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Ntuli, H., Sundström, A., Sjöstedt, M., Muchapondwa, E., Jagers, S. C. & Linell, A. (2021). Understanding the drivers of subsistence poaching in the great limpopo transfrontier conservation area: What matters for community wildlife conservation?. Ecology & Society, 26(1), Article ID 18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the drivers of subsistence poaching in the great limpopo transfrontier conservation area: What matters for community wildlife conservation?
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2021 (English)In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although subsistence poaching is a large threat to wildlife conservation in Southern Africa, this behavior is seldom researched. Our understanding of individual and community level factors that drive such behavior is limited because of both lack of data and the literature’s predominant focus on commercial poaching. The main objective of this study is to contribute to this scanty literature by examining the factors that are correlated to subsistence poaching in the Great Limpopo, a transfrontier reserve spanning across Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. We use collected primary data from a sample of 2282 respondents and 85 villages that are part of the transfrontier conservation area. We focus on two features, reported subsistence poaching incidences in the community and the previous hunting of individuals, a behavior that is now forbidden in this area. We find through multivariate regression analysis that the likelihood for reported poaching incidences was higher in communities with a larger proportion of young men, plenty of wildlife, and experiencing wildlife conflict. In addition, our survey results illustrate that there is less poaching in communities where local people trust each other, respect institutions, perceive that the management of the park is good, and view wildlife as an asset. Some of these variables can be influenced by appropriate interventions; our findings suggest that capacity building in local institutions, use of community-based crime prevention approaches, training related to wildlife management, and public awareness campaigns could be used by policy makers to affect individuals’ perceptions and behaviors in this context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Resilience Alliance, 2021
Keywords
common pool resources, community institutions, Mozambique, South Africa, subsistence poaching, wildlife conservation, Zimbabwe
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84290 (URN)10.5751/ES-12201-260118 (DOI)000638266300023 ()2-s2.0-85104589946 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-05-18 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-05-18 Created: 2021-05-18 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Jagers, S., Matti, S. & Nordblom, K. (2020). The evolution of public policy attitudes: Comparing the mechanisms of policy support across the stages of a policy cycle. Journal of Public Policy, 40(3), 428-448
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The evolution of public policy attitudes: Comparing the mechanisms of policy support across the stages of a policy cycle
2020 (English)In: Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 0143-814X, E-ISSN 1469-7815, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 428-448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyse the importance of legitimacy on public policy support by comparing how drivers of public policy attitudes evolve across the policy process consisting of the input (the processes forgoing acquisition of power and the procedures permeating political decisionmaking), throughput (the inclusion of and interactions between actors in a governance system) and output (the substantive consequences of those decisions) stages. Using unique panel data through three phases of the implementation of a congestion tax in the Swedish city of Gothenburg, we find that legitimacy is indeed important in explaining policy support. Moreover, we find a lingering effect where support in one phase depends on legitimacy both in the present and in previous phases. Hence, our study takes us one step further on the road to understand the complicated dynamic mechanisms behind the interactions between policymaking, policy support, and the legitimacy and approval of politicians and political processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2020
Keywords
halo effect, input, legitimacy, output, policy, throughput
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73099 (URN)10.1017/S0143814X19000023 (DOI)000558286500004 ()2-s2.0-85061709639 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-08-18 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-03-04 Created: 2019-03-04 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jagers, S., Matti, S., Crépin, A.-S., Langlet, D., Havenhand, J. N., Troell, M., . . . Anderson, L. G. (2019). Societal causes of, and responses to, ocean acidification. Ambio, 48(8), 816-830
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Societal causes of, and responses to, ocean acidification
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2019 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 816-830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Major climate and ecological changes affect the world's oceans leading to a number of responses including increasing water temperatures, changing weather patterns, shrinking ice-sheets, temperature-driven shifts in marine species ranges, biodiversity loss and bleaching of coral reefs. In addition, ocean pH is falling, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). The root cause of OA lies in human policies and behaviours driving society's dependence on fossil fuels, resulting in elevated CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. In this review, we detail the state of knowledge of the causes of, and potential responses to, OA with particular focus on Swedish coastal seas. We also discuss present knowledge gaps and implementation needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Adaptation, Causes, Governance, Markets, Mitigation, Ocean acidification
