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Al-Madhlom, Q., Nordell, B., Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Lindblom, J., Laue, J. & Hussain, H. M. (2019). Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Groundwater for Sustainable Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2019 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

There is a global attention that the future energy systems will be based on renewable energy like solar and wind. The large-scale utilization of renewables in space heating and cooling requires large Thermal Energy Storage TES to overcome the varying supply and demand. The process of producing the best Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES system pass through two steps: first, finding the best type of UTES system, second, finding the best locations to install UTES system. Both of these two steps depend extremely on the site specific parameters such that the depth to the groundwater, transmissivity, type of soil, the depth to the bedrock, and seepage velocity. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the site specific parameters that the type of UTES-system depends on and explain the suitable type of UTES systems. This study considers Babylon province (Iraq) as study area. This province has electricity deficiency due to Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC applications. The methodology of this study includes reviewing the literature that consider the study area, and using Arc Map/GIS to visualize some of the in-site parameters. The results indicate that the best type of UTES system for the considered region is either aquifer or pit type, due to the type of the soil and the depth to the crystalline bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and the seepage velocity in the considered region are (0.0023–2.5) m/d and (1.3 × 10−6 – 3.45 × 10−3) m/d respectively. These conditions satisfy the standards which regard aquifer type.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Renewable energy, Groundwater, Aquifer thermal energy storage, Pit thermal energy storage
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Water Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Soil Mechanics; Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76206 (URN)10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100283 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-02
Al-Madhlom, Q., Hamza, B., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., Nordell, B. & Hussain, H. M. (2019). Site Selection Criteria of UTES Systems in Hot Climate. In: Proceedings of the XVII ECSMGE-2019: Geotechnical Engineering foundation of the future. Paper presented at XVII European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,(ECSMGE), 2019, 1 - 6 September 2019, Reykjavik, Iceland (pp. 1-8). Iceland: The Icelandic Geotechnical Society (IGS), 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Site Selection Criteria of UTES Systems in Hot Climate
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the XVII ECSMGE-2019: Geotechnical Engineering foundation of the future, Iceland: The Icelandic Geotechnical Society (IGS) , 2019, Vol. 1, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES systems are widely used around the world. The reason is that UTES is essential in utilizing Renewable Energy sources (RE). The efficiency of the energy system relies strongly on the efficiency of the storage system. Therefore, in the installation of a hyper-energy system, a lot of attention is to be paid in improving the storage system. In order to design an efficient storage system, firstly, standard criteria are to be investigated. These explain the process of making high efficiency storage system that must be specified. The criteria, mainly, depends on: best type and best location. These two variables are in high interference with each other. The bond between the two variables is represented by the geological, hydrological, meteorological, soil, hydrogeological properties/factors of the site. These factors are specified by geo-energy mapping. Despite the importance of this type of mapping, there is no specific criteria/formula that defines the choice. This paper aims to: give a brief literature review for UTES systems (types, classification, advantages/disadvantages for each type, and examples of an installed system). In addition, some factors within geo-energy mapping are highlighted and standard criteria to achieve good storage system are suggested. The suggested criterion comprises a process to transfer the quantity values to quality values according to the expert opinion. The suggested criteria are defined through the following stages: selecting the best type of UTES systems according to hydro-geological in site conditions; using the analytical hierarchy process to rank the best location to install the storage system and then using ArcMap (GIS-Software) to provide representative results as maps. Karbala Province (Iraq) is the study area used here

