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Andersson, Ulf
Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Dadhich, S., Sandin, F., Bodin, U., Andersson, U. & Martinsson, T. (2019). Field test of neural-network based automatic bucket-filling algorithm for wheel-loaders. Automation in Construction, 97, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field test of neural-network based automatic bucket-filling algorithm for wheel-loaders
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2019 (English)In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 97, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Automation of earth-moving industries (construction, mining and quarry) require automatic bucket-filling algorithms for efficient operation of front-end loaders. Autonomous bucket-filling is an open problem since three decades due to difficulties in developing useful earth models (soil, gravel and rock) for automatic control. Operators make use of vision, sound and vestibular feedback to perform the bucket-filling operation with high productivity and fuel efficiency. In this paper, field experiments with a small time-delayed neural network (TDNN) implemented in the bucket control-loop of a Volvo L180H front-end loader filling medium coarse gravel are presented. The total delay time parameter of the TDNN is found to be an important hyperparameter due to the variable delay present in the hydraulics of the wheel-loader. The TDNN network successfully performs the bucket-filling operation after an initial period (100 examples) of imitation learning from an expert operator. The demonstrated solution show only 26% longer bucket-filling time, an improvement over manual tele-operation performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Neural-network, Bucket-filling, Wheel-loader, Automation, Construction
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71383 (URN)10.1016/j.autcon.2018.10.013 (DOI)000453623600001 ()2-s2.0-85055696994 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-07 (johcin) 

Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Dadhich, S., Bodin, U., Sandin, F. & Andersson, U. (2018). From Tele-remote Operation to Semi-automated Wheel-loader. International Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Telecommunications, 7(4), 178-182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Tele-remote Operation to Semi-automated Wheel-loader
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Telecommunications, ISSN 2319-2518, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 178-182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents experimental results with tele-remote operation of a wheel-loader and proposes a method to semi-automate the process. The different components of the tele-remote setup are described in the paper. We focus on the short loading cycle, which is commonly used at quarry and construction sites for moving gravel from piles onto trucks. We present results from short-loading-cycle experiments with three operators, comparing productivity between tele-remote operation and manual operation. A productivity loss of 42% with tele-remote operation motivates the case for more automation. We propose a method to automate the bucket-filling process, which is one of the key operations performed by a wheel-loader.

Keywords
automation, bucket-filling, construction, quarry, tele-operation, wheel-loader
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71381 (URN)10.18178/ijeetc.7.4.178-182 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Dadhich, S., Bodin, U. & Andersson, U. (2016). Key challenges in automation of earth-moving machines (ed.). Automation in Construction, 68, 212-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key challenges in automation of earth-moving machines
2016 (English)In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 68, p. 212-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wheel loader is an earth-moving machine used in construction sites, gravel pits and mining to move blasted rock, soil and gravel. In the presence of a nearby dump truck, the wheel loader is said to be operating in a short loading cycle. This paper concerns the moving of material (soil, gravel and fragmented rock) by a wheel loader in a short loading cycle with more emphasis on the loading step. Due to the complexity of bucket-environment interactions, even three decades of research efforts towards automation of the bucket loading operation have not yet resulted in any fully autonomous system. This paper highlights the key challenges in automation and tele-remote operation of earth-moving machines and provides a survey of different areas of research within the scope of the earth-moving operation. The survey of publications presented in this paper is conducted with an aim to highlight the previous and ongoing research work in this field with an effort to strike a balance between recent and older publications. Another goal of the survey is to identify the research areas in which knowledge essential to automate the earth moving process is lagging behind. The paper concludes by identifying the knowledge gaps to give direction to future research in this field.