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Parathodiel, H., Mousa, E., Ahmed, H., Elsadek, M., Forsberg, K. & Andersson, C. (2023). Developing Iron Ore Pellets Using Novel Binders for H2-Based Direct Reduction. Sustainability, 15(14), Article ID 11415.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing Iron Ore Pellets Using Novel Binders for H2-Based Direct Reduction
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2023 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 14, article id 11415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transformation from traditional iron- and steelmaking technologies to green H2-based new technologies will require an improvement in the quality and purity of iron ore burden materials. Iron ore pellets are essential inputs for producing direct reduced iron (DRI), but the conventional binders, used in iron ore pelletizing, introduce gangue oxides to the DRI and consequently increase the slag generation and energy consumption in the steelmaking unit. Partial and/or full replacement of the traditional binders with novel organic binders would significantly contribute to improving the process efficiency, particularly in the next-generation H2-based direct reduction technology. This study illustrates the feasibility of pelletizing magnetite iron ore concentrate using four organic binders: KemPel, Alcotac CS, Alcotac FE16, and CMC, in comparison to bentonite as a reference. The study explores the influence of binder type, binder dosage, and moisture content on the characteristics and properties of the pellets. The efficiency of binders was characterized by the moisture content, drop number test, cold compression strength, and H2 reduction of pellets. For dry pellets, CMS was superior among other binders including bentonite in developing dry strength. After firing, the pellets produced by the partial replacement of bentonite with 0.1 wt.% KemPel demonstrate a performance nearly identical to the reference pellets. While the complete replacement of bentonite with organic binder shows a lower performance of fired pellets compared to the reference, it may still be suitable for use in DR shaft furnaces. The cold-bonded pellets demonstrate a superior reduction rate compared to fired pellets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
Keywords
agglomeration, CO2 emission, direct reduction, H2, magnetite concentrate, organic binders, pelletizing, strength
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99544 (URN)10.3390/su151411415 (DOI)2-s2.0-85166242515 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, InnoAgglo project, 2020-02089
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-14 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. K., Viswanathan, N. N., Eriksson, A., Andersson, C. & Ahmed, H. (2023). Development of Single Pellet Induration Model for Magnetite Pellet: A Holistic Approach. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 54(6), 2951-2964
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Single Pellet Induration Model for Magnetite Pellet: A Holistic Approach
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2023 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 2951-2964Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99663 (URN)10.1007/s11663-023-02879-1 (DOI)001043055600002 ()2-s2.0-85166632371 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyVinnovaSwedish Research Council Formas
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-06 (hanlid);

Funder: Hjalmar Lundbohm Research Centre; Centre of Advanced Mining and Metallurgy (CAMM); Swedish Mining Innovation;

A correction is available for this publication, please see: Kumar, T.K.S., Viswanathan, N.N., Eriksson, A. et al. Correction: Development of Single Pellet Induration Model for Magnetite Pellet: A Holistic Approach. Metall Mater Trans B (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-023-02892-4

Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-08-21 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
Ali, H., Elsadek, M. & Ahmed, H. (2023). Investigation of transformations of low-grade manganese ore during the roasting process. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 132(1), 62-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of transformations of low-grade manganese ore during the roasting process
2023 (English)In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2572-6641, E-ISSN 2572-665X, Vol. 132, no 1, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transformations of low-grade manganese ore were investigated during roasting in the air at different temperatures up to 1200 degrees C. The transformations were followed up by XRD and TGA-DTA. Moreover, the morphology and magnetic properties were determined by SEM and VSM. It was observed that MnO2 transformed to the lower oxide Mn5O8 at 500 degrees C and then to bixbyite (Mn2O3) at 600 degrees C. Finally, the bixbyite decomposed to hausmannite (Mn3O4) at 800 degrees C. Increasing the roasting temperature to 900 degrees C induced a reaction between hematite and hausmannite and led to the formation of a small amount of solid solution of the ferrite spinel MnFe2O4. Further increase in temperature to 1000 degrees C led to the formation of a solid solution of braunite (Mn7SiO12) which decomposed to rhodonite (MnSiO3) at 1200 degrees C. The magnetic susceptibility of the original ore gradually increased with the roasting temperature, from 0.119 x 10(-3) at ambient temperature to a maximum value of 80 x 10(-3) at 1200 degrees C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Low-grade manganese ore, roasting process, transformations, manganese ferrite, magnetic properties
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95298 (URN)10.1080/25726641.2022.2161736 (DOI)000904693500001 ()2-s2.0-85145485625 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-18 (joosat);

