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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Hooshmand, S., Nordin, J. & Akhtar, F. (2019). Development of Ceramic Foams Containing Platinum Nanoparticles as the Catalyst. In: : . Paper presented at 10th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Ceramic Foams Containing Platinum Nanoparticles as the Catalyst
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The exhaust gases contribute significantly to global warming, but without a catalytic converter, exhaust gases would be even more polluting. Therefore, having a catalytic metal such as platinum nanoparticles on the surface of the pore walls in ceramic foams is a practical way to remove particulate matters and to have an effective catalytic converter in one. The porous structure of the foam filters the particulate matters and the high specific surface area of the Pt nanoparticles in the pores speed up the reactions. The role of platinum is to oxidize carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) to form carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O). In this study, The Pt nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the thermally expandable microspheres (Expancel). The Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) confirmed the successful adsorption of Pt on the Expancel surface. In the next step, alumina foams prepared by the gel-casting technique using Pt-coated Expancels as the sacrificial template. The EDS confirmed the successful transfer of the Pt nanoparticles to the pore walls of the foam. The morphology and the porosity of the foams were studied using SEM and X-ray microtomography. Moreover, the compressive strength of the prepared sample in form of the green body, debinded and sintered was measured.  The results showed a promising way to design ceramic-based bi-functional foams for eliminating dust and converting harmful gases to nontoxic gases simultaneously.

National Category
Ceramics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74639 (URN)
Conference
10th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17
Hooshmand, S., Nordin, J. & Akhtar, F. (2019). Porous alumina ceramics by gel casting: Effect of type of sacrificial template on the properties. International Journal of Ceramic Engineering & Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porous alumina ceramics by gel casting: Effect of type of sacrificial template on the properties
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Ceramic Engineering & Science, ISSN 2578-3270Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The effect of type of sacrificial template on the processing and properties of porous alumina ceramics was investigated. Two templates, (a) hollow pre‐expanded polymer spheres (Expancel) and (b) dense glassy carbon, were used to prepare porous alumina ceramics by gel casting. The results showed that the burnout of sacrificial expandable polymer microspheres from alumina ceramics was 10 times faster than glassy carbon without compromising the compressive strength. Moreover, the effect of the size of the porous ceramic component during the burnout showed that the template decomposition and the escape of the formed gases took a longer time for the thicker specimens than the thinner one and it was significant in case of glassy carbon. It was found that the burnout of expandable microspheres could happen at a faster rate, and the time of the burnout cycle could be reduced significantly to save energy while keeping the mechanical strength twice as high than porous alumina ceramics after burnout of glassy carbon. Furthermore, the CO2 emissions during the burnout of sacrificial templates and the microstructure of the prepared porous alumina were compared for these two types of sacrificial templates. The prepared foams with pre‐expanded microspheres showed potential for being used in industrial applications, where the decreasing of the released gases is critical for saving time and energy for the fabrication of large ceramic parts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Ceramic Society, 2019
Keywords
alumina, ceramic foam, gelcasting, mechanical properties, porous materials, sacrifical template
National Category
Ceramics Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75193 (URN)10.1002/ces2.10013 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0083
Available from: 2019-07-02 Created: 2019-07-02 Last updated: 2019-07-05
García Vogel, A., Hooshmand, S. & Oksman, K. (2017). All-cellulose composites based on wet-spun cellulose fibers reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals and halloysite nanoclay. In: ICCM21 Proceedings: . Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Composites Materials, August 20-25, 2017, Xi’an, China. ICCM, International Committee on Composite Materials, Article ID 3751.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-cellulose composites based on wet-spun cellulose fibers reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals and halloysite nanoclay
