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Cruciani, F., Cleland, I., Nugent, C., McCullagh, P., Synnes, K. & Hallberg, J. (2018). Automatic annotation for human activity recognition in free living using a smartphone. Sensors, 18(7), Article ID 2203.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic annotation for human activity recognition in free living using a smartphone
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2018 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 7, article id 2203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data annotation is a time-consuming process posing major limitations to the development of Human Activity Recognition (HAR) systems. The availability of a large amount of labeled data is required for supervised Machine Learning (ML) approaches, especially in the case of online and personalized approaches requiring user specific datasets to be labeled. The availability of such datasets has the potential to help address common problems of smartphone-based HAR, such as inter-person variability. In this work, we present (i) an automatic labeling method facilitating the collection of labeled datasets in free-living conditions using the smartphone, and (ii) we investigate the robustness of common supervised classification approaches under instances of noisy data. We evaluated the results with a dataset consisting of 38 days of manually labeled data collected in free living. The comparison between the manually and the automatically labeled ground truth demonstrated that it was possible to obtain labels automatically with an 80–85% average precision rate. Results obtained also show how a supervised approach trained using automatically generated labels achieved an 84% f-score (using Neural Networks and Random Forests); however, results also demonstrated how the presence of label noise could lower the f-score up to 64–74% depending on the classification approach (Nearest Centroid and Multi-Class Support Vector Machine).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70137 (URN)10.3390/s18072203 (DOI)29987218 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050029995 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-07-19 (inah)

Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2018-08-08Bibliographically approved
Synnes, K., Lilja, M., Nyman, A., Espinilla, M., Cleland, I., Sanchez Comas, A. G., . . . Nugent, C. (2018). H2Al - The Human Health and Activity Laboratory. In: MDPI (Ed.), 12th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient ‪Intelligence (UCAmI 2018), Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, 4-7 December, 2018.: . Paper presented at International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient ‪Intelligence. MDPI, 2, Article ID 1241.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>H2Al - The Human Health and Activity Laboratory
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2018 (English)In: 12th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient ‪Intelligence (UCAmI 2018), Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, 4-7 December, 2018. / [ed] MDPI, MDPI, 2018, Vol. 2, article id 1241Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Human Health and Activity Laboratory (H2Al) is a new research facility at Luleå University of Technology implemented during 2018 as a smart home environment in an educational training apartment for nurses and therapists at the Luleå campus. This paper presents the design and implementation of the lab together with a discussion on potential impact. The aim is to identify and overcome economical, technical and social barriers to achieve an envisioned good and equal health and welfare within and from home environments. The lab is equipped with multiple sensor and actuator systems in the environment, worn by persons and based on digital information. The systems will allow for advanced capture, filtering, analysis and visualization of research data such as A/V, EEG, ECG, EMG, GSR, respiration and location while being able to detect falls, sleep apnea and other critical health and wellbeing issues. The resulting studies will be aimed towards supporting and equipping future home environments and care facilities, spanning from temporary care to primary care at hospitals, with technologies for activity and critical health and wellness issue detection. The work will be conducted at an International level and within a European context, based on a collaboration with other smart labs, such that experiments can be replicated at multiple sites. This paper presents some initial lessons learnt including design, setup and configuration for comparison of sensor placements and configurations as well as analytical methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72988 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2191241 (DOI)
Conference
International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient ‪Intelligence
Projects
REMIND
Funder
The Kempe Foundations
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-02-21
Cruciani, F., Cleland, I., Nugent, C., McCullagh, P., Synnes, K. & Hallberg, J. (2018). Personalized Online Training for Physical Activity monitoring using weak labels. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops): . Paper presented at 2nd International Workshop on Annotation of useR Data for UbiquitOUs Systems (ARDUOUS 2018), Athens, Greece, March 19-23, 2018 (pp. 567-572). IEEE