Available from: 2023-02-02 Created: 2023-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Manu, K., Mousa, E., Ahmed, H., Elsadek, M. & Yang, W. (2023). Maximizing the Recycling of Iron Ore Pellets Fines Using Innovative Organic Binders. Materials, 16(10), Article ID 3888.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maximizing the Recycling of Iron Ore Pellets Fines Using Innovative Organic Binders
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2023 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 3888Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research work focuses on the practicality of using organic binders for the briquetting of pellet fines. The developed briquettes were evaluated in terms of mechanical strength and reduction behavior with hydrogen. A hydraulic compression testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis were incorporated into this work to investigate the mechanical strength and reduction behavior of the produced briquettes. Six organic binders, namely Kempel, lignin, starch, lignosulfonate, Alcotac CB6, and Alcotac FE14, in addition to sodium silicate, were tested for the briquetting of pellet fines. The highest mechanical strength was achieved using sodium silicate, Kempel, CB6, and lignosulfonate. The best combination of binder to attain the required mechanical strength even after 100% reduction was found to be a combination of 1.5 wt.% of organic binder (either CB6 or Kempel) with 0.5 wt.% of inorganic binder (sodium silicate). Upscaling using an extruder gave propitious results in the reduction behavior, as the produced briquettes were highly porous and attained pre-requisite mechanical strength.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
agglomeration, pellet fines, organic binders, briquettes, reduction, green steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98285 (URN)10.3390/ma16103888 (DOI)000997006800001 ()37241517 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160659088 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-02089
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-13 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Part of Special Issue: Advances in Mineral Processing, Waste Recycling and Extractive Metallurgy

Available from: 2023-06-13 Created: 2023-06-13 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Babanejad, S., Ahmed, H., Andersson, C. & Heikkinen, E.-P. (2023). Mechanical Activation-Assisted Recovery of Valuable Metals from Black Mass in the Form of Fe/Cu Alloys. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 9(2), 522-536
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Activation-Assisted Recovery of Valuable Metals from Black Mass in the Form of Fe/Cu Alloys
2023 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 522-536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pyrometallurgy is a popular industrial method that is employed in the recovery of valuable elements from black mass (BM), which is produced by pretreatment of Li-ion batteries. This method struggles with some downsides, such as the incineration of graphite and high energy consumption. In this study, the goal is to utilize graphite in the BM to produce a master alloy in an attempt to decrease the energy input requirement. To achieve this, metal oxides (Fe2O3 and CuO) are added to the BM to produce an Fe/Cu-based alloy containing Co/Ni as alloying elements. Mechanical activation is also employed to decrease the energy requirement and to increase the amount of metal oxide that can be reduced by the graphite in the BM. The results revealed that it is possible to produce the aforementioned alloys, the efficiency of which can be improved by applying mechanical activation. After 1 h of milling, the required heat flow for producing Fe- and Cu-based alloys is lowered for ⁓10 and ⁓25 kWh, respectively. Plus, the direct CO2 emission decreases for 13-17% in the iron system and 43-46% in the copper system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Li-ion batteries, black mass, pyrometallurgy, alloy, mechanical activation, mass and energy balance
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95666 (URN)10.1007/s40831-023-00665-6 (DOI)000944090200001 ()2-s2.0-85149391186 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-07-20 (sofila);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-02-19 Created: 2023-02-19 Last updated: 2023-07-20Bibliographically approved
Elsadek, M., Ahmed, H., Suup, M., Sand, A., Heikkinen, E., Khoshkhoo, M. & Sundqvist-Öqvist, L. (2023). Recycling of pyrite and gypsum mining residues through thermochemical conversion into valuable products. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 199, Article ID 107219.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of pyrite and gypsum mining residues through thermochemical conversion into valuable products
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2023 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 199, article id 107219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101825 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2023.107219 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174184746 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-10-30 (hanlid);

Funder: CAMM2 (Center for advanced mining & metallurgy), Luleå University of Technology

Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. K., Ahmed, H., Alatalo, J. & Björkman, B. (2022). Carburization Behavior of Hydrogen-Reduced DRI Using Synthetic Bio-syngas Mixtures as Fossil-Free Carbon Sources. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 8(4), 1546-1560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carburization Behavior of Hydrogen-Reduced DRI Using Synthetic Bio-syngas Mixtures as Fossil-Free Carbon Sources
2022 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1546-1560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Process Metallurgy; Centre - Centre for Advanced Mining & Metallurgy (CAMM)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93089 (URN)10.1007/s40831-022-00590-0 (DOI)000849157200001 ()2-s2.0-85137457570 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-20 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-09-19 Created: 2022-09-19 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, H., Kumar, T. K., Alatalo, J. & Björkman, B. (2022). Effect of carbon concentration and carbon bonding type on the melting characteristics of hydrogen- reduced iron ore pellets. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 21, 1760-1769
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of carbon concentration and carbon bonding type on the melting characteristics of hydrogen- reduced iron ore pellets
2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 21, p. 1760-1769Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decarbonization of the steel industry is one of the pathways towards a fossil-fuel-free environment. The steel industry is one of the top contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Most of these emissions are directly linked to the use of a fossil-fuel-based reductant. Replacing the fossil-based reductant with green H2 enables the transition towards a fossil-free steel industry. The carbon-free iron produced will cause the refining and steelmaking operations to have a starting point far from today's operations. In addition to carbon being an alloying element in steel production, carbon addition controls the melting characteristics of the reduced iron. In the present study, the effect of carbon content and form (cementite/graphite) in hydrogen-reduced iron ore pellets on their melting characteristics was examined by means of a differential thermal analyser and optical dilatometer. Carburized samples with a carbon content 2 wt%, the molten fraction is higher in the case of carburized samples, which is indicated by the amount of absorbed melting heat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Carburization, Melting behaviour of hydrogen-based direct reduced iron (DRI), Differential thermal analysis, Optical dilatometer
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94118 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2022.10.019 (DOI)000877013200007 ()2-s2.0-85144600090 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyLuleå University of Technology, CAMM2
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-25 (sofila);

Funder: Hybrit RP1

Available from: 2022-11-25 Created: 2022-11-25 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. K., Alatalo, J., Ahmed, H. & Björkman, B. (2022). Effect of Temperature and Gas Mixtures on Cementite Formation During the Carburization of Hydrogen-Reduced DRI. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 8(4), 1450-1464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Temperature and Gas Mixtures on Cementite Formation During the Carburization of Hydrogen-Reduced DRI
2022 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1450-1464Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Process Metallurgy; Centre - Centre for Advanced Mining & Metallurgy (CAMM)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93620 (URN)10.1007/s40831-022-00601-0 (DOI)000864324200001 ()2-s2.0-85139389496 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, Hybrit Research Program 1
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-20 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-10-26 Created: 2022-10-26 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, A., Andersson, C., Semberg, P., Kumar, T. K., Dahlin, A. & Ahmed, H. (2022). Effects of High-Oxygen-Level Process Gas (40% O2) on the Temperature and Strength Development of a Magnetite Pellet Bed during Pot Furnace Induration. ISIJ International, 62(3), 465-476
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of High-Oxygen-Level Process Gas (40% O2) on the Temperature and Strength Development of a Magnetite Pellet Bed during Pot Furnace Induration
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2022 (English)In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 465-476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As Sweden transitions to hydrogen-based steel production to enable fossil-free steelmaking, excess oxygen is likely to be generated through hydrogen production via water electrolysis based on green electricity. Further, during iron-ore pellet production, magnetite oxidises to hematite, releasing considerable heat. This excess oxygen and inherent heat can be used to promote exothermic oxidation, reducing the external fuel requirement, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, and conforming to the Paris climate agreement. In this study, the effects of a high-oxygen-content (40% O2) inflow gas on pellet bed oxidation during induration were investigated, focusing on the resulting temperature profiles in the bed and the strength development of the produced pellets. An interrupted pot furnace experimental methodology was employed on the bed scale, with an approximate scale of 100 kg pellets per bed. The results indicate that the use of 40% O2 gas helps rapidly enhance the pellet properties and yields a more uniform pellet bed in terms of oxidation degree compared to the use of 13% O2 gas. In addition, improved cold compression strength (CCS) can be achieved when using 40% O2 inflow-gas. At temperatures above 1000°C, the oxidation degree and CCS are primarily enhanced by the high oxygen level of the inflow gas; this behaviour cannot be compensated for by increasing the temperature and residence time at a lower oxygen level. The positive effects on the bed-scale oxidation degree and strength are promising and may enable faster production rates in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2022
Keywords
Electric furnaces, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Hematite, Hydrogen production, Magnetite, Ore reduction, Oxidation, Oxygen, Steelmaking, Steelmaking furnaces, Fossil-free ironmaking, High oxygens, Inflow gas, Iron making, Magnetite pellet bed, Oxidation degree, Oxygen enrichment, Oxygen levels, Pellet strength, Pot furnace induration, Pelletizing
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90413 (URN)10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2021-390 (DOI)000779919700008 ()2-s2.0-85127776680 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2022-04-25 Created: 2022-04-25 Last updated: 2022-04-28Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2358-7719

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