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Monrat, A. A., Schelén, O. & Andersson, K. (2019). Survey of Blockchain from the Perspectives of Applications, Challenges and Opportunities. IEEE Access, 7, 117134-117154
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survey of Blockchain from the Perspectives of Applications, Challenges and Opportunities
2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 117134-117154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blockchain is the underlying technology of a number of digital cryptocurrencies. Blockchain is a chain of blocks that store information with digital signatures in a decentralized and distributed network. The features of blockchain, including decentralization, immutability, transparency and auditability, make transactions more secure and tamper proof. Apart from cryptocurrency, blockchain technology can be used in financial and social services, risk management, healthcare facilities, and so on. A number of research studies focus on the opportunity that blockchain provides in various application domains. This paper presents a comparative study of the tradeoffs of blockchain and also explains the taxonomy and architecture of blockchain, provides a comparison among different consensus mechanisms and discusses challenges, including scalability, privacy, interoperability, energy consumption and regulatory issues. In addition, this paper also notes the future scope of blockchain technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
blockchain, distributed ledger, consensus procedures, cryptocurrency, smart contract, selfish mining, energy consumption.
National Category
Computer Sciences Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75553 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2936094 (DOI)000484305100003 ()
Projects
Cloudberry Datacenters
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 43090-2
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-24 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-16 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Palm, E., Paniagua, C., Bodin, U. & Schelén, O. (2019). Syntactic Translation of Message Payloads Between At Least Partially Equivalent Encodings. In: : . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Melbourne, Australia, 13-15 February 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syntactic Translation of Message Payloads Between At Least Partially Equivalent Encodings
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent years have seen a surge of interest in using IoT systems for an increasingly diverse set of applications, with use cases ranging from medicine to mining. Due to the disparate needs of these applications, vendors are adopting a growing number of messaging protocols, encodings and semantics, which result in poor interoperability unless systems are explicitly designed to work together. Key efforts, such as Industry 4.0, put heavy emphasis on being able to compose arbitrary IoT systems to create emergent applications, which makes mitigating this barrier to interoperability a significant objective. In this paper, we present a theoretical method for translating message payloads in transit between endpoints, complementing previous work on protocol translation. The method involves representing and analyzing encoding syntaxes with the aim of identifying the concrete translations that can be performed without risk of syntactic data loss. While the method does not facilitate translation between all possible encodings or semantics, we believe that it could be extended to enable such translation.

Keywords
translation system, translator, payload translation, formal model
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73475 (URN)
Conference
2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Melbourne, Australia, 13-15 February 2019
Projects
Productive 4.0
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05
Palm, E., Schelén, O., Bodin, U. & Hedman, R. (2019). The Exchange Network: An Architecture for the Negotiation of Non-Repudiable Token Exchanges. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Helsinki, Finland, 23-25 June 2019. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Exchange Network: An Architecture for the Negotiation of Non-Repudiable Token Exchanges
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many use cases coming out of initiatives such as Industry 4.0 and Ubiquitous Computing require that systems be able to cooperate by negotiating about and agreeing on the exchange of arbitrary values. While solutions able to facilitate such negotiation exist, they tend to either be domain-specific or lack mechanisms for non-repudiation, which make them unfit for the heterogeneity and scale of many compelling applications. In this paper, we present the Exchange Network, a general-purpose and implementation-independent architecture for digital negotiation and non-repudiable exchanges of tokens, which are symbolic representations of arbitrary values. We consider the implications of implementing the architecture in three different ways, using a common database, a blockchain, and our own Signature Chain data structure, which we also describe. We demonstrate the feasibility of the architecture by outlining our own implementation of it and also describe a supply-chain scenario inspired by one transportation process at Volvo Trucks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
blockchain, architecture, negotiation, integration, commerce
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74043 (URN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Helsinki, Finland, 23-25 June 2019
Projects
Productive 4.0
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-08-05
Bezerra, N. S., Wang, M., Åhlund, C., Nordberg, M. & Schelén, O. (2018). RACH performance in massive machine-type communications access scenario. In: : . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2018, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RACH performance in massive machine-type communications access scenario
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the increasing number of devices performing Machine-Type Communications (MTC), mobile networks are expected to encounter a high load of burst transmissions. One bottleneck in such cases is the Random Access Channel (RACH) procedure, which is responsible for the attachment of devices, among other things. In this paper, we performed a rich-parameter based simulation on RACH to identify the procedure bottlenecks. A finding from the studied scenarios is that the Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) capacity for the grant allocation is the main limitation for the RACH capacity rather than the number of Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) preambles. Guided by our simulation results, we proposed improvements to the RACH procedure and to PDCCH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, ISSN 1525-3511
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70274 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2018.8377151 (DOI)000435542401039 ()2-s2.0-85049181729 (Scopus ID)9781538617342 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2018, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Palm, E., Schelén, O. & Bodin, U. (2018). Selective Blockchain Transaction Pruning and State Derivability. In: 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology: CVCBT 2018. Paper presented at 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT), JUN 20-22, Zug, SWITZERLAND (pp. 31-40).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective Blockchain Transaction Pruning and State Derivability
2018 (English)In: 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology: CVCBT 2018, 2018, p. 31-40Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Distributed ledger technologies, such as blockchain systems, have in recent years emerged as promising platforms for machine-to-machine commerce and other forms of multi-stakeholder applications. However, despite the potential demonstrated by projects such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Hyperledger Fabric, the disk space typically required to host a copy of a ledger may be prohibitively large for many categories of devices. In this paper, we introduce an approach for reducing ledger size in blockchain systems, based on arbitrary pruning predicate functions, allowing each network participant to independently select and remove any already applied transactions. We also show that if only pruning certain ledger transactions, the ability to derive an unmodified state data structure from the remaining transactions is maintained. The approach is validated through a supply chain use case utilizing a modified version of Hyperledger Fabric, in which ledger size is reduced by about 84.49% via selective transaction pruning.

