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Nordmark, D. & Lagerkvist, A. (2018). Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process. Waste Management, 76, 727-733
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process
2018 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 727-733Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fly ash from a cogeneration plant near Sundsvall in Sweden was treated in an ash-washing facility. The leaching of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) from the ash residue exceeded the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. In this study factors that influence the leaching of Cr and Mo were identified and methods that can reduce the leaching were evaluated. The results revealed that the mobility of Cr and Mo are mainly controlled by pH and redox reactions and sequential extraction tests also showed that the fraction of highly soluble species of Cr and Mo increased after washing due to pH reactions in the ash during the process. Stabilization of the pH at ∼8 through carbonation of the washed ash and a lowering of the redox potential by adding ferrous iron to the process resulted in decreased leaching. Treatment with carbon dioxide yielded a decrease (from 10.7 to 8.2) in the pH and, hence, the leaching of Cr and Mo by 93 and 91%, respectively. And the addition of ferrous iron reduced the leaching of Cr by 50%. Carbonation of the ash can be achieved via treatment with flue gases from the power plant or treatment with landfill gas at the disposal site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67956 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2018.03.016 (DOI)000435064000073 ()29551230 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85043789498 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
Marklund, E., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2018). Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines. Detritus, 3, 13-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines
2018 (English)In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Padova, Italy: , 2018
Keywords
Construction and demolition waste, Float-sink separation, Density separation, Characterization
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71329 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13648 (DOI)
Projects
TOOLF
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2016). Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash (ed.). Waste Management, 51, 97-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash
2016 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, p. 97-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient.As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment.In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment.Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo. The effects of Fe(0) addition can be related to binding of the studied elements to newly formed iron oxides. The effects of Fe(0) addition were often more distinct at pH values between 7 and 9, which indicates that a single treatment with only Fe addition would be less effective and a combined treatment is recommended. The pHstat results showed that accelerated carbonation in combination with Fe(0)0 addition widens the pH range for low solubility of about one unit for several of the studied elements. This indicates that pre-treating the bottom ash with a combination of accelerated carbonation and Fe(0) addition makes the leaching properties of the ash less sensitive to pH changes that may occur during reuse. All in all, the addition of Fe0 in combination with carbonation could be an effective pre-treatment method for decreasing the mobility of potentially harmful components in bottom ash.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3882 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.12.028 (DOI)000374810500011 ()26786400 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84954349476 (Scopus ID)1baac950-6ea3-4bfa-89db-6e631e0c82a4 (Local ID)1baac950-6ea3-4bfa-89db-6e631e0c82a4 (Archive number)1baac950-6ea3-4bfa-89db-6e631e0c82a4 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160119 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Lagerkvist, A. & Morgan-Sagastume, F. (2016). Energy balance performance of municipal wastewater treatment systems considering sludge anaerobic biodegradability and biogas utilisation routes. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 4(4), 4680-4689
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy balance performance of municipal wastewater treatment systems considering sludge anaerobic biodegradability and biogas utilisation routes
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 4680-4689Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy balance of a municipal wastewater treatment (WWT) system was evaluated considering the influence of excess biological sludge anaerobic biodegradability (BDAn) and of biogas utilisation as either fuel for co-generation of heat and power (CHP) or for vehicle transport. Sludge thermal pre-treatment prior to anaerobic digestion and high-rate carbon removal were considered as modifications of a reference municipal WWT system to impact the sludge BDAn. Both thermal pre-treatment and a high-rate process with a short sludge retention time (SRT = 1-3d) led to ∼30% higher sludge BDAn than that of untreated sludge from a low-rate WWT system with long SRT ( > 8d), which enhanced methane yields and energy production correspondingly. An efficient separation (40% of CODin) of primary solids promoted biogas production by capturing a significant part of the incoming COD, and lowered aeration energy demands for carbon oxidation due to lower loads of particulate organics into the biological treatment. Thermal pre-treatment can most effectively increase the biodegradability of sludge originating from a low-rate WWT system with a long SRT. Sludge solubilization alone as an indicator of increase biodegradability by a pre-treatment is inadequate for sludge types with inherently high biodegradability. A WWT system with primary separation, sludge pre-treatment, and CHP from biogas can be a net electricity producer and self-sufficient in thermal energy, provided the thermal energy from CHP is available for the pre-treatment. With other types of energy carriers as inputs and outputs, the WWT performance also needs evaluation with respect to the energy economic and environmental value. 