2017 (English)In: ICCM21 Proceedings, ICCM, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2017, article id 3751Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to develop biobased and lightweight composites with unidirectional cellulose fibers without a matrix polymer, so called all-cellulose composites with excellent mechanical properties. Continuous cellulose fibers are currently gaining interest for composite applications and if these fibers can be welded together without using a polymer resin it would result in an environmental friendly composite material. The regenerated fibers were prepared using wet spinning of DMAc/LiCl dissolved cellulose where cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and halloysitenanotubes (HNT) were used as reinforcements. The loading of the nanomaterials into the dissolved cellulose was between 2 to 20 %. The preliminary results showed that the addition of both CNC and HNT improved the mechanical properties of the regenerated cellulose fibers. It was also seen that low concentration of the nanomaterials was more effective reinforcement than high concentration. Also, the HNT showed slightly better improvement compared to the CNC). The spun nanocomposite fibers were directly wound to a roll after the wet spinning, compression molded to compositesheet and dried. The all-cellulose composites mechanical properties as well as microstructure including nanomaterials orientation in the spun fibers were studied and composites mechanical properties are compared with theoretical models. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ICCM, International Committee on Composite Materials, 2017
Keywords
spun cellulose nanocomposite fibers, cellulose nanocrystals, halloysite nanotubes, allcellulose composites, mechanical properties, microstructure
National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72441 (URN)
Conference
21st International Conference on Composites Materials, August 20-25, 2017, Xi’an, China
Available from: 2019-01-04 Created: 2019-01-04 Last updated: 2019-01-04Bibliographically approved
Hooshmand, S., Aitomäki, Y., Berglund, L., Mathew, A. P. & Oksman, K. (2017). Enhanced alignment and mechanical properties through the use of hydroxyethyl cellulose in solvent-free native cellulose spun filaments. Composites Science And Technology, 150, 79-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced alignment and mechanical properties through the use of hydroxyethyl cellulose in solvent-free native cellulose spun filaments
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2017 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 150, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the addition of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) in cellulose nanofiber filaments is shown to improve the solvent-free processing and mechanical properties of these biobased fibers as well as their compatibility with epoxy. An aqueous dope of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) with HEC was spun and the resulting filaments cold-drawn. The HEC increased the wet strength of the dope allowing stable spinning of low concentrations of CNF. These lower concentrations promote nanofiber alignment which is further improved by cold-drawing. Alignment improves the modulus and strength and an increase of over 70% compared to the as-spun CNF only filaments was achieved. HEC also decreases hydrophilicity thus increasing slightly the interfacial shear strength of the filaments with epoxy resin. The result is continuous biobased fibers with improved epoxy compatibility that can be prepared in an upscalable and environmentally friendly way. Further optimization is expected to increase draw ratio and consequently mechanical properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65051 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2017.07.011 (DOI)000412041300008 ()2-s2.0-85024383663 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-08-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Mujica-Garcia, A., Hooshmand, S., Skrifvars, M., Kenny, J. M., Oksman, K. & Peponi, L. (2016). Poly(lactic acid) melt-spun fibers reinforced with functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (ed.). Paper presented at . RSC Advances, 6(11), 9221-9231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poly(lactic acid) melt-spun fibers reinforced with functionalized cellulose nanocrystals
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2016 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 9221-9231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poly(lactic acid)-cellulose nanocrystals (PLA/CNC) nanocomposite fibers with 1% weight fraction of nanocrystals were prepared by melt-spinning. In order to improve the compatibility between the PLA and the CNC, PLLA chains were grafted onto the CNC surface using a “grafting from” reaction. For comparison, melt-spun PLA fibers and nanocomposites with unmodified CNC were also prepared. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the fibers with different draw ratios were evaluated. The results of this research show that the surface modification together with drawing resulted in improved fiber properties, which is expected to depend on the alignment of the CNC and of the PLA molecular chains. The modification is also expected to lead to a flexible interface which also leads to more stretchable fibers. The main conclusion is that PLLA grafting is a very promising way to improve the dispersion of CNC in PLA, creating an interfacial adhesion between the phases and making possible to spun fibers which can be drawn with improved mechanical performance.