Keywords
blockchain, transaction pruning, disk usage, application state, database, distributed
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72435 (URN)10.1109/CVCBT.2018.00009 (DOI)000466595100004 ()57193322103 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-7205-1 (ISBN)978-1-5386-7204-4 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT), JUN 20-22, Zug, SWITZERLAND
Projects
Productive 4.0
Available from: 2019-01-04 Created: 2019-01-04 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Synnes, K., Kranz, M., Rana, J. & Schelén, O. (2017). User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities. In: Bin Guo; Daniele Riboni; Peizhao Hu (Ed.), The internet of things: breakthroughs in research and practice (pp. 41-70). Paper presented at . IGI Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities
2017 (English)In: The internet of things: breakthroughs in research and practice, IGI Global, 2017, p. 41-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Pervasive Computing was envisioned by pioneers like Mark Weiser, but has yet to become an everyday technology in our society. The recent advances regarding Internet of Things, social computing and mobile access technologies however converge to make pervasive computing truly ubiquitous. The key challenge is however to make simple and robust solutions for normal users, which shifts the focus from complex platforms involving machine learning and artificial intelligence to more hands on construction of services that are tailored or personalized for individual users.This chapter therefore discusses Internet of Things together with Social Computing as a basis for components that users in a ’digital city’ could utilize to make their daily life better, safer, etc. A novel environment for user-created services, such as social apps, is presented as a possible solution for this. The vision is that anyone could make simple service based on Internet-enabled devices (Internet of Things) and encapsulated digital resources such as Open Data, which also can have social aspects embedded.This chapter also aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This work will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead of now. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of information and communication technologies (ICT) based on the extrapolation of current trends and ongoing research efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IGI Global, 2017
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64828 (URN)10.4018/978-1-5225-1832-7.ch003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021277900 (Scopus ID)9781522518334 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-07-07 Created: 2017-07-07 Last updated: 2018-05-09Bibliographically approved
Idowu, S., Saguna, S., Åhlund, C. & Schelén, O. (2016). Applied Machine Learning: Forecasting Heat Load in District Heating System. Energy and Buildings, 133, 478-488
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applied Machine Learning: Forecasting Heat Load in District Heating System
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, p. 478-488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forecasting energy consumption in buildings is a key step towards the realization of optimized energy production, distribution and consumption. This paper presents a data driven approach for analysis and forecast of aggregate space and water thermal load in buildings. The analysis and the forecast models are built using district heating data unobtrusively collected from ten residential and commercial buildings located in Skellefteå, Sweden. The load forecast models are generated using supervised machine learning techniques, namely, support vector machine, regression tree, feed forward neural network, and multiple linear regression. The model takes the outdoor temperature, historical values of heat load, time factor variables and physical parameters of district heating substations as its input. A performance comparison among the machine learning methods and identification of the importance of models input variables is carried out. The models are evaluated with varying forecast horizons of every hour from 1 up to 48 hours. Our results show that support vector machine, feed forward neural network and multiple linear regression are more suitable machine learning methods with lower performance errors than the regression tree. Support vector machine has the least normalized root mean square error of 0.07 for a forecast horizon of 24 hour.