National Category
Political Science Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71630 (URN)10.1007/s13280-018-1103-2 (DOI)000469438600002 ()30430407 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056730305 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jagers, S., Martinsson, J. & Matti, S. (2019). The impact of compensatory measures on public support for carbon taxation: an experimental study in Sweden. Climate Policy, 19(2), 147-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of compensatory measures on public support for carbon taxation: an experimental study in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims at better understanding how, and to what extent, perceptions of a policy instrument’s distributional effects impact on policy support, focusing on the case of CO2 taxes on petrol in Sweden. Through a large-scale (N = 5000) randomized survey experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design, the extent to which perceptions of fairness determine attitudes to a suggested increase of the Swedish CO2 tax is explored. Furthermore, the study considers whether these effects change with the level of the suggested tax increase, as well as whether negative sentiments can be alleviated by combining it with a compensatory measure in the shape of a simultaneous income tax cut financed by the revenues from the tax increase. The results show that a higher tax increase is both viewed as more unfair and enjoys weaker support. Furthermore, compensatory measures can be a powerful policy design tool to increase perceptions of the policy as fair, but the effect of compensation on policy support is conditioned by the individual’s left–right ideological position. Whereas people self-identifying to the right react favourably to compensatory measures, people self-identifying to the left become less supportive of a tax increase when combined with a simultaneous cut in income taxes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68710 (URN)10.1080/14693062.2018.1470963 (DOI)000453574100002 ()2-s2.0-85046830346 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-24 (johcin) 

Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Harring, N., Jagers, S. & Matti, S. (2019). The significance of political culture, economic context and instrument type for climate policy support: a cross-national study. Climate Policy, 19(5), 636-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The significance of political culture, economic context and instrument type for climate policy support: a cross-national study
2019 (English)In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 636-650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the choice of national climate policy measures demonstrates widespread variation. Although system of government, path-dependency and economic entanglements can explain a certain amount of variation in policy choice, research also points specifically towards the highly politicized nature of climate policy instruments and their sensitivity to public support as explanatory factors for cross-national differences. Previous studies hypothesize that various country-specific contextual factors determine both general preferences for environmental protection and the public’s preferences for different types of policy instruments. One suggestion is that countries’ prevailing political cultures have significant consequences for such public support. Another supposition is that, since countries differ in their economic dependency on climate detrimental industry such as fossil fuel production, this should be a significant factor determining both public attitudes and subsequent political decisions. This paper applies unique, original data from four countries with significant variation in (i) political-cultural contexts (Sweden and Norway vs New Zealand and Australia and (ii) economic dependency (Norway and Australia vs Sweden and New Zealand) to analyze how, and to what extent, these two contextual variables interact with, and moderate, the effect of individual-level factors on support for climate policy measures in the four countries. Furthermore, the paper explores variations in support for different types of CO2 taxes (directed towards individual consumers, industry, and fossil-fuel producers) in the four countries. Key policy insights Across contexts, public policy support is lower for taxes directed towards private consumption than for taxes directed towards industry, and the strongest for CO2 taxes on fossil fuel producing industry. Political culture and economic context influence the effect of individual-level factors on policy support. In a context of high economic dependency on the fossil-fuel industry, people are less likely to support the introduction of CO2 taxes. The effect of left-right ideology on policy support is sensitive to political-cultural context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72025 (URN)10.1080/14693062.2018.1547181 (DOI)000462228500008 ()2-s2.0-85057319206 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-03-26 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jagers, S., Harring, N. & Matti, S. (2018). Environmental management from left to right: on ideology, policy-specific beliefs and pro-environmental policy support. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 61(1), 86-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental management from left to right: on ideology, policy-specific beliefs and pro-environmental policy support