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), IEEE, 2018, p. 567-572Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of smartphones for activity recognition is becoming common practice. Most approaches use a single pretrained classifier to recognize activities for all users. Research studies, however, have highlighted how a personalized trained classifier could provide better accuracy. Data labeling for ground truth generation, however, is a time-consuming process. The challenge is further exacerbated when opting for a personalized approach that requires user specific datasets to be labeled, making conventional supervised approaches unfeasible. In this work, we present early results on the investigation into a weakly supervised approach for online personalized activity recognition. This paper describes: (i) a heuristic to generate weak labels used for personalized training, (ii) a comparison of accuracy obtained using a weakly supervised classifier against a conventional ground truth trained classifier. Preliminary results show an overall accuracy of 87% of a fully supervised approach against a 74% with the proposed weakly supervised approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
data annotation, weakly supervised learning, smartphone activity recognition
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68146 (URN)10.1109/PERCOMW.2018.8480292 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050025511 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3227-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Workshop on Annotation of useR Data for UbiquitOUs Systems (ARDUOUS 2018), Athens, Greece, March 19-23, 2018
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Bai, E. & Synnes, K. (2018). Supporting Collaborative Care of Elderly through a Reward System based on Distributed Ledger Technologies. International Journal On Advances in Life Sciences, 10(1-2), 90-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Collaborative Care of Elderly through a Reward System based on Distributed Ledger Technologies
2018 (English)In: International Journal On Advances in Life Sciences, ISSN 1942-2660, E-ISSN 1942-2660, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 90-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses supporting collaborative care of elderly through a reward system based on distributed ledger technologies. The design and implementation of such a reward system that connect elderly and volunteers by mutual agreements involve technologies such as smart contracts and blockchains. The work is motivated by the demographic change, where an aging population consequently increases the need for care. This causes a great tension in our society, as care resources become increasingly constrained, both regarding costs and availability of care staff. Much of the daily care of the elderly is today done by family members (spouses, children) and friends, often on a voluntarily basis, which adds to the tension. The core idea of this work is to help broaden the involvement of people in caring for our elderly, enabled by a system for collaborative care. The proposed system benefits from recent advances in distributed ledger technologies, which similarly to digital currencies, are build on the ability for mutual agreements between people who do not know each other. The system also benefits from recent gamification techniques to motivate people to collaborate on a larger scale through performing simple daily tasks. The proposed system benefits from inherent distributed ledger technologies advantages, such as a high level of decentralization, thus a high availability, and strong data consistency. These advantages make it interesting to develop the possible links between blockchains and the outside world to allow for a higher level of automation and distribution of services such as collaborative care. New models for distributed ledger technologies, such as Iota tangles or the Swirld platform, may however scale and perform better than blockchains. These should thus be considered for a full implementation and test of the system. In summary, this paper presents a novel framework and prototype implementation of a reward system supporting collaborative care of elderly, that is based on distributed ledger technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2018
Keywords
Blockchain; Collaborative Care; Gamification
National Category
Engineering and Technology Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70600 (URN)
Projects
Concedo
Funder
VINNOVA, 2016-04562
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Bai, E. & Synnes, K. (2017). A Reward System for Collaborative Care of Elderly based on Distributed Ledger Technologies. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services and Technologies: UBICOMM 2017. Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services and Technologies, UBICOMM 2017, Barcelona, Spain, November 12 - 16, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Reward System for Collaborative Care of Elderly based on Distributed Ledger Technologies
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services and Technologies: UBICOMM 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and implementation of a reward system for collaborative care of elderly based on distributed ledger technologies. The work is motivated by the demographic change, where an aging population consequently increases the need for care. This causes a great tension in our society, as care resources become increasingly constrained, both regarding costs and availability of care staff. Much of the daily care of the elderly is today done by family members (spouses, children) and friends, often on a voluntarily basis, which adds to the tension. The core idea of this work is to help broaden the involvement of people in caring for our elderly, enabled by a system for collaborative care. The proposed system benefits from recent advances in distributed ledger technologies, which similarly to digital currencies, are build on the ability for mutual agreements between people who do not know each other. The system also benefits from recent gamification techniques to motivate people to collaborate on a larger scale through performing simple daily tasks. The system builds on rewards automatically given when these smart contracts are fulfilled, a gamification technique that is believed to maintain motivation of the volunteers. In this paper, we thus describe a reward system designed to connect elderly and volunteers by mutual agreements implemented as smart contracts. 

