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Bodin, Ulf
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Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Palm, E., Bodin, U. & Schelén, O. (2020). Approaching Non-Disruptive Distributed Ledger Technologies via the Exchange Network Architecture. IEEE Access, 8, 12379-12393
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaching Non-Disruptive Distributed Ledger Technologies via the Exchange Network Architecture
2020 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 12379-12393Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rise of distributed ledger technologies, such as R3 Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and Ethereum, has lead to a surge of interest in digitalizing different forms of contractual cooperation. By allowing for ledgers of collaboration-critical data to be reliably maintained between stakeholders without intermediaries, these solutions might enable unprecedented degrees of automation across organizational boundaries, which could have major implications for supply chain integration, medical journal sharing and many other use cases. However, these technologies tend to break with prevailing business practices by relying on code-as-contracts and distributed consensus algorithms , which can impose disruptive requirements on contract language, cooperation governance and interaction privacy. In this paper, we show how our Exchange Network architecture could be applied to avoid these disruptors. To be able to reason about the adequacy of our architecture, we present six requirements for effective contractual collaboration, which notably includes negotiable terms and effective adjudication . After outlining the architecture and our implementation of it, we describe how the latter meets our requirements by facilitating (1) negotiation, (2) user registries, (3) ownership ledgers and (4) definition sharing, as well as by only replicating ledgers between stakeholder pairs. To show how our approach compares to other solutions, we also consider how Corda, Fabric and Ethereum meet our requirements. We conclude that digital negotiation and ownership could replace many proposed uses of code-as-contracts for better compatibility with current contractual practices, as well as noting that distributed consensus algorithms are not mandatory for digital cooperation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020
Keywords
Digital negotiation, digital cooperation, digital contracts, smart contracts, distributed ledger technology, blockchain, distributed consensus algorithms, business integration, digitalization
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Electronic systems; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77616 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2964220 (DOI)
Projects
Productive 4.0
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-02-04 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Dadhich, S., Sandin, F., Bodin, U., Andersson, U. & Martinsson, T. (2019). Field test of neural-network based automatic bucket-filling algorithm for wheel-loaders. Automation in Construction, 97, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field test of neural-network based automatic bucket-filling algorithm for wheel-loaders
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2019 (English)In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 97, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Automation of earth-moving industries (construction, mining and quarry) require automatic bucket-filling algorithms for efficient operation of front-end loaders. Autonomous bucket-filling is an open problem since three decades due to difficulties in developing useful earth models (soil, gravel and rock) for automatic control. Operators make use of vision, sound and vestibular feedback to perform the bucket-filling operation with high productivity and fuel efficiency. In this paper, field experiments with a small time-delayed neural network (TDNN) implemented in the bucket control-loop of a Volvo L180H front-end loader filling medium coarse gravel are presented. The total delay time parameter of the TDNN is found to be an important hyperparameter due to the variable delay present in the hydraulics of the wheel-loader. The TDNN network successfully performs the bucket-filling operation after an initial period (100 examples) of imitation learning from an expert operator. The demonstrated solution show only 26% longer bucket-filling time, an improvement over manual tele-operation performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Neural-network, Bucket-filling, Wheel-loader, Automation, Construction
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71383 (URN)10.1016/j.autcon.2018.10.013 (DOI)000453623600001 ()2-s2.0-85055696994 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-07 (johcin) 

Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Palm, E., Paniagua, C., Bodin, U. & Schelén, O. (2019). Syntactic Translation of Message Payloads Between At Least Partially Equivalent Encodings. In: : . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Melbourne, Australia, 13-15 February 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syntactic Translation of Message Payloads Between At Least Partially Equivalent Encodings
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent years have seen a surge of interest in using IoT systems for an increasingly diverse set of applications, with use cases ranging from medicine to mining. Due to the disparate needs of these applications, vendors are adopting a growing number of messaging protocols, encodings and semantics, which result in poor interoperability unless systems are explicitly designed to work together. Key efforts, such as Industry 4.0, put heavy emphasis on being able to compose arbitrary IoT systems to create emergent applications, which makes mitigating this barrier to interoperability a significant objective. In this paper, we present a theoretical method for translating message payloads in transit between endpoints, complementing previous work on protocol translation. The method involves representing and analyzing encoding syntaxes with the aim of identifying the concrete translations that can be performed without risk of syntactic data loss. While the method does not facilitate translation between all possible encodings or semantics, we believe that it could be extended to enable such translation.