2018 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 86-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to growing environmental challenges, the demand for effective management through pro-environmental policy measures is increasing. The effectiveness is, however, largely determined by the degree to which the policy measures are supported by the actors affected by them. A consistent finding in the literature is that ideology (or subjective positioning on the left–right dimension) affects environmental policy support, with left-leaning individuals being more pro-environmental. A major caveat with previous research is that it seldom makes a distinction between different kinds of policies. Therefore, we are concerned with investigating how different ideological positions affect attitudes towards different forms of environmental protection. Using unique survey data, we show that ideology is related to conceptions about the fairness and effectiveness of different policy tools, which in turn steer preferences. In that sense, this paper makes the discussion on the effects of ideological position on pro-environmental policy support more nuanced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
Political Science Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62795 (URN)10.1080/09640568.2017.1289902 (DOI)000415952400005 ()2-s2.0-85015834103 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-09 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Holmquist, H., Jagers, S., Matti, S., Svanström, M. & Peters, G. M. (2018). How information about hazardous fluorinated substances increases willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments: A Swedish survey experiment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 202, 130-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How information about hazardous fluorinated substances increases willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments: A Swedish survey experiment
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many outdoor garments are impregnated to make them water and, in some cases oil repellent, but the impregnation agents can be hazardous to human health and the environment. Some examples of such hazardous impregnation agents include per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. To reduce the risks related to these fluorinated substances, a phase-out is necessary, and voluntary avoidance by consumers may be one way to make this happen. This experimental survey investigates the extent to which information about the hazardous properties of fluorinated substances affects consumer willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments without hazardous chemicals. The experiment was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to more than 4000 Swedish respondents via the Laboratory of Opinion Research's Citizen Panel. The results show a generally high willingness-to-pay, and that the effects of providing information are higher when the price increase is high. This suggests that there is room for a price increase if the non-hazardous options are more expensive. This survey experiment indicates that the Swedish general public is ready for substitution to garments without hazardous fluorinated chemicals if the alternative provides an identical function. Information campaigns, however, will have limited ability to increase the willingness-to-pay for an alternative as it is already high. Despite the general willingness of the Swedish public to choose less hazardous options, legislative measures may potentially be the most effective action when supply chains are opaque and information to consumers is limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
PFAS, Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Willingness-to pay, Voluntary, Phase-out, Survey experiment
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70240 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.215 (DOI)000448098000013 ()2-s2.0-85051811719 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-29 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Harring, N. & Jagers, S. (2018). Why do people accept environmental policies?: The prospects of higher education and changes in norms, beliefs and policy preferences. Environmental Education Research, 24(6), 791-806
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why do people accept environmental policies?: The prospects of higher education and changes in norms, beliefs and policy preferences
2018 (English)In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 791-806Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pressing problems of environmental degradation are typically argued to require coordination, primarily through state intervention. Social scientists are struggling to understand how attitudes toward such state interventions are formed, and several drivers have been suggested, including education. People with university degrees are assumed to have certain values as well as the analytical skills to understand complex issues such as climate change. By using a unique panel data-set with students in different university programs (economics, law and political science), this study provides a better understanding of whether and how education affects environmental policy acceptance. One important finding is that university studies generate variation in support and scepticism toward different types of policy measures. For example, economics students tend to develop more positive attitudes toward market-based policy measures. This indicates a potential for education to increase the societal support often hindering the implementation of such policy tools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65041 (URN)10.1080/13504622.2017.1343281 (DOI)000430846200002 ()2-s2.0-85022193031 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-04-26 (svasva)

Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2020-08-26Bibliographically approved