Keywords
Blockchain; Collaborative Care; Gamification
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66509 (URN)978-1-61208-598-2 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services and Technologies, UBICOMM 2017, Barcelona, Spain, November 12 - 16, 2017
Projects
Vinnova Concedo
Funder
VINNOVA, 2016-04562
Available from: 2017-11-08 Created: 2017-11-08 Last updated: 2018-08-31
Visuri, A., Ferreira, D., Pirttikangas, S., Kotakos, V., Synnes, K., Lindqvist, J. K. .. & Nishiyama, Y. (2017). UbiMI'17: Ubiquitous mobile instrumentation. In: UbiComp/ISWC 2017: Adjunct Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers11 September 2017. Paper presented at 2017 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, UbiComp/ISWC 2017, Maui, United States, 11-15 September 2017 (pp. 448-451). New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
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2017 (English)In: UbiComp/ISWC 2017: Adjunct Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers11 September 2017, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 448-451Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mobile devices (smartphones, smartwatches, etc.) allow us to reach people anywhere, anytime. Collectively, these devices form a ubiquitous computer that offers valuable insights on the user. In addition to the benefits for researchers and developers, explored in previous UbiMI workshops, devices can also help individuals understand their own health, activities, and behaviour. The Ubiquitous Mobile Instrumentation (UbiMI) workshop focuses on using mobile devices as instruments to collect sensing data, to understand human-behaviour and routines, and to gather users' context using sensor instrumentation

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66180 (URN)10.1145/3123024.3124454 (DOI)000426932500102 ()2-s2.0-85030838733 (Scopus ID)9781450351904 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, UbiComp/ISWC 2017, Maui, United States, 11-15 September 2017
Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Synnes, K., Kranz, M., Rana, J. & Schelén, O. (2017). User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities. In: Bin Guo; Daniele Riboni; Peizhao Hu (Ed.), The internet of things: breakthroughs in research and practice (pp. 41-70). Paper presented at . IGI Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities
2017 (English)In: The internet of things: breakthroughs in research and practice, IGI Global, 2017, p. 41-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Pervasive Computing was envisioned by pioneers like Mark Weiser, but has yet to become an everyday technology in our society. The recent advances regarding Internet of Things, social computing and mobile access technologies however converge to make pervasive computing truly ubiquitous. The key challenge is however to make simple and robust solutions for normal users, which shifts the focus from complex platforms involving machine learning and artificial intelligence to more hands on construction of services that are tailored or personalized for individual users.This chapter therefore discusses Internet of Things together with Social Computing as a basis for components that users in a ’digital city’ could utilize to make their daily life better, safer, etc. A novel environment for user-created services, such as social apps, is presented as a possible solution for this. The vision is that anyone could make simple service based on Internet-enabled devices (Internet of Things) and encapsulated digital resources such as Open Data, which also can have social aspects embedded.This chapter also aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This work will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead of now. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of information and communication technologies (ICT) based on the extrapolation of current trends and ongoing research efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IGI Global, 2017
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64828 (URN)10.4018/978-1-5225-1832-7.ch003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021277900 (Scopus ID)9781522518334 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-07-07 Created: 2017-07-07 Last updated: 2018-05-09Bibliographically approved
Nugent, C., Synnott, J., Celeste, G., Zhang, S., Espinella, M., Calzada, A., . . . Ortiz Barrios, M. A. (2016). Improving the Quality of User Generated Data Sets for Activity Recognition. In: Carmelo R. García, Pino Caballero-Gil, Mike Burmester, Alexis Quesada-Arencibia (Ed.), Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence: 10th International Conference, UCAmI 2016, San Bartolomé de Tirajana, Gran Canaria, Spain, November 29 – December 2, 2016, Part II. Paper presented at 10th International Conference, UCAmI 2016, San Bartolomé de Tirajana, Gran Canaria, Spain, November 29 – December 2, 2016 (pp. 104-110). Springer, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Quality of User Generated Data Sets for Activity Recognition
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2016 (English)In: Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence: 10th International Conference, UCAmI 2016, San Bartolomé de Tirajana, Gran Canaria, Spain, November 29 – December 2, 2016, Part II / [ed] Carmelo R. García, Pino Caballero-Gil, Mike Burmester, Alexis Quesada-Arencibia, Springer, 2016, Vol. 2, p. 104-110Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is fully appreciated that progress in the development of data driven approaches to activity recognition are being hampered due to the lack of large scale, high quality, annotated data sets. In an effort to address this the Open Data Initiative (ODI) was conceived as a potential solution for the creation of shared resources for the collection and sharing of open data sets. As part of this process, an analysis was undertaken of datasets collected using a smart environment simulation tool. A noticeable difference was found in the first 1–2 cycles of users generating data. Further analysis demonstrated the effects that this had on the development of activity recognition models with a decrease of performance for both support vector machine and decision tree based classifiers. The outcome of the study has led to the production of a strategy to ensure an initial training phase is considered prior to full scale collection of the data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 10070
