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Publications (10 of 202) Show all publications
Rylander, H. & Lagerkvist, A. (2024). From dumping to circular economy: There is no success like failure. Waste Management & Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From dumping to circular economy: There is no success like failure
2024 (English)In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Waste management has been developing in response to needs. The need to get rid of unwanted materials has always been a motivation but using the resource value of waste has also been a driver from the stone age and forwards. In affluent times not so much. Sanitation became a motivation with the discovery of pathogenic microorganisms in the mid-19th century, and after World War 2 (WW2) a strong focus on environmental protection developed, and in recent times, the resource aspect has received an interest despite material affluence. Legislation has been one of the drivers for recent developments, in the case of Sweden, the environmental protection legislation came in the late 1960s, and a few years later, the municipalities got the exclusive right to collect and manage household waste. Many local and regional waste management companies were established, owned by the municipalities. These organizations became agents of development, due to the increased scope and capacity. Adding to the environmental protection agenda, a renewed interest in waste as a resource was initiated by the oil crises of the 1970s, resulting in new waste incineration plants, with energy recovery, connected to already existing district heating networks. Mistakes, failures and alarms in the 1970s and the 1980s resulted in treatment method improvements and the establishment of source separation as an integral part of waste management. The waste management community stands strong today and is taking a more proactive role than before, which includes a stronger focus on communication with other stakeholders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2024
Keywords
Waste, management, development, history, research, legislation, technology
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103867 (URN)10.1177/0734242x231221084 (DOI)
Note

Full text: CC BY License

Available from: 2024-01-22 Created: 2024-01-22 Last updated: 2024-01-22
Lagerkvist, A. (2023). Time to dump the waste hierarchy?. Waste Management & Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time to dump the waste hierarchy?
2023 (English)In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Epub ahead of print
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103124 (URN)10.1177/0734242X231213238 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175971257 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2023-11-30
Bauer, T., Pelkonen, M. & Lagerkvist, A. (2022). Co-digestion of sewage sludge and wood fly ash. Environmental technology, 43(12), 1853-1859
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-digestion of sewage sludge and wood fly ash
2022 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1853-1859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study uses a new approach for the recycling of plant nutrients by co-digesting sewage sludgewith fly ash from a wood combustion. Sewage sludge and fly ash both are enriched with nutrientsof the wastewater resp. wood, which makes these products an enhanced source for recycledfertilizers. The effects of the ash addition to the anaerobic digestion are studied in several labscale experiments including effects on the gas production and microbial activity. Following that,the fertilizing qualities of the digestate are evaluated by plant growth experiments. The resultsshow that the fertilizing qualities of the digested sludge were improved by the ash addition.Next to this, gas production results show that the methane production was not affected by theash addition, while the total gas release was reduced. The sulphur addition by the ashstimulated sulphate reducing bacteria. The sulphate reducing bacteria did not markedly inhibitthe methanogens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, sewage sludge, ash, co-digestion, nutrient recycling
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Other Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81973 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2020.1856937 (DOI)000597848000001 ()33301703 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85106805373 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-06 (hanlid)

Available from: 2020-12-14 Created: 2020-12-14 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Niero, L., Morgan-Sagastume, F. & Lagerkvist, A. (2021). Accelerating acidogenic fermentation of sewage sludge with ash addition. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 9(6), Article ID 106564.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerating acidogenic fermentation of sewage sludge with ash addition
2021 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 106564Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A statistically designed range of tests was used in order to map the impact of time, temperature and pH on the acidogenic fermentation of sewage sludge with the addition of waste fly ash. The main factors investigated were temperature (35, 55 and 65 °C), pH (7, 8 and 8.5) and retention time (1, 2 and 4 days). The initial pH was adjusted by adding ash. Up to about a third of the volatile solids could be solubilized in less than two days retention time. Higher temperatures (55 and 65 °C) and adjusted pH (7 and 8) favored hydrolysis whereas fermentation producing organic acids was faster at lower temperatures (35 °C). Sludge hydrolysis occurred fast at 55 and 65 °C, reaching a solubilized total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of 3.84 g TOC L-1 after one day. Thermophilic conditions (55 and 65 °C) resulted in a lower volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration compared to mesophilic conditions (35 °C). At 35 °C, the highest VFA concentration was measured after 4 days and initial pH 7 (10.0 ± 0.2 g COD L-1). This study showed the potential of using a waste stream to increase and hasten the hydrolysis of particulate organics, resulting in higher TOC solubilized in 2 days, while promoting a higher VFA production measured as g COD L-1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Acidogenic fermentation, sewage sludge, volatile fatty acids, alkaline pH, fly ash, hydrolysis
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87510 (URN)10.1016/j.jece.2021.106564 (DOI)000711639100008 ()2-s2.0-85118726151 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-10-25 (beamah);

