, Article ID 102859.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of the maximal functional reserve during repeated supramaximal exercise by humans: The roles of Nrf2/Keap1, antioxidant proteins, muscle phenotype and oxygenation
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2023 (English)In: Redox Biology, E-ISSN 2213-2317, Vol. 66, article id 102859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When high-intensity exercise is performed until exhaustion a “functional reserve” (FR) or capacity to produce power at the same level or higher than reached at exhaustion exists at task failure, which could be related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS)-sensing and counteracting mechanisms. Nonetheless, the magnitude of this FR remains unknown. Repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise at 120% of VO2max interspaced with 20s recovery periods with full ischaemia were used to determine the maximal FR. Then, we determined which muscle phenotypic features could account for the variability in functional reserve in humans. Exercise performance, cardiorespiratory variables, oxygen deficit, and brain and muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured, and resting muscle biopsies were obtained from 43 young healthy adults (30 males). Males and females had similar aerobic (VO2max per kg of lower extremities lean mass (LLM): 166.7 ± 17.1 and 166.1 ± 15.6 ml kg LLM−1.min−1, P = 0.84) and anaerobic fitness (similar performance in the Wingate test and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit when normalized to LLM). The maximal FR was similar in males and females when normalized to LLM (1.84 ± 0.50 and 2.05 ± 0.59 kJ kg LLM−1, in males and females, respectively, P = 0.218). This FR depends on an obligatory component relying on a reserve in glycolytic capacity and a putative component generated by oxidative phosphorylation. The aerobic component depends on brain oxygenation and phenotypic features of the skeletal muscles implicated in calcium handling (SERCA1 and 2 protein expression), oxygen transport and diffusion (myoglobin) and redox regulation (Keap1). The glycolytic component can be predicted by the protein expression levels of pSer40-Nrf2, the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit and the protein expression levels of SOD1. Thus, an increased capacity to modulate the expression of antioxidant proteins involved in RONS handling and calcium homeostasis may be critical for performance during high-intensity exercise in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Fatigue, Free radicals, High-intensity exercise, Ischaemia, Keap1, Nrf2, Performance, ROS
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101335 (URN)10.1016/j.redox.2023.102859 (DOI)2-s2.0-85169585894 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-13 (joosat);

CC BY 4.0 License

Funder: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (DEP2017-86409-C2-1-P; PID2021-125354OB-C21); Swedish Olympic Committee (Ref: 070–4058960); Consejo Superior de Deportes (EXP_75097); European Union NextGenerationEU; Gobierno de Espana, Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte, Plan de Recuperacion, Transformacion y Resilencia; Cabildo de Gran Canaria (grant 12/22); FDCAN (Fondo de Desarrollo de Canarias) 

Available from: 2023-09-13 Created: 2023-09-13 Last updated: 2024-01-04Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3814-6246

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