Keywords
translation system, translator, payload translation, formal model
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73475 (URN)
Conference
2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Melbourne, Australia, 13-15 February 2019
Projects
Productive 4.0
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05
Palm, E., Schelén, O., Bodin, U. & Hedman, R. (2019). The Exchange Network: An Architecture for the Negotiation of Non-Repudiable Token Exchanges. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Helsinki, Finland, 23-25 June 2019. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Exchange Network: An Architecture for the Negotiation of Non-Repudiable Token Exchanges
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many use cases coming out of initiatives such as Industry 4.0 and Ubiquitous Computing require that systems be able to cooperate by negotiating about and agreeing on the exchange of arbitrary values. While solutions able to facilitate such negotiation exist, they tend to either be domain-specific or lack mechanisms for non-repudiation, which make them unfit for the heterogeneity and scale of many compelling applications. In this paper, we present the Exchange Network, a general-purpose and implementation-independent architecture for digital negotiation and non-repudiable exchanges of tokens, which are symbolic representations of arbitrary values. We consider the implications of implementing the architecture in three different ways, using a common database, a blockchain, and our own Signature Chain data structure, which we also describe. We demonstrate the feasibility of the architecture by outlining our own implementation of it and also describe a supply-chain scenario inspired by one transportation process at Volvo Trucks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
blockchain, architecture, negotiation, integration, commerce
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74043 (URN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Helsinki, Finland, 23-25 June 2019
Projects
Productive 4.0
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-08-05
Johansson, I., Dadhich, S., Bodin, U. & Jönsson, T. (2018). Adaptive Video with SCReAM over LTE for Remote-Operated Working Machines. Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, 2018, Article ID 3142496.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Video with SCReAM over LTE for Remote-Operated Working Machines
2018 (English)In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, Vol. 2018, article id 3142496Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Remote operation is a step toward the automation of mobile working machines. Safe and efficient teleremote operation requires good-quality video feedback. Varying radio conditions make it desirable to adapt the video sending rate of cameras to make the best use of the wireless capacity. The adaptation should be able to prioritize camera feeds in different directions depending on motion, ongoing tasks, and safety concerns. Self-Clocked Rate Adaptation for Multimedia (SCReAM) provides a rate adaptation algorithm for these needs. SCReAM can control the compression used for multiple video streams using differentiating priorities and thereby provide sufficient congestion control to achieve both low latency and high video throughput. We present results from the testing of prioritized adaptation of four video streams with SCReAM over LTE and discuss how such adaptation can be useful for the teleremote operation of working machines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70502 (URN)10.1155/2018/3142496 (DOI)000441534400001 ()2-s2.0-85051520009 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-24 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Dadhich, S., Bodin, U., Sandin, F. & Andersson, U. (2018). From Tele-remote Operation to Semi-automated Wheel-loader. International Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Telecommunications, 7(4), 178-182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Tele-remote Operation to Semi-automated Wheel-loader
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Telecommunications, ISSN 2319-2518, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 178-182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents experimental results with tele-remote operation of a wheel-loader and proposes a method to semi-automate the process. The different components of the tele-remote setup are described in the paper. We focus on the short loading cycle, which is commonly used at quarry and construction sites for moving gravel from piles onto trucks. We present results from short-loading-cycle experiments with three operators, comparing productivity between tele-remote operation and manual operation. A productivity loss of 42% with tele-remote operation motivates the case for more automation. We propose a method to automate the bucket-filling process, which is one of the key operations performed by a wheel-loader.

Keywords
automation, bucket-filling, construction, quarry, tele-operation, wheel-loader
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71381 (URN)10.18178/ijeetc.7.4.178-182 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Dadhich, S., Sandin, F. & Bodin, U. (2018). Predicting bucket-filling control actions of a wheel-loader operator using aneural network ensemble. In: 2018 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN): . Paper presented at 2018 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN);8-13 July 2018;Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, Article ID 8489388.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting bucket-filling control actions of a wheel-loader operator using aneural network ensemble
2018 (English)In: 2018 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, article id 8489388Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automatic bucket filling is an open problem since three decades. In this paper, we address this problem with supervised machine learning using data collected from manual operation. The range-normalized actuations of lift joystick, tilt joystick and throttle pedal are predicted using information from sensors on the machine and the prediction errors are quantified. We apply linear regression, k-nearest neighbors, neural networks, regression trees and ensemble methods and find that an ensemble of neural networks results in the most accurate predictions. The prediction root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of the lift action exceeds that of the tilt and throttle actions, and we obtain an RMSE below 0.2 for complete bucket fillings after training with as little as 135 bucket filling examples