National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59596 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.09.068 (DOI)000389087300045 ()2-s2.0-84992362157 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-10 Created: 2016-10-10 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, A., Abdesslem, F. B., Ahlgren, B., Schelén, O. & Malik, A. M. (2016). Design choices for the IoT in Information-Centric Networks (ed.). In: (Ed.), 2016 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC): Las Vegas, 9-12 Jan. 2016. Paper presented at 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC,Las Vegas, 9-12 Jan. 2016 (pp. 882-888). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, Article ID 7444905.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design choices for the IoT in Information-Centric Networks
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2016 (English)In: 2016 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC): Las Vegas, 9-12 Jan. 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 882-888, article id 7444905Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper outlines the tradeoffs involved in utilizing Information-Centric Networking (ICN) for Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios. It describes contexts and applications where the IoT would benefit from ICN, and where a host-centric approach would be better. Requirements imposed by the heterogeneous nature of IoT networks are discussed in terms of connectivity, power availability, computational and storage capacity. Design choices are then proposed for an IoT architecture to handle these requirements, while providing efficiency and scalability. An objective is to not require any IoT specific changes of the ICN architecture per se, but we do indicate some potential modifications of ICN that would improve efficiency and scalability for IoT and other applications

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31711 (URN)10.1109/CCNC.2016.7444905 (DOI)000382042200184 ()2-s2.0-84966668359 (Scopus ID)5f7c22bb-4a6e-4fc9-adb5-101c18f24ca2 (Local ID)978-1-4673-9291-4 (ISBN)5f7c22bb-4a6e-4fc9-adb5-101c18f24ca2 (Archive number)5f7c22bb-4a6e-4fc9-adb5-101c18f24ca2 (OAI)
Conference
13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC,Las Vegas, 9-12 Jan. 2016
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-10-06 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Rao, A., Schelén, O. & Lindgren, A. (2016). Performance implications for IoT over information centric networks. In: CHANTS '16: Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM Workshop on Challenged Networks. Paper presented at The Eleventh ACM Workshop on Challenged Networks : CHANTS '16, New York City, New York, October 03-07, 2016 (pp. 57-62). New York: ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance implications for IoT over information centric networks
2016 (English)In: CHANTS '16: Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM Workshop on Challenged Networks, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 57-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Information centric networking (ICN) is a proposal for a future in-ternetworking architecture that is more efficient and scalable. Whileseveral ICN architectures have been evaluated for networks carry-ing web and video traffic, the benefits and challenges it poses forInternet of Things (IoT) networks are relatively unexplored. In ourwork, we evaluate the performance implications for typical IoT net-work scenarios in the ICN paradigm. We study the behavior of in-network caching, introduce a way to make caching more efficientfor periodic sensor data, and evaluate the impact of presence andlocation of lossy wireless links in IoT networks. In this paper, wepresent and discuss the results of our evaluations on IoT networksperformed through emulations using a specific ICN architecture,namely, content centric networking (CCN). For example, we showthat the newly proposed UTS-LRU cache replacement strategy forimproved caching performance of time series content streams re-duces the number of messages transmitted by up to 16%. Our find-ings indicate that the performance of IoT networks using ICN areinfluenced by the content model and the nature of its links, and mo-tivates further studies to understand the performance implicationsin more varied IoT scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Digital Library, 2016
National Category
Communication Systems Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60896 (URN)10.1145/2979683.2979686 (DOI)978-1-4503-4256-8 (ISBN)
Conference
The Eleventh ACM Workshop on Challenged Networks : CHANTS '16, New York City, New York, October 03-07, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-03 Created: 2016-12-03 Last updated: 2018-05-09Bibliographically approved
Schelén, O., Elragal, A. & Haddara, M. (2015). A roadmap for big-data research and education (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A roadmap for big-data research and education
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The research area known as big data is characterized by the 3 V’s, which are vol- ume; variety; and velocity. Recently, also veracity and value have been associated with big data and that adds up to the 5 V’s. Big data related information systems (IS) are typically highly distributed and scalable in order to handle the huge datasets in organizations. Data processing in such systems includes creation, retrieval, storage, analysis, presentation, visualization, and any other activity that is typical for IS sys- tems. Big data is often associated with business analytics, cloud services, or industrial systems.This document presents a brief overview of the state of the art in selected topics of big data research, with the purpose of providing input to a roadmap for research and education at Lule ̊a University of Technology (LTU). The selection of topics is based on assessments of where LTU can make an impact based on current and anticipated research strengths and position with industry (e.g., process industry, data centers and cloud application providers). Topics include distributed systems, mobility, Internet of Things, and advanced analytics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015. p. 10
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing; Information systems; Intelligent industrial processes (AERI); Enabling ICT (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-24316 (URN)a77593be-a71c-4c7c-ae73-0cc30c31e50b (Local ID)978-91-7583-275-3 (ISBN)a77593be-a71c-4c7c-ae73-0cc30c31e50b (Archive number)a77593be-a71c-4c7c-ae73-0cc30c31e50b (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150325 (olov)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-05-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4031-2872

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