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Martin-Torres, JavierORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6479-2236
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Publications (10 of 168) Show all publications
Bhardwaj, A., Sam, L., Martin-Torres, J. & Zorzano Mier, M.-P. (2019). Are Slope Streaks Indicative of Global‐Scale Aqueous Processes on Contemporary Mars?. Reviews of geophysics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Slope Streaks Indicative of Global‐Scale Aqueous Processes on Contemporary Mars?
2019 (English)In: Reviews of geophysics, ISSN 8755-1209, E-ISSN 1944-9208Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Slope streaks are prevalent and intriguing dark albedo surface features on contemporary Mars.Slope streaks are readily observed in the equatorial and subequatorial dusty regolith regions with lowthermal inertia. They gradually fade over decadal timescales. The proposed mechanisms for their formationvary widely based on several physicochemical and geomorphological explanations. The scientificcommunity is divided in proposing both dry and wet mechanisms for the formation of slope streaks. Here weperform a systematic evaluation of the literature for these wet and dry mechanisms. We discuss theprobable constraints on the various proposed mechanisms and provide perspectives on the plausible processdriving global‐scale slope streak formation on contemporary Mars. Although per our understanding, athorough consideration of the global distribution of slope streaks, their morphology and topography,flowcharacteristics, physicochemical and atmospheric coincidences, and terrestrial analogies weighs more infavor of several wet mechanisms, we acknowledge that such wet mechanisms cannot explain all the reportedmorphological and terrain variations of slope streaks. Thus, we suggest that explanations consideringboth dry and wet processes can more holistically describe all the observed morphological variations amongslope streaks. We further acknowledge the constraints on the resolutions of remote sensing data and on ourunderstanding of the Martian mineralogy, climate, and atmosphere and recommend continuousinvestigations in this direction using future remote sensing acquisitions and simulations. In this regard,finding more wet and dry terrestrial analogs for Martian slope streaks and studying them at highspatiotemporal resolutions can greatly improve our understanding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019
Keywords
slope streaks, water activity, Mars, formation mechanism, deliquescence
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72506 (URN)10.1029/2018RG000617 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-02-01
Bhardwaj, A., Sam, L., Martin-Torres, J. & Zorzano Mier, M.-P. (2019). Discovery of recurring slope lineae candidates in Mawrth Vallis, Mars. Scientific Reports, Article ID 2040.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discovery of recurring slope lineae candidates in Mawrth Vallis, Mars
2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, article id 2040Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72894 (URN)10.1038/s41598-019-39599-z (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-02-14
Guzewich, S. D., Lemmon, M., Smith, C., Martínez, G., de Vicente‐Retortillo, Á., Newman, C. E., . . . Zorzano Mier, M.-P. (2019). Mars Science Laboratory Observations of the 2018/Mars Year 34 Global Dust Storm. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(1), 71-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mars Science Laboratory Observations of the 2018/Mars Year 34 Global Dust Storm
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2019 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover observations of the 2018/Mars year 34 global/planet‐encircling dust storm represent the first in situ measurements of a global dust storm with dedicated meteorological sensors since the Viking Landers. The Mars Science Laboratory team planned and executed a science campaign lasting approximately 100 Martian sols to study the storm involving an enhanced cadence of environmental monitoring using the rover's meteorological sensors, cameras, and spectrometers. Mast Camera 880‐nm optical depth reached 8.5, and Rover Environmental Monitoring Station measurements indicated a 97% reduction in incident total ultraviolet solar radiation at the surface, 30K reduction in diurnal range of air temperature, and an increase in the semidiurnal pressure tide amplitude to 40 Pa. No active dust‐lifting sites were detected within Gale Crater, and global and local atmospheric dynamics were drastically altered during the storm. This work presents an overview of the mission's storm observations and initial results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72745 (URN)10.1029/2018GL080839 (DOI)000456938600009 ()2-s2.0-85059536242 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-31 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Bhardwaj, A., Sam, L., Martin-Torres, J. & Zorzano Mier, M.-P. (2019). Revisiting enigmatic Martian slope streaks. EOS: Transactions, 100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting enigmatic Martian slope streaks
2019 (English)In: EOS: Transactions, ISSN 0096-3941, E-ISSN 2324-9250, Vol. 100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72563 (URN)10.1029/2019EO113611 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-01-15
Webster, C. R., Martin-Torres, J., Zorzano, M.-P. & Vasavada, A. R. (2018). Background levels of methane in Mars' atmosphere show strong seasonal variations. Science, 360(6393), 1093-1096
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Background levels of methane in Mars' atmosphere show strong seasonal variations