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018
Series
Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, E-ISSN 2161-4407
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71382 (URN)10.1109/IJCNN.2018.8489388 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055724313 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-6014-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN);8-13 July 2018;Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Palm, E., Schelén, O. & Bodin, U. (2018). Selective Blockchain Transaction Pruning and State Derivability. In: 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology: CVCBT 2018. Paper presented at 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT), JUN 20-22, Zug, SWITZERLAND (pp. 31-40).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective Blockchain Transaction Pruning and State Derivability
2018 (English)In: 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology: CVCBT 2018, 2018, p. 31-40Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Distributed ledger technologies, such as blockchain systems, have in recent years emerged as promising platforms for machine-to-machine commerce and other forms of multi-stakeholder applications. However, despite the potential demonstrated by projects such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Hyperledger Fabric, the disk space typically required to host a copy of a ledger may be prohibitively large for many categories of devices. In this paper, we introduce an approach for reducing ledger size in blockchain systems, based on arbitrary pruning predicate functions, allowing each network participant to independently select and remove any already applied transactions. We also show that if only pruning certain ledger transactions, the ability to derive an unmodified state data structure from the remaining transactions is maintained. The approach is validated through a supply chain use case utilizing a modified version of Hyperledger Fabric, in which ledger size is reduced by about 84.49% via selective transaction pruning.

Keywords
blockchain, transaction pruning, disk usage, application state, database, distributed
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72435 (URN)10.1109/CVCBT.2018.00009 (DOI)000466595100004 ()57193322103 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-7205-1 (ISBN)978-1-5386-7204-4 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT), JUN 20-22, Zug, SWITZERLAND
Projects
Productive 4.0
Available from: 2019-01-04 Created: 2019-01-04 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Casselgren, J. & Bodin, U. (2017). Reusable road condition information system for traffic safety and targeted maintenance. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 11(4), 230-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reusable road condition information system for traffic safety and targeted maintenance
2017 (English)In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 230-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driver awareness of current winter road conditions (RCs) is known to affect the frequency of accidents due to sudden changes in these conditions. For example, partially icy roads that appear during autumn in northern areas typically result in collisions and ditch runs unless the drivers are generally aware of the situation. Availing motorists who drive under winter RCs of enhanced information is therefore highly desirable to increase their awareness of hazardous driving conditions. Such conditions need to be predicted ahead of time and presented to drivers before they attempt slippery road sections. Moreover, the identification of slippery RCs should quickly trigger targeted road maintenance to reduce the risk of accidents. This study presents a scalable and reusable collaborative intelligent transport system, herein referred to as an RC information system (RCIS). RCIS provides accurate RC predictions and forecasts based on RC measurements, road weather observations, and short-term weather forecasts. The prediction methods in the context of the distributed RCIS have been tested using a prototype implementation. These tests confirmed that these inputs could be combined into useful and accurate information about winter RCs that can be adapted for different types of users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IET-Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2017
National Category
Communication Systems Computer and Information Sciences Applied Mechanics Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Experimental Mechanics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62656 (URN)10.1049/iet-its.2016.0122 (DOI)000401300200006 ()2-s2.0-85019270646 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Intelligent Road
Funder
Interreg Nord
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-05-16 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Dadhich, S., Bodin, U. & Andersson, U. (2016). Key challenges in automation of earth-moving machines (ed.). Automation in Construction, 68, 212-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key challenges in automation of earth-moving machines
2016 (English)In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 68, p. 212-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wheel loader is an earth-moving machine used in construction sites, gravel pits and mining to move blasted rock, soil and gravel. In the presence of a nearby dump truck, the wheel loader is said to be operating in a short loading cycle. This paper concerns the moving of material (soil, gravel and fragmented rock) by a wheel loader in a short loading cycle with more emphasis on the loading step. Due to the complexity of bucket-environment interactions, even three decades of research efforts towards automation of the bucket loading operation have not yet resulted in any fully autonomous system. This paper highlights the key challenges in automation and tele-remote operation of earth-moving machines and provides a survey of different areas of research within the scope of the earth-moving operation. The survey of publications presented in this paper is conducted with an aim to highlight the previous and ongoing research work in this field with an effort to strike a balance between recent and older publications. Another goal of the survey is to identify the research areas in which knowledge essential to automate the earth moving process is lagging behind. The paper concludes by identifying the knowledge gaps to give direction to future research in this field.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9131 (URN)10.1016/j.autcon.2016.05.009 (DOI)000379371100019 ()2-s2.0-84971665331 (Scopus ID)7b11fd1b-e46b-4cf4-8a9c-b0ecae42f1a0 (Local ID)7b11fd1b-e46b-4cf4-8a9c-b0ecae42f1a0 (Archive number)7b11fd1b-e46b-4cf4-8a9c-b0ecae42f1a0 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160531 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
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