Funder: ERA-NET

Available from: 2021-10-14 Created: 2021-10-14 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Andersson, E., Jobs, M., Lagerkvist, A. & Elfgren, L. (2021). Biogeochemical and mechanical characterization of the landfill fraction generated by mechanical waste sorting. Detritus, 15, 120-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogeochemical and mechanical characterization of the landfill fraction generated by mechanical waste sorting
2021 (English)In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 15, p. 120-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the resource recovery from mixed waste streams are performed, new mixed waste streams are generated. Some of these waste streams does not fit well to existing waste management options, for example, they may hold a to low heating value to sustain combustion and they may have a too high carbon content to be accepted at non-hazardous landfills. Also various health and pollution risks may arise as well as practical handling issues due to the physical properties of such wastes. One such waste is the under sieve fraction generated when recovering metals and fuel from mixed waste streams using mechanical and magnetic separation tools. Such mechanical sorting is typically used for mixed wastes of different properties and particle sizes, such as houshold bulky wastes, construction and demolition waste, and at landfill mining materials. In this work, we examine the properties of one case of mechanical sorting of bulky wastes, including construction and demolition wastes. We analyse a broad spectrum of chemical, physical, and mechanical properties as well as some biological. Based on the data we develop recommendations for landfilling, what potential problems might arise and how to counteract them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CISA Publisher, 2021
Keywords
Bulky wastes, Construction waste, Landfill mining, Mechanical separation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86515 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2021.15093 (DOI)000669501100013 ()2-s2.0-85110382609 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-08-13 (alebob);

Forskningsfinansiär: RagnSells AB

Available from: 2021-08-04 Created: 2021-08-04 Last updated: 2021-08-13Bibliographically approved
Lagerkvist, A. & Kumpiene, J. (2021). Welcome to the 40+ years persistence celebration of the waste research discipline at Luleå University Of Technology, Sweden Contact: Jurate Kumpiene. Detritus - Multidisciplinary journal for Waste Resources and Residues, 14, XI-XII
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Welcome to the 40+ years persistence celebration of the waste research discipline at Luleå University Of Technology, Sweden Contact: Jurate Kumpiene
2021 (English)In: Detritus - Multidisciplinary journal for Waste Resources and Residues, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 14, p. XI-XIIArticle in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CISA Publisher, 2021
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84064 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2021.14084 (DOI)000636583700005 ()2-s2.0-85103976015 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-04 Created: 2021-05-04 Last updated: 2021-05-10Bibliographically approved
Bauer, T., Andreas, L., Lagerkvist, A. & Ekman Burgman, L. (2020). Effects of the Different Implementation of Legislation Relating to Sewage Sludge Disposal in the EU. Detritus, 10, 92-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of the Different Implementation of Legislation Relating to Sewage Sludge Disposal in the EU
2020 (English)In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 10, p. 92-99Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Directive 86/278/EEC implemented in 1986 was a means adopted by the European Union to improve use of the valuables in sewage sludge by applying treated sludge on agricultural soils. To prevent an accumulation of pollutants, the Directive provided suggestions limiting concentrations of toxic elements in sewage sludge and agricultural soil. The Directive was implemented diversely throughout EU member states, with current national legislations only partly reflecting the initial intentions of the EU Directive from 30 years ago. This study demonstrates how the European Directive was implemented in three countries currently at different stages of replacing the agricultural application of sewage sludge with incineration (Netherlands, Germany and Sweden). Additionally, recent changes in the legislation with regards to the re-use and final disposal of sewage sludge in the three chosen member states are analysed. The aim was to investigate how each member state has solved the conflict between improvement of nutrient recovery from sludge and limitation of pollutants in agricultural soil. Based on this review, limit values are not necessarily reflected in application rates of sewage sludge in agriculture. Following changes in current legislation, phosphorus recovery will become a priority task. The recovery of other valuables from sewage sludge is currently not regulated in the legislation of the three member states investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Padova: CISA Publisher, 2020
Keywords
Sewage sludge, Legislation, Phosphorus recovery, Nutrient recovery, Land application
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78837 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2020.13944 (DOI)000546632500010 ()2-s2.0-85087827299 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council Formas, dnr. 2018-00194
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-08-17 (marisr)