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Iceland: The Icelandic Geotechnical Society (IGS), 2019
Keywords
undeground thermal energy storage, site selection, geo-energy mapping, analytical heirarchy process, DRASTIC index
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering Water Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Soil Mechanics; Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76168 (URN)10.32075/17ECSMGE-2019-0983 (DOI)
Conference
XVII European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,(ECSMGE), 2019, 1 - 6 September 2019, Reykjavik, Iceland
Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Al-Madhlom, Q., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., Nordell, B. & Hussain, H. M. (2019). Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions. Water, 11(7), Article ID 1393.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions
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2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1393Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are widely used around the world, due to their relations to heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications [1]. To achieve the required objectives of these systems, the best design of these systems should be accessed first. The process of determining the best design for any UTES system has two stages, the type selection stage and the site selection stage. In the type selection stage, the best sort of UTES system is determined. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are: boreholes, aquifer, bit, tank, tubes in clay, and cavern [2–5]. The selection of a particular type depends on three groups of parameters. They are: Site specific, design, and operation parameters (Figure 1). Apart from site specific parameters, the other two types can be changed through the life time of the system. The site specific parameters, e.g., geological, hydrogeological, and metrological, cannot be changed during the service period of the  ystem. Therefore, the design of the best type should depend, at first consideration, on site specific parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
site selection, underground thermal energy storage systems, analytical hierarchy
National Category
Engineering and Technology Water Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75229 (URN)10.3390/w11071393 (DOI)000480632300078 ()2-s2.0-85068541786 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-12 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-07-06 Created: 2019-07-06 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Nordell, B., Bergman, G. & Wiklund, M. (2018). Development of the Lillpite River Valley after Dam Removal. In: : . Paper presented at International Seminar on Dam Removal, Hudiksvall, Sweden, 24-26 September 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of the Lillpite River Valley after Dam Removal
2018 (English)Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The Lillpite River Valley stretches 45 km NV, from Piteå at the Gulf of Bothnia. The 619 km2 large catchment area comprises a dozen lakes. The average flow rate of the river is 6.24 m3/s. Lillpite Kraft AB, which owns the two power plants in the Lillpite River, has now applied for a demolition permit after 30 years of unprofitable operation. This demolition will take place in 2020, after which there are no obstacles to the fish's migration in the river. The Lillpite River was famous for its large salmon but also for its trout, grayling and lamprey. River crayfish and freshwater pearl mussel exist in the river, both upstream and downstream of the two dams, and in the brooks. There are even eel and pikeperch in the river, which also hosts beaver and otter. The Lillpite River Economic Association manages the compensation (~30M€ over 50 years) for the wind power intrusion in the area. This organisation is committed to make the river the fishing water it once was, as a driving force for the development of the river valley. At this seminar, we seek your help and advice based on knowledge and experience. How to determine the river status before and after dam removal? River erosion? Timeline after dam removal? Evaluation of ecology and biodiversity? How to improve conditions for fish, crustaceans and pearl mussel? How to meet sceptical locals? What should/could we do before the dam removal?

National Category
Ocean and River Engineering Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70161 (URN)
Conference
International Seminar on Dam Removal, Hudiksvall, Sweden, 24-26 September 2018
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-09-21Bibliographically approved
Yousefi, B., Boroomand-Nasab, S., Moazed, H. & Nordell, B. (2017). A brief review on application of solar desalination in irrigation to have a sustainable agriculture. Desalination and Water Treatment, 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A brief review on application of solar desalination in irrigation to have a sustainable agriculture
2017 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This review paper deals with seawater or saline water solar desalination systems for agriculture and irrigation. Since the future seems to face an increasing scarcity of irrigation water and fossil fuels, many countries encourage renewable energy driven desalination and irrigation to achieve a more sustainable agriculture. Today, however, only a fraction of existing desalination systems is solar driven. Such desalination irrigation systems deserve more attention and support. Here, we describe and discuss systems for condensation irrigation, distillation irrigation and greenhouses combined with solar stills.