2018 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, no 6393, p. 1093-1096Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle. The large seasonal variation in the background and occurrences of higher temporary spikes (~7 ppbv) are consistent with small localized sources of methane released from martian surface or subsurface reservoirs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69292 (URN)10.1126/science.aaq0131 (DOI)000434635500039 ()29880682 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048593070 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Sam, L., Bhardwaj, A., Kumar, R., Buchroithner, M. F. & Martin-Torres, J. (2018). Heterogeneity in topographic control on velocities of Western Himalayan glaciers. Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article ID 12843.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneity in topographic control on velocities of Western Himalayan glaciers
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12843Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of the seasonal and annual patterns of glacier velocities improve our understanding of the ice volume, topography, responses to climate change, and surge events of glaciers. Such studies are especially relevant and equally rare for the Himalayan glaciers, which supply many rivers that sustain some of the most heavily populated mountainous regions in the world. In particular, the control of the hypsometric distribution of geomorphometric parameters, such as slope, aspect, and curvature, on the dynamics of Himalayan glaciers have never been studied so far, at the river basin scale. Here, we present the degree to which topographic and hypsometric parameters affect the seasonal and annual average flow velocities of 112 glaciers in the Baspa River basin in the Western Indian Himalaya by analysing Global Land Ice Velocity Extraction from Landsat 8 (GoLIVE) datasets for the years 2013–2017. We observe, (i) significant heterogeneity in topographic controls on the velocities of these glaciers, (ii) elevation and the seasons play important roles in regulating the degree to which morphometric parameters (slope, aspect, and curvature) affect these velocities, (iii) a possible polythermal regime promoting both sliding and deformational forms of motion in a majority of these glaciers, and (iv) a detailed analysis of complex topographic controls within various elevation zones using a novel hypso-morphometric approach. These findings can help us to better model the dynamics of Himalayan glaciers and their responses to the future climatic scenarios. The inferences also suggest the need to incorporate dynamic topography in glacio-hydrological models in the wake of constant glacial evolutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70625 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-31310-y (DOI)30150785 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052300710 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-28 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Lasue, J., Cousin, A., Meslin, P., Mangold, N., Wiens, R., Berger, G., . . . Zorzano Mier, M.-P. (2018). Martian Eolian Dust Probed by ChemCam. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(20), 10968-10977
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Martian Eolian Dust Probed by ChemCam
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 20, p. 10968-10977Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ubiquitous eolian dust on Mars plays important roles in the current sedimentary and atmospheric processes of the planet. The ChemCam instrument retrieves a consistent eolian dust composition at the submillimeter scale from every first laser shot on Mars targets. Its composition presents significant differences with the Aeolis Palus soils and the Bagnold dunes as it contains lower CaO and higher SiO2. The dust FeO and TiO2contents are also higher, probably associated with nanophase oxide components. The dust spectra show the presence of volatile elements (S and Cl), and the hydrogen content is similar to Bagnold sands but lower than Aeolis Palus soils. Consequently, the dust may be a contributor to the amorphous component of soils, but differences in composition indicate that the two materials are not equivalent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Mars, dust, ChemCam
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71898 (URN)10.1029/2018GL079210 (DOI)000451510500020 ()2-s2.0-85054722874 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-05 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Fonseca, R., Zorzano Mier, M.-P. & Martín-Torres, J. (2018). Planetary Boundary Layer and Circulation Dynamics at Gale Crater, Mars. Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), 302, 537-559
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planetary Boundary Layer and Circulation Dynamics at Gale Crater, Mars
2018 (English)In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 302, p. 537-559Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting (PlanetWRF) model, MarsWRF, is used here to simulate the atmospheric conditions at Gale Crater for different seasons during a period coincident with the Curiosity rover operations. The model is first evaluated with the existing single-point observations from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), and is then used to provide a larger scale interpretation of these unique measurements as well as to give complementary information where there are gaps in the measurements.

The variability of the planetary boundary layer depth may be a driver of the changes in the local dust and trace gas content within the crater. Our results show that the average time when the PBL height is deeper than the crater rim increases and decreases with the same rate and pattern as Curiosity's observations of the line-of-sight of dust within the crater and that the season when maximal (minimal) mixing is produced is Ls 225°-315° (Ls 90°-110°). Thus the diurnal and seasonal variability of the PBL depth seems to be the driver of the changes in the local dust content within the crater. A comparison with the available methane measurements suggests that changes in the PBL depth may also be one of the factors that accounts for the observed variability, with the model results pointing towards a local source to the north of the MSL site.