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9131 (URN)10.1016/j.autcon.2016.05.009 (DOI)000379371100019 ()2-s2.0-84971665331 (Scopus ID)7b11fd1b-e46b-4cf4-8a9c-b0ecae42f1a0 (Local ID)7b11fd1b-e46b-4cf4-8a9c-b0ecae42f1a0 (Archive number)7b11fd1b-e46b-4cf4-8a9c-b0ecae42f1a0 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160531 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Dadhich, S., Bodin, U., Sandin, F. & Andersson, U. (2016). Machine Learning approach to Automatic Bucket Loading (ed.). In: (Ed.), 24th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED): June 21-24, Athens, Greece, 2016. Paper presented at Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation : 21/06/2016 - 24/06/2016 (pp. 1260-1265). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, Article ID 7535925.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machine Learning approach to Automatic Bucket Loading
2016 (English)In: 24th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED): June 21-24, Athens, Greece, 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 1260-1265, article id 7535925Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The automation of bucket loading for repetitive tasks of earth-moving operations is desired in several applications at mining sites, quarries and construction sites where larger amounts of gravel and fragmented rock are to be moved. In load and carry cycles the average bucket weight is the dominating performance parameter, while fuel efficiency and loading time also come into play with short loading cycles. This paper presents the analysis of data recorded during loading of different types of gravel piles with a Volvo L110G wheel loader. Regression models of lift and tilt actions are fitted to the behavior of an expert driver for a gravel pile. We present linear regression models for lift and tilt action that explain most of the variance in the recorded data and outline a learning approach for solving the automatic bucket loading problem. A general solution should provide good performance in terms of average bucket weight, cycle time of loading and fuel efficiency for different types of material and pile geometries. We propose that a reinforcement learning approach can be used to further refine models fitted to the behavior of expert drivers, and we briefly discuss the scooping problem in terms of a Markov decision process and possible value functions and policy iteration schemes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Series
Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, E-ISSN 2325-369X
Keywords
Information technology - Automatic control, Informationsteknik - Reglerteknik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology Control Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Mobile and Pervasive Computing; Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28755 (URN)10.1109/MED.2016.7535925 (DOI)000391154900208 ()2-s2.0-84986226543 (Scopus ID)2a83ec63-323c-43a5-a69f-f77d7f9abfb0 (Local ID)978-1-4673-8345-5 (ISBN)2a83ec63-323c-43a5-a69f-f77d7f9abfb0 (Archive number)2a83ec63-323c-43a5-a69f-f77d7f9abfb0 (OAI)
Conference
Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation : 21/06/2016 - 24/06/2016
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20160819 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Nikolakopoulos, G., Gustafsson, T., Martinsson, P.-E. & Andersson, U. (2015). A Vision of Zero Entry Production Areas in Mines (ed.). Paper presented at IFAC Workshop on Mining, Mineral and Metal Processing : 25/08/2015 - 27/08/2015. , 48(17), 66-68
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Vision of Zero Entry Production Areas in Mines
2015 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This industrial article aims in presenting a short roadmap on the identified activities and technologies needed towards the vision of zero entry production areas in Mines. This work has been performed in close cooperation with large mining companies in Europe as part of the Smart Mine of the Future Research, Development and Innovation Program and will present the most important areas that it is expected the robotic technology to have an impact on.