Morf, A., Sandström, A. & Jagers, S. (2017). Balancing sustainability in two pioneering marine national parks in Scandinavia. Ocean and Coastal Management, 139, 51-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing sustainability in two pioneering marine national parks in Scandinavia
2017 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 139, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Even though marine protected areas (MPAs) have become central instruments in the endeavour towards sustainable development, our knowledge on how different institutional designs influence outcomes is limited. Using a comparative case study design, this paper explores the interplay between institutional arrangements and management outcomes in two adjacent yet institutionally slightly differing MPAs, encompassing a shared marine trench and a partially inhabited archipelago landscape – namely the Koster Sea National Park in Sweden and the Outer Hvaler National Park in Norway. How can differences in the institutional designs governing the two parks, be linked to differences in sustainability outcomes? What lessons can be learnt for the design of MPAs? The study shows that institutional design influences management outcomes in some respects but not in others. Differences in overall management systems had no noticeable effects on sustainability outcomes and how they were perceived, while the differing objectives of the parks and how they are made operational seem to have affected the outcomes. But they have also influenced actors' expectations and their assessment of outcomes. According to this study, conservation arrangements can be broadened beyond mere nature protection. However, the study also underlines the challenges of locally adapted and participatory institutional designs and emphasises the importance of taking users’ varying expectations related to social and economic values into account throughout the whole process. The establishment of national parks is no guarantee for broader sustainable development per se; this also requires resources and proper embedding and integration with relevant sectors and tiers in the overall management system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61316 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.01.002 (DOI)000397553700006 ()2-s2.0-85011966036 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-02-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-01-06 Created: 2017-01-06 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Jagers, S., Matti, S. & Nilsson, A. (2017). How Exposure to Policy Tools Transforms the Mechanisms Behind Public Acceptability and Acceptance: The Case of the Gothenburg Congestion Tax (ed.). International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(2), 109-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Exposure to Policy Tools Transforms the Mechanisms Behind Public Acceptability and Acceptance: The Case of the Gothenburg Congestion Tax
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An increasing body of literature suggests that acceptance of environmental policy instruments tends to change along with increased experience of the same. Among the more popular examples of this are the growing number of congestion-pricing initiatives emerging around the world; in several cases the acceptability of these projects among the public has been relatively low before implementation, but then acceptance has increased as experience of the project has grown. The question is just how, and in particular, why? I.e., what is it really that experience does to people's propensity to accept initially quite unpopular measures? In this article we analyze how the relationship between political trust, policy-specific beliefs and public support for policy tools is moderated or affected by people's personal experiences of those policy tools. On the basis of the experience of previous research, we test the way in which policy-specific beliefs, institutional trust and the legitimacy of the political decision-making process affect public attitudes toward a policy tool. In addition—and consistent with other studies—we expect these effects to be significantly reduced post-implementation, as people gain first-hand experience of a policy tool. More specifically, we theorize that the often emphasized process legitimacy is only valid as a factor driving support before implementation, and that the effect of general institutional trust is replaced by the level of trust specific to the implementing institutions after the introduction of the policy tool. We tested these hypotheses using a natural experiment; i.e., by studying public attitudes toward the introduction of congestion fees in the Swedish city of Gothenburg both before and after their introduction. By doing so, we were able to comprehensively analyze both the drivers behind public sentiments toward congestion charges and how these mechanisms transform as people are exposed to the costs and benefits of the policy tool in practice. Among other things, we found that with regard to fairness and environmental effectiveness, there is a clear symmetry in our results. The level of acceptance increased most noticeably among those who experienced that the environment was improved by the implemented tax, or that the system turned out to be fairer than expected. However, the opposite is also the case. Thus, among those experiencing that the environment was not improved, or that the system appeared to be less fair than expected, the level of acceptance decreased significantly after implementation. These results may have important policy implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7158 (URN)10.1080/15568318.2016.1197348 (DOI)000393654400005 ()2-s2.0-84996497404 (Scopus ID)57c1c430-14bc-49f0-935b-fccb10fd3ef5 (Local ID)57c1c430-14bc-49f0-935b-fccb10fd3ef5 (Archive number)57c1c430-14bc-49f0-935b-fccb10fd3ef5 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-21 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
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