The interaction between regional and local flows at Gale crater is also investigated assuming that the meridional wind, the dynamically important component of the horizontal wind at Gale, anomalies with respect to the daily mean can be approximated by a sinusoidal function as they typically oscillate between positive (south to north) and negative (north to south) values that correspond to upslope/downslope or downslope/upslope regimes along the crater rim and Mount Sharp slopes and the dichotomy boundary. The smallest magnitudes are found in the northern crater floor in a region that comprises Bradbury Landing, in particular at Ls 90° when they are less than 1 m s−1, indicating very little lateral mixing with outside air. The largest amplitudes occur in the south-western portions of the crater where they can exceed 20 m s−1. Should the slope flows along the crater rims interact with the dichotomy boundary flow, which is more likely at Ls 270° and very unlikely at Ls 90°, they are likely to interact constructively for a few hours from late evening to nighttime (∼17-23 LMST) and from pre-dawn early morning (∼5-11 LMST) hours at the norther crater rim and destructively at night (∼22-23 LMST) and in the morning (∼10-11 LMST) at the southern crater rim.

We conclude that a better understanding of the PBL and circulation dynamics has important implications for the variability of the concentration of dust, non-condensable and trace gases at the bottom of other craters on Mars as mixing with outside air can be achieved vertically, through changes in the PBL depth, and laterally, by the transport of air into and out of the crater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67009 (URN)10.1016/j.icarus.2017.11.036 (DOI)000423779600038 ()2-s2.0-85037838111 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2017-12-21 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Cockell, C. S., Martin-Torres, J., Zorzano, M.-P., Bhardwaj, A., Soria-Salinas, Á., Mathanla, T., . . . Suckling, B. (2018). Subsurface scientific exploration of extraterrestrial environments (MINAR 5):: analogue science, technology and education inthe Boulby Mine, UK. International Journal of Astrobiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subsurface scientific exploration of extraterrestrial environments (MINAR 5):: analogue science, technology and education inthe Boulby Mine, UK
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridges Institutes Press, 2018
National Category
Geochemistry Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70069 (URN)10.1017/S1473550418000186 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-07-04 Created: 2018-07-04 Last updated: 2018-08-02
Dirri, F., Palomba, E., Longobardo, A., Biondi, D., Boccaccini, A., Galiano, A., . . . Martin-Torres, J. (2018). VISTA instrument: a PCM-based sensor for organics and volatiles characterization by using Thermogravimetric technique. In: : . Paper presented at 2018 5th IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for AeroSpace (MetroAeroSpace), 20-22 June 2018, Rome, Italy (pp. 150-154). IEEE, Article ID 8453532.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VISTA instrument: a PCM-based sensor for organics and volatiles characterization by using Thermogravimetric technique
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyser) is a µ-Thermogravimeter sensor developed by Consortium of Italian Institutes. ThermoGravimetric Analysis (TGA) is a widely used technique to monitor thermal processes involving volatile compounds, e.g. deposition/sublimation and absorption/ desorption. The instrument core is composed by a Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalance (PCM), equipped with built-in heater and built-in temperature sensor, and provided of its own Proximity Electronics (PE). The PCM oscillation frequency linearly depends on the mass deposited on its sensible area (according to Sauerbrey equation) while the PCM temperature can be increased by means of integrated heaters. Thus, mass and volatile composition can be inferred by the frequency change and by desorption temperature, respectively. The instrument is divided in two sensor heads: VISTA1, able to monitor outgassing processes in space, and VISTA2, able to reach higher temperatures, studying the dehydration and organics decomposition in minerals in different environmental conditions. An Engineering Model of VISTA1 and a laboratory breadboard of VISTA2 have been developed. Pure organic compounds and contaminant have been characterized by using deposition processes and TGA cycles obtaining some physical-chemical parameters, i.e. enthalpy of sublimation/evaporation, ΔHHsub,evap , deposition rates, kk and vapor pressures, Pvap . The instrument concept, the scientific objectives and the laboratory measurements are explained in this work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE Metrology for AeroSpace, ISSN 2575-7482, E-ISSN 2575-7490
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Atmospheric science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71018 (URN)10.1109/MetroAeroSpace.2018.8453532 (DOI)000454855500029 ()2-s2.0-85053898913 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2474-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 5th IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for AeroSpace (MetroAeroSpace), 20-22 June 2018, Rome, Italy
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6479-2236

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