Keywords
Solar Energy, Condensation Irrigation, Distillation Irrigation, Greenhouse, Solar Still
National Category
Natural Sciences Renewable Bioenergy Research Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63749 (URN)
Available from: 2017-06-06 Created: 2017-06-06 Last updated: 2018-01-13
Scorpo, A. L., Nordell, B. & Gehlin, S. (2017). A method to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the ground by TRT analysis (ed.). Ground Water, 55(1), 110-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the ground by TRT analysis
2017 (English)In: Ground Water, ISSN 0017-467X, E-ISSN 1745-6584, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 110-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An accurate knowledge of aquifers properties is important 2 in many disciplines, from hydrology to site characterization in order to designing and implementing remediation strategies, as well as geothermal ground source technologies. In par5 ticular, the groundwater flow rate is a fundamental parameter to be considered in the ground-coupled heat exchangers (GCHEs) design, together with the thermal properties of the ground. In fact, even relatively low flow rate entail temperature changes considerably lower than in the case of pure heat conduction (Gehlin and Hellström, 2003; Fan et al., 2007) and then relatively stable underground temper10 atures which allow heat pumps to operate with very efficient performance coefficients, thereby reducing energy costs (Lee et al., 2012). Moreover, an accurate knowledge of groundwater velocity and ground thermal properties allows a better design and dimensioning of the GCHE, with further reduction of costs. The objective of this paper is to propose an expeditious, graphical method to estimate the groundwater flow velocity from TRT analysis.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15163 (URN)10.1111/gwat.12443 (DOI)000393955900013 ()27479510 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84979980505 (Scopus ID)ea5adb4b-6837-4e92-bb64-900c878fe4fc (Local ID)ea5adb4b-6837-4e92-bb64-900c878fe4fc (Archive number)ea5adb4b-6837-4e92-bb64-900c878fe4fc (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-02-02 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Yousefi, B., Boroomand-Nasab, S., Moazed, H. & Nordell, B. (2017). Condensation Irrigation Field Test: Measurements of Soil Moisture (ed.). International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 6(3), 263-268
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condensation Irrigation Field Test: Measurements of Soil Moisture
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, ISSN 2147-3749, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to the growing population and scarcity of fresh water it is increasingly important to produce potable water by desalination of saline water. However, desalination requires energy and in a sustainable world it has to be based on renewable energy. Condensation irrigation (CI) is a method that combines desalination and irrigation. In such systems solar energy could be used to provide needed energy. By letting air flow over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water, the air is humidified. The vapor-saturated airflow is then lead into buried pipes, where the air gradually cools and the water precipitates along the pipe surface. In current field study perforated PVC pipes were used i.e. the condensed water left the pipe through its walls and irrigated the surrounding soil. In PVC pipes without perforations the produced water was collected at the pipe outlet. A fan was used to force the air through the 25 m pipes of the CI system. The resulting amount of produced water per 8 hours for drinking water and irrigation was 4.0 and 6.0 l, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ankara: Academic Center for International Scientific Information, 2017
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9148 (URN)7b7d147f-b8cd-440a-88ba-3a708950fa8b (Local ID)7b7d147f-b8cd-440a-88ba-3a708950fa8b (Archive number)7b7d147f-b8cd-440a-88ba-3a708950fa8b (OAI)
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160401 (bon)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Hede, H. & Nordell, B. (2017). Crystal Plaster Double-Blind Test.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crystal Plaster Double-Blind Test
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The object of this study was to verify the pain reducing effect of the “Crystal Plaster”. This is a specific plaster made from dermatological proved material with a central circular spot of glue with fine quartz crystals embedded on the dermal side. A quantity of 93 patients with chronic pain at the vertebral column could be recruited for this study.

The pain sensation of the patients was registered as a value between zero and ten on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In all phases of the study, the pain at rest was regarded separately from the pain felt in motion. No correlation of these different pain assessments was found.

  • In general patients reported relief of pain, but single persons told about one step increase of the VAS value after the Crystal Plaster application. Side effects by application and wearing the Crystal Plaster were slightly and did not exclude a use over several months.
  • After one day of application of plaster the elevated average was 70% of the pain at rest as well as in motion indicated at the beginning of the study.
  • After three month of Crystal Plaster application the VAS values communicated by the patients refer to about 50% and after doubling these times to near 40% of the average of initial pain intensity. This finding counts with only minor difference for pain at rest and in motion.
  • To gain evidence for a special contribution of the quartz crystals, Crystal Plaster were compared to similar constructed plaster with spheres of glass in the spot of glue (Placebo Plaster): A detailed examination revealed, that the Crystal Plaster have a significantly stronger pain reducing effect on non-degenerative forms of rheumatism along the backbone. In addition, the ease of pain at rest is correlated to that of pain in motion regarding the individual patient wearing Crystal Plaster for one day. The appropriate effect of the Placebo Plaster appears more randomly.
  • For the long-time application of Crystal Plaster, no data of a control plasters are available. Nevertheless, the continuous effect during six months by reducing the pain sensation by 60% of the initial value, and the clear effect reported by 55% of the users, exclude, that these findings with Crystal Plaster can be rated solely as a Placebo Effect. The degree of pain relief by Crystal Plaster is even in the range of proven pharmaceutical pain treatments.
  • A partial explanation for the pain releasing effect of Crystal Plaster is surely the role of plaster as strong mediators of self-healing mechanisms: This Placebo Effect is involved in every kind of treatment. To explain the physiology of any kind of peripheral pain control, the Gate Control Theory is discussed.