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60647 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-48799-1_13 (DOI)000389507400013 ()2-s2.0-85009788304 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-48798-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-48799-1 (ISBN)
Conference
10th International Conference, UCAmI 2016, San Bartolomé de Tirajana, Gran Canaria, Spain, November 29 – December 2, 2016
Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-23 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Beattie, M., Hallberg, J., Nugent, C. D., Synnes, K., Cleland, I. & Lee, S. (2015). A Collaborative Patient-Carer Interface for Generating Home Based Rules for Self-Management (ed.). In: (Ed.), Cathy Bodine; Sumi Helal; Tao Gu; Mounir Mokhtari (Ed.), Smart Homes and Health Telematics: 12th International Conference, ICOST 2014, Denver, CO, USA, June 25-27, 2014, Revised Papers. Paper presented at ICOST 2014 : International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics 25/06/2014 - 27/06/2014 (pp. 93-102). New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Collaborative Patient-Carer Interface for Generating Home Based Rules for Self-Management
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2015 (English)In: Smart Homes and Health Telematics: 12th International Conference, ICOST 2014, Denver, CO, USA, June 25-27, 2014, Revised Papers / [ed] Cathy Bodine; Sumi Helal; Tao Gu; Mounir Mokhtari, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 93-102Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The wide spread prevalence of mobile devices, the decreasing costs of sensor technologies and increased levels of computational power have all lead to a new era in assistive technologies to support persons with Alzheimer’s disease. There is, however, still a requirement to improve the manner in which the technology is integrated into current approaches of care management. One of the key issues relating to this challenge is in providing solutions which can be managed by non-technically orientated healthcare professionals. Within the current work efforts have been made to develop and evaluate new tools with the ability to specify, in a non-technical manner, how the technology within the home environment should be monitored and under which conditions an alarm should be raised. The work has been conducted within the remit of a collaborative patient-carer system to support self-management for dementia. A visual interface has been developed and tested with 10 healthcare professionals. Results following a post evaluation of system usability have been presented and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30644 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-14424-5_10 (DOI)000354779800013 ()2-s2.0-84927750202 (Scopus ID)48538f9f-b420-4e5a-af8a-02e5011803c7 (Local ID)978-3-319-14423-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-14424-5 (ISBN)48538f9f-b420-4e5a-af8a-02e5011803c7 (Archive number)48538f9f-b420-4e5a-af8a-02e5011803c7 (OAI)
Conference
ICOST 2014 : International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics 25/06/2014 - 27/06/2014
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20150114 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Jimenez, L. L., Simon, M. G., Schelén, O., Kristiansson, J., Synnes, K. & Åhlund, C. (2015). CoMA: Resource Monitoring of Docker Containers (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2015): . Paper presented at International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science : 20/05/2015 - 22/05/2015 (pp. 145-154). : SCITEPRESS Digital Library, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CoMA: Resource Monitoring of Docker Containers
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2015), SCITEPRESS Digital Library , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 145-154Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This research paper presents CoMA, a Container Monitoring Agent, that oversees resource consumption of operating system level virtualization platforms, primarily targeting container-based platforms such as Docker. The core contribution is CoMA, together with a quantitative evaluation verifying the validity of the measurements reported by the agent for three metrics: CPU, memory and block I/O. The proof-of-concept is implemented for Docker-based systems and consists of CoMA, the Ganglia Monitoring System and the Host sFlow agent. This research is in line with the rising trend of container adoption which is due to the resource efficiency and ease of deployment. These characteristics have set containers in a position to topple virtual machines as the reigning virtualization technology in data centers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SCITEPRESS Digital Library, 2015
Keywords
Docker, Containers, OS-level virtualization, Cloud Computing, Information technology - Computer science, Informationsteknik - Datorvetenskap
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31992 (URN)10.5220/0005448001450154 (DOI)65372d05-6cc9-4916-b19f-df00f4a146dc (Local ID)978-989-758-104-5 (ISBN)65372d05-6cc9-4916-b19f-df00f4a146dc (Archive number)65372d05-6cc9-4916-b19f-df00f4a146dc (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science : 20/05/2015 - 22/05/2015
Projects
Cloudberry Datacenters
Note
Godkänd; 2015; Bibliografisk uppgift: The full text of this paper is only available to INSTICC members. ; 20150821 (larjim)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4549-6751

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