Keywords
Information technology - Automatic control, Informationsteknik - Reglerteknik
National Category
Control Engineering Signal Processing
Research subject
Control Engineering; Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39603 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.10.079 (DOI)2-s2.0-84992476853 (Scopus ID)e6e25432-e6c8-4892-9388-b87a33f88fc1 (Local ID)e6e25432-e6c8-4892-9388-b87a33f88fc1 (Archive number)e6e25432-e6c8-4892-9388-b87a33f88fc1 (OAI)
Conference
IFAC Workshop on Mining, Mineral and Metal Processing : 25/08/2015 - 27/08/2015
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Bodin, U., Andersson, U., Dadhich, S., Uhlin, E., Marklund, U. & Häggström, D. (2015). Remote Controlled Short-Cycle Loading of Bulk Material in Mining Applications (ed.). Paper presented at IFAC Workshop on Mining, Mineral and Metal Processing : 25/08/2015 - 27/08/2015. , 48(17), 54-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Controlled Short-Cycle Loading of Bulk Material in Mining Applications
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2015 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-capacity wireless IP networks with limited delays are nowadays being deployed in both underground and open-pit mines. This allows for advanced remote control of mining machinery with improved feedback to operators and extensive monitoring of machine status, wear and fatigue. Wireless connectivity varies however depending on channel impairments caused by obstacles, multi-path fading and other radio issues. Therefore remote control and monitoring should be capable of adapting their sending rates to handle variations in communications quality. This paper presents key challenges in advanced remote control and monitoring of working machines via high-capacity wireless IP networks in mining environments. We reason about these challenges in context of underground short-cycle load, haul and dump operation with large-volume built wheel-loaders and present a generic communication solution for an operator assistance concept capable of adapting to varying communication properties

National Category
Computer Sciences Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28592 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.10.077 (DOI)2-s2.0-84992523126 (Scopus ID)26e4003f-9b37-46fa-8048-7ad42ea96ff7 (Local ID)26e4003f-9b37-46fa-8048-7ad42ea96ff7 (Archive number)26e4003f-9b37-46fa-8048-7ad42ea96ff7 (OAI)
Conference
IFAC Workshop on Mining, Mineral and Metal Processing : 25/08/2015 - 27/08/2015
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Broström, F., Andersson, U. & Gustafsson, T. (2015). Scale-Model Articulated Vehicle with Individual Wheel Drives for Traction Control Studies (ed.). Paper presented at . International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, 10(3), 305-319
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scale-Model Articulated Vehicle with Individual Wheel Drives for Traction Control Studies
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 305-319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small scale model vehicles have been successfully used in multiple projects for research and for evaluation of models. ArtiTRAX, an experimental platform designed at Luleå University of Technology, is introduced to study the behaviour of articulated vehicles with individually driven wheels. Three case studies are presented: energy efficiency due to load transfer, online tyre parameter estimation and articulation angle control. The platform was shown to be a valuable asset for research in this area. It gives insight into the problem of controlling overactuated systems and the design hazard of using multiple integrators. ArtiTRAX is shown to be controllable through a kinematic model by only using actuation of the wheel drives. The difference of energy consumption as a function of longitudinal torque distribution indicates that the effectiveness of the motors should be considered when controlling the motor currents. The lateral distribution of motor current as a function of the articulation angle has to be considered in order to minimise the energy consumption of an articulated vehicle. Further research is necessary for understanding the mechanisms and relations between the energy consumption and the controlled motor currents

National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-12731 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2015.070171 (DOI)2-s2.0-84934274334 (Scopus ID)be581da1-1f3c-49f5-a200-191f76cdda5b (Local ID)be581da1-1f3c-49f5-a200-191f76cdda5b (Archive number)be581da1-1f3c-49f5-a200-191f76cdda5b (OAI)
Projects
Optimal dragkraftsreglering för anläggningsmaskiner
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20150812 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Broström, F., Andersson, U. & Gustafsson, T. (2014). Scale-Model Articulated Vehicle with Individual Wheel Drives for Traction Control Studies (ed.). Paper presented at Reglermöte 2014 : 03/06/2014 - 04/06/2014. Paper presented at Reglermöte 2014 : 03/06/2014 - 04/06/2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scale-Model Articulated Vehicle with Individual Wheel Drives for Traction Control Studies
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28656 (URN)289a35a0-f899-44a0-901a-a25494045a30 (Local ID)289a35a0-f899-44a0-901a-a25494045a30 (Archive number)289a35a0-f899-44a0-901a-a25494045a30 (OAI)
Conference
Reglermöte 2014 : 03/06/2014 - 04/06/2014
Projects
Optimal dragkraftsreglering för anläggningsmaskiner
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20141128 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, U., Broström, F. & Gustafsson, T. (2014). Tyre parameter estimation based on control of individual wheel drives (ed.). Paper presented at . International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, 12(3), 247-265
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tyre parameter estimation based on control of individual wheel drives
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, ISSN 1471-0226, E-ISSN 1741-5306, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 247-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a method to estimate tyre parameters for traction control applications based on control of individual wheel drives. The tyre parameters that are estimated are the rolling radius in driven mode (i.e. the rolling radius when the input torque to the wheel is zero) and the tyre longitudinal elasticity factor. The rolling radius in driven mode and the tyre longitudinal elasticity factor depend on several factors, among them the normal load. An important property of the method is that no transfer of load occurs during the estimation phase since the actual velocity of the vehicle is kept constant. Results from tests with ArtiTRAX, a 240 kg electric vehicle that carries 80 kg extra weight in three different front axle and rear axle distributions, are presented.