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60053 (URN)10.1016/j.jece.2016.10.030 (DOI)000391700900098 ()2-s2.0-85006058860 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 1; 2016-12-29 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, E., Andreas, L., Sjöblom, R. & Lagerkvist, A. (2015). Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of environmental engineering, 141(5), Article ID 4014083.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing
2015 (English)In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 141, no 5, article id 4014083Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aging of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fly ashes was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Aging affected the chemical stability of RDF fly ash in terms of leaching behavior, ANC, and mineralogical transformations. The design of experiment model evaluation showed that the use of RDF ashes in a top cover liner construction has the following advantages: most of the investigated hazardous elements like Pb, Cl, Cr, Cu, etc., will not be released from the ashes, and their buffer capacity will increase with time. However, aging has the disadvantage that leaching of Zn and SO 4 is likely to increase. The multivariate data analysis of the coefficients of variation did not reveal any systematic errors in the performance of the experiment. However, batch leaching test not always reflect the real situation in the landfill top cover environment.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8256 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000910 (DOI)000353994400004 ()2-s2.0-84928011872 (Scopus ID)6bc7765e-e807-45da-9caf-9969de602d29 (Local ID)6bc7765e-e807-45da-9caf-9969de602d29 (Archive number)6bc7765e-e807-45da-9caf-9969de602d29 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20130923 (evebra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Travar, I., Andreas, L., Kumpiene, J. & Lagerkvist, A. (2015). Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (ed.). Paper presented at . Waste Management, 35, 148-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 35, p. 148-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl−, N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two–three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14899 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2014.09.016 (DOI)000347591000021 ()25305684 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84919873040 (Scopus ID)e5628ccd-4603-4b37-a253-cc1d63fad5f6 (Local ID)e5628ccd-4603-4b37-a253-cc1d63fad5f6 (Archive number)e5628ccd-4603-4b37-a253-cc1d63fad5f6 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20141010 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Holmström, D., Bohn, I., Bisaillon, M., Morgan-Sagastume, F. & Lagerkvist, A. (2015). Impact of physical pre-treatment of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste on greenhouse-gas emissions and the economy in a Swedish anaerobic digestion system (ed.). Paper presented at . Waste Management, 38, 117-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of physical pre-treatment of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste on greenhouse-gas emissions and the economy in a Swedish anaerobic digestion system
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2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 38, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several methods for physical pre-treatments of source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SSOFMSW) before for anaerobic digestion (AD) are available, with the common feature that they generate a homogeneous slurry for AD and a dry refuse fraction for incineration. The selection of efficient methods relies on improved understanding of how the pre-treatment impacts on the separation and on the slurry’s AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the performance of physical pre-treatment of SSOFMSW on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and on the economy of an AD system including a biogas plant with supplementary systems for heat and power production in Sweden. Based on the performance of selected Swedish facilities, as well as chemical analyses and BMP tests of slurry and refuse, the computer-based evaluation tool ORWARE was improved as to accurately describe mass flows through the physical pre-treatment and anaerobic degradation. The environmental and economic performance of the evaluated system was influenced by the TS concentration in the slurry, as well as the distribution of incoming solids between slurry and refuse. The focus to improve the efficiency of these systems should primarily be directed towards minimising the water addition in the pre-treatment provided that this slurry can still be efficiently digested. Second, the amount of refuse should be minimised, while keeping a good quality of the slurry. Electricity use/generation has high impact on GHG emissions and the results of the study are sensitive to assumptions of marginal electricity and of electricity use in the pre-treatment.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14824 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.01.010 (DOI)000353176600015 ()25661691 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84933671311 (Scopus ID)e3f88e36-54fa-40d6-805c-a25530a1f6d7 (Local ID)e3f88e36-54fa-40d6-805c-a25530a1f6d7 (Archive number)e3f88e36-54fa-40d6-805c-a25530a1f6d7 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20150206 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Naroznova, I., Möller, J. S., Scheutz, C. & Lagerkvist, A. (2015). Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems (ed.). Paper presented at . Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 102, 58-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems
