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Marklund, E., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2018). Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines. Detritus, 3, 13-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines
2018 (English)In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Padova, Italy: , 2018
Keywords
Construction and demolition waste, Float-sink separation, Density separation, Characterization
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71329 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13648 (DOI)000474686200004 ()
Projects
TOOLF
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Andreas, L. (2017). Hydrotermisk karbonisering: en praktisk avfallsbehandlingsmöjlighet?. Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrotermisk karbonisering: en praktisk avfallsbehandlingsmöjlighet?
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Alternative title[en]
Hydrothermal carbonization : a practical waste treatment option?
Abstract [sv]

Hydrotermisk karbonisering (HTC) är en behandling där ett fuktigt organiskt materialutsätts för en kombination av värme och tryck, t ex 200°C och 20 bar. Då löses näringsämnenupp, och strukturen hos det organiska materialet förändras, vilket leder tillatt det stabiliseras, finfördelas, och enklare kan separeras från oorganiska delar.HTC har tidigare mest används vid bränsleproduktion, men i den här studien stod metodenspotential för avgiftning och separation av avfall i fokus, och vilken roll HTCkan ha som avfallsbehandlingsmetod. Syftet med projektet var att bedöma potentialenav HTC som metod för att öka återvinningen av näringsämnen i en cirkulär ekonomimed samtidigt förbättrad avgiftning av avfall jämfört med biologisk behandling, ochminskade utsläpp av koldioxid genom annan användning av organiska avfall än sombränsle.För att uppnå målen genomfördes labbförsök med efterföljande kemiska analyser, ochresultaten låg till grund för en multivariat dataanalys och en livscykelanalys.Resultaten visar på en avgiftning genom en separation av halten av skadliga tungmetaller,och att värmevärdet ökar. Dock så bedöms det analyserade materialet inte kunnaanvändas till jordförbättringsmedel eller som anläggningsmaterial, vilket dock främstberor på att materialet redan var förorenat.HTC lämpar sig bäst för blöta avfall med en blandning av organiska och oorganiskadelar. En marknadsanalys visar på att 100 000-tals ton av dessa typer av avfall fallervarje år.Sammanfattningsvis så kan processen vara intressant som avfallshanteringsmetod,men mer forskning behövs gällande mekaniska egenskaper och mekanisk separation.

Abstract [en]

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a treatment where an organic material is subjected to a combination of heat and pressure, for example 200°C and 20 bars. Then nutrients are dissolved and the structure of the material is changed, leading to a stabilization and comminution, and making it easier to separate from the inorganic materials. Previously HTC has been used mostly for fuel production, but in this study the potential for detoxification and separation of wastes is in focus, and what role HTC can play as a waste management method. The purpose is to judge the potential of HTC as a method to increase recycling of nutrients in a circular economy with a simultaneous increased detoxification compared to biological treatment, and less emissions of carbondioxide trough other uses of organic materials than as fuel.

To achieve these goals a lab experiment was done with subsequent chemical analyses, and the results provided a basis for a multivariate analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results shows a detoxification trough a separation of the amounts of hazardous heavy metals and that there is an increase in heating value. However, the processed material cannot be used as a soil improver or as a construction material, but this is due to the fact that it was already contaminated.

HTC is most suitable for wet, organic, mixed wastes. A market analysis shows that 100 000's tons of these wastes are produced every year in Sweden.