 

The pronounced effect of Crystal Plaster may be enhanced by the specific plaster design in combination with its selective placement at the neuralgic sites, which is supervised by experienced osteopaths.

         

Publisher
p. 26
Keywords
energy medicine, rheumatism, crystal plaster, pain reducing, quartz crystals, test, patients, placebo, energimedicin, reumatism, kristallplåster, kvartskristaller, test, patienter, placebo
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64767 (URN)
Available from: 2017-07-04 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Knapp, S. & Nordell, B. (2017). Energy-efficient Legionella control that mimics nature and an open-sourcecomputational model to aid system design (ed.). Paper presented at Asian Symposium on Computational Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow (ASCHT), Busean, South Africa, Nov 22-25 2015. Applied Thermal Engineering, 127, 370-377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-efficient Legionella control that mimics nature and an open-sourcecomputational model to aid system design
2017 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 127, p. 370-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Duck Foot Heat Exchange Model (DFHXM) was developed to aid design of energy efficient thermal pasteurization systems for water but applies to all fluids. Here, the freely available Microsoft Excel model and potential applications are described. The principle imitates countercurrent heat exchange in the feet of ducks which reduces environmental heat losses in cold climates. The designed system pasteurizes the chosen fluid by maintaining a required disinfection temperature for a given time. A heat exchanger preheats incoming fluid before reaching a heating reservoir (electric, solar, gas, etc.). Upon exiting the heater, fluid reenters the same heat exchanger to cool down, simultaneously preheating new incoming fluid. Thus, the design only requires a heater to add the necessary heat not gained in the heat exchanger and to cover environmental heat losses. The DFHXM allows users to input parameters to simulate their specific duck foot (DF) systems and obtain transient and steady-state fluid temperatures within the heat exchanger and heating reservoir. The model has the flexibility to simulate a wide variety of designs, and potential applications to Legionella control and solar-thermal water disinfection are discussed. Reported simulations agreed well with experimental results for transient and steady-state temperatures, the largest discrepancy in steady-state temperatures being 4.6 %.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7772 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.08.006 (DOI)000413608400036 ()2-s2.0-85027507018 (Scopus ID)63139f49-d53b-483d-bf97-5ca92b7637b1 (Local ID)63139f49-d53b-483d-bf97-5ca92b7637b1 (Archive number)63139f49-d53b-483d-bf97-5ca92b7637b1 (OAI)
Conference
Asian Symposium on Computational Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow (ASCHT), Busean, South Africa, Nov 22-25 2015
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Amara, S., Baghdadli, T., Knapp, S. & Nordell, B. (2017). Legionella Disinfection by Solar Concentrator System (ed.). Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 70, 786-792
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Legionella Disinfection by Solar Concentrator System
2017 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 70, p. 786-792Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study concerns the fundamental problems of Legionnaires disease. Four decades after Legionnaires' bacteria was first identified there is still a low level of clinical awareness. Humans are infected by inhalation of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the bacteria. Several control methods are available for water disinfection: biocide, ultraviolet light sterilization, copper-silver ionization, ozonation etc. but only thermal treatment can completely eliminate Legionella, which is killed almost instantly at 70 °C. The current paper describes Legionella disinfection by a solar concentrator combined with a heat recovery system that reduces the heat demand. Though this study is made for a small system (160 l of hot water per day) the system can be enlarged (more hot water and more solar collector area) and the results are thus valid also for such larger systems. Here experiments of water treatment by a solar concentrator are summarized and analyzed where the temperature exceeds 80 °C at the outlet of the heat exchanger.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9715 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.259 (DOI)000396184900059 ()2-s2.0-85007574058 (Scopus ID)8621bd47-c8d6-44d2-b6f9-a543ba86d878 (Local ID)8621bd47-c8d6-44d2-b6f9-a543ba86d878 (Archive number)8621bd47-c8d6-44d2-b6f9-a543ba86d878 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-08 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7144-9778

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