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2015 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 102, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A need for improvement of food waste (FW) pre-treatment methods has been recognized, but few life cycle assessments (LCA) of FW management systems have considered the pre-treatment with respect to input energy, loss of organic material and nutrients for anaerobic digestion (AD) and/or further treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact of changes in mass distribution within framework conditions that were varied with respect to biogas utilization and energy system, representing different geographical regions and/or different time-frames. The variations of the GWP due to changes in pre-treatment efficiency were generally small, especially when biogas and refuse were substituting the same energy carriers, when energy conversion efficiencies were high and slurry quality good enough to enable digestate use on land. In these cases other environmental aspects, economy and practicality could be guiding when selecting pre-treatment system without large risk of sub-optimization with regards to GWP. However, the methane potential of the slurry is important for the net LCA results and must be included in the sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, when biogas is used as vehicle fuel the importance of pre-treatment is sensitive to assumptions and approach of modelling marginal energy which must be decided based on the focus and timeframe of the study in question

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8802 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.06.012 (DOI)000362147800007 ()2-s2.0-84937415212 (Scopus ID)7592bf78-c948-453c-a188-0b5470c11c57 (Local ID)7592bf78-c948-453c-a188-0b5470c11c57 (Archive number)7592bf78-c948-453c-a188-0b5470c11c57 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20150812 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Lagerkvist, A., Pelkonen, M. & Wikström, T. (2015). Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration (ed.). Paper presented at . Waste Management, 38, 102-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 38, p. 102-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A conventional 1300 m3 continuously stirred anaerobic tank reactor at the city of Boden, north Sweden, which was receiving a feed of both sewage sludge and food waste, was put out of operation due to the build-up of a float phase. The reactor was emptied and cleaned. At start-up there was no methanogenic sludge available, so an unconventional start-up procedure was applied: The reactor was rapidly (8 days with 1200 kg of total solids (TS) added daily) filled with thickened, and slightly acidic sewage sludge, showing only slight methane generation, which was subsequently heated to 55 °C. Then compressed air was blown into the digester and within a month a fully functional methanogenic culture was established. The transfer from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions happened in about one week. As a start-up technique this is fast and cost efficient, it only requires the access of a compressor, electricity and a source of air. In total, about 16 tonnes of oxygen were used. It is proposed that this method may also be used as an operational amendment technique, should a reactor tend to acidify.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5077 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2014.12.016 (DOI)000353176600013 ()25636861 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84933671527 (Scopus ID)3178f0e2-0ebd-4838-b040-1b17e9ecedda (Local ID)3178f0e2-0ebd-4838-b040-1b17e9ecedda (Archive number)3178f0e2-0ebd-4838-b040-1b17e9ecedda (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20150129 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Xu, J., Bravo, A. G., Lagerkvist, A., Bertilsson, S., Sjöblom, R. & Kumpiene, J. (2015). Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil (ed.). Paper presented at . Environment International, 74, 42-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil
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2015 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mercury (Hg) in soils has increased by a factor of 3 to 10 in recent times mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels combined with long-range atmospheric transport processes. Other sources as chlor-alkali plants, gold mining and cement production can also be significant, at least locally. This paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources that have contributed to the increase of Hg concentration in soil and reviews major remediation techniques and their applications to control soil Hg contamination. The focus is on soil washing, stabilisation/solidification, thermal treatment and biological techniques; but also the factors that influence Hg mobilisation in soil and therefore are crucial for evaluating and optimizing remediation techniques are discussed. Further research on bioremediation is encouraged and future study should focus on the implementation of different remediation techniques under field conditions.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5369 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2014.09.007 (DOI)000346681700006 ()25454219 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84908372023 (Scopus ID)37440370-2786-41ab-a366-e91dfb987183 (Local ID)37440370-2786-41ab-a366-e91dfb987183 (Archive number)37440370-2786-41ab-a366-e91dfb987183 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; Nivå 2; 20141017 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7158-4662

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