To sum up, the process can be interesting as a waste management method, however more research is needed on the mechanical properties and separation of the material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017. p. 23
Keywords
Hydrotermisk karbonisering (HTC), kol, avfallsbehandling, spårelement, massbalans, bygg- och rivningsavfall
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71563 (URN)
Projects
RE:Source
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P44264-1
Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2016). Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash (ed.). Waste Management, 51, 97-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash
2016 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, p. 97-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient.As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment.In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment.Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo. The effects of Fe(0) addition can be related to binding of the studied elements to newly formed iron oxides. The effects of Fe(0) addition were often more distinct at pH values between 7 and 9, which indicates that a single treatment with only Fe addition would be less effective and a combined treatment is recommended. The pHstat results showed that accelerated carbonation in combination with Fe(0)0 addition widens the pH range for low solubility of about one unit for several of the studied elements. This indicates that pre-treating the bottom ash with a combination of accelerated carbonation and Fe(0) addition makes the leaching properties of the ash less sensitive to pH changes that may occur during reuse. All in all, the addition of Fe0 in combination with carbonation could be an effective pre-treatment method for decreasing the mobility of potentially harmful components in bottom ash.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3882 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.12.028 (DOI)000374810500011 ()26786400 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84954349476 (Scopus ID)1baac950-6ea3-4bfa-89db-6e631e0c82a4 (Local ID)1baac950-6ea3-4bfa-89db-6e631e0c82a4 (Archive number)1baac950-6ea3-4bfa-89db-6e631e0c82a4 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160119 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, E., Andreas, L., Sjöblom, R. & Lagerkvist, A. (2015). Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of environmental engineering, 141(5), Article ID 4014083.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing
2015 (English)In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 141, no 5, article id 4014083Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aging of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fly ashes was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Aging affected the chemical stability of RDF fly ash in terms of leaching behavior, ANC, and mineralogical transformations. The design of experiment model evaluation showed that the use of RDF ashes in a top cover liner construction has the following advantages: most of the investigated hazardous elements like Pb, Cl, Cr, Cu, etc., will not be released from the ashes, and their buffer capacity will increase with time. However, aging has the disadvantage that leaching of Zn and SO 4 is likely to increase. The multivariate data analysis of the coefficients of variation did not reveal any systematic errors in the performance of the experiment. However, batch leaching test not always reflect the real situation in the landfill top cover environment.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8256 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000910 (DOI)000353994400004 ()2-s2.0-84928011872 (Scopus ID)6bc7765e-e807-45da-9caf-9969de602d29 (Local ID)6bc7765e-e807-45da-9caf-9969de602d29 (Archive number)6bc7765e-e807-45da-9caf-9969de602d29 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20130923 (evebra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Travar, I., Andreas, L., Kumpiene, J. & Lagerkvist, A. (2015). Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (ed.). Paper presented at . Waste Management, 35, 148-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 35, p. 148-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl−, N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two–three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14899 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2014.09.016 (DOI)000347591000021 ()25305684 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84919873040 (Scopus ID)e5628ccd-4603-4b37-a253-cc1d63fad5f6 (Local ID)e5628ccd-4603-4b37-a253-cc1d63fad5f6 (Archive number)e5628ccd-4603-4b37-a253-cc1d63fad5f6 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20141010 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, E., Andreas, L., Sjöblom, R., Diener, S. & Lagerkvist, A. (2014). Factors influencing chemical and mineralogical changes in RDF fly ashes during aging (ed.). Journal of environmental engineering, 140(3), Article ID 4013014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors influencing chemical and mineralogical changes in RDF fly ashes during aging
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, no 3, article id 4013014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of aging should be considered for reliable long-term assessments of the environmental risks of the use of refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ash as landfill top cover liner material. Mineral transformations that occur in RDF fly ash, and the effects of selected factors on these transformations, were studied on compacted fly ash specimens in an accelerated aging experiment using a reduced factorial design. Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, relative air humidity, time, and the quality of added water were varied in six factor combinations. Acid neutralization capacity and leaching behavior were analyzed after four different periods of time. The results were evaluated with multivariate data analysis. A significant change in the acid neutralization capacity, a decrease in leaching of Ba, Ca, Cl − , Cr, Cu, Pb, K, and Na, and an increase in solubility of Mg, Si, Zn, and SO 2− 4 could be attributed to different aging conditions