Keywords
Information technology - Automatic control, Informationsteknik - Reglerteknik
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5328 (URN)10.1504/IJVAS.2014.063025 (DOI)2-s2.0-84904002689 (Scopus ID)36569dd4-bd22-42ee-9a95-1be23f4c3d1b (Local ID)36569dd4-bd22-42ee-9a95-1be23f4c3d1b (Archive number)36569dd4-bd22-42ee-9a95-1be23f4c3d1b (OAI)
Projects
Optimal dragkraftsreglering för anläggningsmaskiner
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140205 (tgu)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Andersson, U. (2013). Automation and traction control of articulated vehicles (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automation and traction control of articulated vehicles
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Articulated machines such as load-haul-dump machines, wheel loaders and haulers operate in many different environments and driving conditions. In particular they need to be able to perform well with road conditions and loads that can change drastically, setting hard requirements on performances and robustness. The control challenges for off-road vehicles are hence quite different from standard cars or trucks, which mostly drive on regular roads. An important aspect characterising this is the fact that wheel slip may cause severe damage to the wheels and ground. Particularly, tyre lifespan is a serious problem since for instance in a modern hauler the tyres often represents 20%-25% of a hauler overall operating cost. Better traction control algorithms can strongly contribute to reducing tyre wear and hence operating costs.Increasing fuel prices and increasing environmental awareness have influenced all the main vehicle manufacturers so that the commitment towards less fuel consumption has become one of the main goals for development. During the last few years’ hybrid vehicles have been vigorously developed. For wheel loaders, in particular, the series hybrid concept seems to be suitable whereby a diesel engine generates electricity for a battery that serves as the power source of the individual wheel motors, enabling regenerative braking as well as partial recovery of the energy necessary to lift the load. Hence, traction control algorithms should be adapted for use with individual wheel drives.Load-haul-dump machines, wheel loaders and haulers are sometimes used in cyclic operations in isolated areas, which is a typical driver for automation. The use of the loadhaul-dump machine in underground hard rock mines such as iron ore mines is one example where the conditions for automation are excellent. The working conditions for a driver in the cabin are monotone. The working conditions are improved by moving the driver from the machine to a control room and alternate between different remote operations, for instance between load-haul-dump machines and remote controlled rock breaker. Moving the driver from the cabin to the control room also have a positive effect on the personnel costs since one operator can handle several machines.However, for the automation to be successful, the cycle time and loading capacity of an automated machine has to match a manual machine operated by skilled drivers. A challenge is the remote bucket filling, where traditional tele remote loading is based only on slightly delayed video feedback from the machine. This is in sharp contrast to the manual loading where the driver close the loop based on non-delayed 3D vision of the machine relative the pile as well as listening to the noise and sensing the vibrations of the machine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17850 (URN)582cdf0f-28c1-4210-bced-7305c7d4d38f (Local ID)978-91-7439-801-4 (ISBN)978-91-7439-802-1 (ISBN)582cdf0f-28c1-4210-bced-7305c7d4d38f (Archive number)582cdf0f-28c1-4210-bced-7305c7d4d38f (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20131017 (ulfand); Tillkännagivande disputation 2013-11-26 Nedanstående person kommer att disputera för avläggande av teknologie doktorsexamen. Namn: Ulf Andersson Ämne: Reglerteknik/Automatic Control Avhandling: Automation and Traction Control of Articulated Vehicles Opponent: Professor Vladimir Vantsevich, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA Ordförande: Professor Thomas Gustafsson, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Luleå tekniska universitet Tid: Tisdag den 17 december 2013, kl 10.00 Plats: A1547, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
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