Available from: 2020-05-11 Created: 2020-05-11 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Bauer, T. & Lagerkvist, A. (2020). Finding new sewage sludge treatment solutions for the arctic city of Kiruna. In: VENICE2020 – 8th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste: Proceedings + On-demand Access. Paper presented at 8th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste (VENICE2020), Virtual, November 16-19, 2020. CISA Publisher
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding new sewage sludge treatment solutions for the arctic city of Kiruna
2020 (English)In: VENICE2020 – 8th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste: Proceedings + On-demand Access, CISA Publisher , 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As Sweden’s northernmost city, Kiruna has very particular demands for its sewage sludge treatment. This study tests hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) as a treatment option for Kiruna to stabilize the sewage sludge, facilitate its transport by volume reduction and prepare the sludge for recovery of resources. The study consists out of an experimental part and a lifecycle assessment (LCA) development, which also gives options to use the results in other LCA scenarios incorporating HTC. Preliminary results show that HTC is a treatment that can fulfil Kiruna’s demands and that an optimization of the treatment’s settings can greatly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the HTC treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CISA Publisher, 2020
Keywords
Sewage sludge management, hydrothermal carbonisation, lifecycle assessment, EASETECH
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84160 (URN)
Conference
8th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste (VENICE2020), Virtual, November 16-19, 2020
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 20200905Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194
Available from: 2021-05-06 Created: 2021-05-06 Last updated: 2021-09-28Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D. & Lagerkvist, A. (2018). Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process. Waste Management, 76, 727-733
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process
2018 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 727-733Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fly ash from a cogeneration plant near Sundsvall in Sweden was treated in an ash-washing facility. The leaching of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) from the ash residue exceeded the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. In this study factors that influence the leaching of Cr and Mo were identified and methods that can reduce the leaching were evaluated. The results revealed that the mobility of Cr and Mo are mainly controlled by pH and redox reactions and sequential extraction tests also showed that the fraction of highly soluble species of Cr and Mo increased after washing due to pH reactions in the ash during the process. Stabilization of the pH at ∼8 through carbonation of the washed ash and a lowering of the redox potential by adding ferrous iron to the process resulted in decreased leaching. Treatment with carbon dioxide yielded a decrease (from 10.7 to 8.2) in the pH and, hence, the leaching of Cr and Mo by 93 and 91%, respectively. And the addition of ferrous iron reduced the leaching of Cr by 50%. Carbonation of the ash can be achieved via treatment with flue gases from the power plant or treatment with landfill gas at the disposal site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Ash washing, Sequential extraction, Carbonation, Chromium reduction, Molybdenum
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67956 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2018.03.016 (DOI)000435064000073 ()29551230 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85043789498 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2020-08-11Bibliographically approved
Marklund, E., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2018). Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines. Detritus, 3, 13-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines
2018 (English)In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Padova, Italy: CISA Publisher, 2018
Keywords
Construction and demolition waste, Float-sink separation, Density separation, Characterization
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71329 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13648 (DOI)000474686200004 ()2-s2.0-85087796822 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TOOLF
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2021-03-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7158-4662

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