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9814 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000802 (DOI)000332659800009 ()2-s2.0-84894352857 (Scopus ID)87fa6fee-92b6-4121-bb20-1f4cc6fca0fa (Local ID)87fa6fee-92b6-4121-bb20-1f4cc6fca0fa (Archive number)87fa6fee-92b6-4121-bb20-1f4cc6fca0fa (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2014; 20130923 (evebra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Andreas, L., Diener, S. & Lagerkvist, A. (2014). Hydraulic performance of a land-fill top cover based on steel slag (ed.). In: (Ed.), Raffaello Cusso (Ed.), Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings. Paper presented at International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium : 30/09/2013 - 04/10/2013. Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydraulic performance of a land-fill top cover based on steel slag
2014 (English)In: Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cusso, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF A LAND¬FILL TOP COVER BASED ON STEEL SLAGThe steel industry is expanding and following the amount of produced steel, more and more by-products and residuals are generated. About 17.6 million tonnes of steel slags arise in Europe every year. In Sweden about 18 % of the iron- and steelmaking slags are landfilled (Jernkontoret, 2012). One application for steel slags are landfill covers where large amounts of virgin materials are needed. The legal requirement in Sweden is directed towards the maxi¬mum amount of lea¬chate generated at the bottom of the landfill: < 5 and < 50 l (m2*a)-1 for landfill class 1 and 2, respec¬ti¬vely. To secure these demands, a layer of low permeability is needed to reduce water infiltration. The hydraulic load of this layer ought to be controlled by a protective water balance layer and an effective drainage layer.Previous investigations indicate that steel slags can be used as construction material for both liner and drainage layer (Herrmann et al., 2010). In order to verify this in full scale, five tests areas (A1-5) were constructed at a municipal landfill in Sweden between 2005 and 2011. The areas were designed using different mixtures of steel slags from the local steel company in the liner. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance of the cover during the first years after installation.The design of the cover construction was varied like this: a mixture of 50 % electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and 50 % ladle slag (LS) was tested as liner material in the first test area (A1). A2 and A3 were built using less LS and coarser fractions of EAFS since laboratory tests had given satisfactory results also for these recipes. High infiltration rates in A2 and 3 led to a return to the original weight proportions in A4 and 5, yet another EAF slag was introduced in these areas. The mixing and construction techniques were refined during the first years of the project time: while A1 was built with rather poorly conceived technique, as of A3 the method can be considered as technically mature and approved.The liner performance was evaluated by lysimetry: 10 lysimeters were installed below each test area. The infiltration below the liner corresponded to 44, 74, 71, 19 and 0.4 l/m2*year for A1 to A5. Compared to the legal limit of 50 l/m2*year, the covers of A2 and A3 allowed about 50 % more water to enter the landfill than stipulated.An initial increase of the infiltration was observed, which most likely is related to increasing water saturation of the liner material in the first period after construction. The saturation occurred fastest in A2, where basically no initial increase was observed, probably due to the long time that elapsed between construction and the first sampling event (260 days). In contrast, the saturation in A1 and A4 was quite slow which can be related to the smaller particle size of the slags in these areas and, hence, a less porous liner material. The decrease in A2 and A3 might be explained by mineral transformations within the slag matrix such as carbonation of calcium and magnesium leading to the precipitation of carbonates in the pores of the liner material. Future observations will show if the decreasing trend in A2 and A3 remains such that the infiltration eventually reaches a level falling below the legal limit.The results show that the infiltration criteria can be fulfilled under the condition that at least 50 % of the liner mix consists of ladle slag, a fine-grained slag with cementitious properties. With few adaptations the steel slag can be used with standard construction processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre, 2014
Keywords
Other technology - Environmental engineering, Landfill Technology, Waste Science and Technology, Lysimetry, Steel slag, Övriga teknikvetenskaper - Miljöteknik
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34648 (URN)8e7d5362-de7c-4e50-86a6-e3975c59b977 (Local ID)8e7d5362-de7c-4e50-86a6-e3975c59b977 (Archive number)8e7d5362-de7c-4e50-86a6-e3975c59b977 (OAI)
Conference
International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium : 30/09/2013 - 04/10/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140321 (laan)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2014). Industrial By-products used in a Landfill Cover (ed.). Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 19/10/2014 - 22/11/2014. Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 19/10/2014 - 22/11/2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial By-products used in a Landfill Cover
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A small industrial waste landfill in Obbola, Northern Sweden is being completed and a final cover is installed. The landfill is owned and used by SCA Packaging, a paper mill factory nearby. An alternative final cover will be used, consisting mainly of industrial by-products from the paper mill. The aim of using industrial by-products is to save virgin materials, not to use synthetic materials and to make a cost-effective and environmentally safe closure of the landfill, while relevant laws and regulations are complied to.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28050 (URN)1b2809dd-5af1-4b00-b64f-e07027286bf4 (Local ID)1b2809dd-5af1-4b00-b64f-e07027286bf4 (Archive number)1b2809dd-5af1-4b00-b64f-e07027286bf4 (OAI)
Conference
Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 19/10/2014 - 22/11/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20141119 (desnor)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Kumpiene, J., Brännvall, E., Lagerkvist, A. & Andreas, L. (2014). Project: North Waste Infrastructure. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: North Waste Infrastructure
2014 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36255 (URN)cb5482bb-8966-4045-9e02-13f77f7320fa (Local ID)cb5482bb-8966-4045-9e02-13f77f7320fa (Archive number)cb5482bb-8966-4045-9e02-13f77f7320fa (OAI)
Note

Status: Avslutat; Period: 03/01/2011 → …; Faktiskt slutdatum: 22/05/2014

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Andreas, L., Diener, S. & Lagerkvist, A. (2014). Steel slags in a landfill top cover: Experiences from a full-scale experiment (ed.). Paper presented at . Waste Management, 34(3), 692-701
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Steel slags in a landfill top cover: Experiences from a full-scale experiment
2014 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 692-701Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A full scale field study has been carried out in order to test and evaluate the use of slags from high-alloy steel production as the construction materials for a final cover of an old municipal landfill. Five test areas were built using different slag mixtures within the barrier layer (liner). The cover consisted of a foundation layer, a liner with a thickness of 0.7 m, a drainage layer of 0.3 m, a protection layer of 1.5 m and a vegetation layer of 0.25 m. The infiltration varied depending on the cover design used, mainly the liner recipe but also over time and was related to seasons and precipitation intensity. The test areas with liners composed of 50% electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and 50% cementitious ladle slag (LS) on a weight basis and with a proper consistence of the protection layer were found to meet the Swedish infiltration criteria of ⩽50 l (m2 a)−1 for final covers for landfills for non-hazardous waste: the cumulative infiltration rates to date were 44, 19 and 0.4 l (m2 a)−1 for A1, A4 and A5, respectively. Compared to the precipitation, the portion of leachate was always lower after the summer despite high precipitation from June to August. The main reason for this is evapotranspiration but also the fact that the time delay in the leachate formation following a precipitation event has a stronger effect during the shorter summer sampling periods than the long winter periods. Conventional techniques and equipment can be used but close cooperation between all involved partners is crucial in order to achieve the required performance of the cover. This includes planning, method and equipment testing and quality assurance.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7414 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2013.12.003 (DOI)000332266100013 ()24393476 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84893787800 (Scopus ID)5ca6d855-77a6-4d3d-9680-b579df6996a8 (Local ID)5ca6d855-77a6-4d3d-9680-b579df6996a8 (Archive number)5ca6d855-77a6-4d3d-9680-b579df6996a8 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140107 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9715-975X

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