National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites; Smart machines and materials (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-16078 (URN)10.1039/C5RA22818B (DOI)000369515900082 ()2-s2.0-84962415041 (Scopus ID)fa90b6bc-c27f-4d40-9df7-6f0948f74f9e (Local ID)fa90b6bc-c27f-4d40-9df7-6f0948f74f9e (Archive number)fa90b6bc-c27f-4d40-9df7-6f0948f74f9e (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160118 (salhoo)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Hooshmand, S. (2016). Processing of continuous fibers based on nanocellulose: Influence of dispersion and orientation on mechanical properties (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . : Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processing of continuous fibers based on nanocellulose: Influence of dispersion and orientation on mechanical properties
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the work was to prepare continuous bio-based fibers where nano-sized cellulose was used to improve the mechanical properties. Two different strategies were used to reach this aim, melt-spinning of thermoplastic fibers reinforced with nanocellulose and dry-spinning of cellulose nanofibers without solvent or chemicals. In the first strategy, melt-spun fibers were reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals. First, nanocomposite fibers of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and plasticized with triethyl citrate (TEC) were prepared. Two different techniques for dispersing CNC were compared: a process of solvent exchange of the aqueous CNC suspension to ethanol by centrifugation and sol-gel process. The mechanical properties and microscopy results indicated that the sol-gel process enhanced the dispersion. Subsequently the effect of CNC concentration and solid-state drawing (SSD) was studied. The results were defect-free and smooth fiber surfaces, in which an addition of 10 wt% CNC and drawing increased the tensile strength and Young’s modulus by 43% and 134% compared to the as-spun unreinforced fibers. This melt spinning process was also used to process melt-spun nanocomposite fibers of polylactic acid (PLA) and CNC. In this study the effect of surface modification of the CNC as well as the melt draw ratio (MDR) was investigated. The results showed that the increased MDR together with the surface modification resulted in better mechanical properties. In the second strategy, continuous fibers of native cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were prepared by dry-spinning. First, the effect of the spinning rate and the CNF concentration on the mechanical properties were investigated. The highest orientation and mechanical properties were achieved by combining a low CNF concentration with a high spin rate. The modulus of the fibers increased from 7.7 to 12.6 GPa and the strength form 131 to 222 MPa. After this, to further improve the orientation of the CNF, a small amount of hydroxyethylene cellulose (HEC) was used as a binder and the fibers were cold drawn after the spinning. The results showed that the addition of the binder and cold drawing increased the modulus and strength by 76% and 73% being 15 GPa and 260 MPa respectively. The results also confirmed that dry-spinning has potential for up-scaling, providing a continuous fiber production with well-controlled speed.These studies demonstrated that the dispersion and alignment of nanocellulose in spun fibers play key roles in improving the mechanical properties of these continuous bio-based fibers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016. p. 122
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17612 (URN)4491efa0-5e46-4852-8aaa-80a5a6ea4424 (Local ID)978-91-7583-601-0 (ISBN)978-91-7583-602-7 (ISBN)4491efa0-5e46-4852-8aaa-80a5a6ea4424 (Archive number)4491efa0-5e46-4852-8aaa-80a5a6ea4424 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2016; 20160509 (salhoo); Nedanstående person kommer att disputera för avläggande av teknologie doktorsexamen. Namn: Saleh Hooshmand Ämne: Trä och bionanokompositer /Wood and Bionanocomposites Avhandling: Processing of Continuous Fibers Based on Nanocellulose: Influence of Dispersion and Orientation on Mechanical Properties Opponent: Professor Stephen Eichhorn, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Sciences, University of Exeter, Exter, United Kingdom. Ordförande: Professor Kristiina Oksman, Avdelningen för materialvetenskap, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå. Tid: Torsdag 9 juni, 2016 kl 10.00 Plats: E632, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Oksman, K., Aitomäki, Y., Mathew, A. P., Siquiera, G., Zhou, Q., Butylina, S., . . . Hooshmand, S. (2016). Review of the recent developments in cellulose nanocomposite processing (ed.). Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, 83, 2-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of the recent developments in cellulose nanocomposite processing
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2016 (English)In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 83, p. 2-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review addresses the recent developments of the processing of cellulose nanocomposites, focusing on the most used techniques, including solution casting, melt-processing of thermoplastic cellulose nanocomposites and resin impregnation of cellulose nanopapers using thermoset resins. Important techniques, such as partially dissolved cellulose nanocomposites, nanocomposite foams reinforced with nanocellulose, as well as long continuous fibers or filaments, are also addressed. It is shown how the research on cellulose nanocomposites has rapidly increased during the last 10 years, and manufacturing techniques have been developed from simple casting to these more sophisticated methods. To produce cellulose nanocomposites for commercial use, the processing of these materials must be developed from laboratory to industrially viable methods.

National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11496 (URN)10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.10.041 (DOI)000372383800002 ()2-s2.0-84958905232 (Scopus ID)a7b290e5-9214-44ac-9490-7f1c397c0620 (Local ID)a7b290e5-9214-44ac-9490-7f1c397c0620 (Archive number)a7b290e5-9214-44ac-9490-7f1c397c0620 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20151109 (andbra); Bibliografisk uppgift: Special Issue on Biocomposites

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Hooshmand, S., Aitomäki, Y., Norberg, N., Mathew, A. P. & Oksman, K. (2015). Dry-Spun Single-Filament Fibers Comprising Solely Cellulose Nanofibers from Bioresidue (ed.). Paper presented at . ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 7(23), 13022-13028
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dry-Spun Single-Filament Fibers Comprising Solely Cellulose Nanofibers from Bioresidue
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2015 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 23, p. 13022-13028Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrated that low-cost and environmentally friendly filaments of native cellulose can be prepared by dry spinning an aqueous suspension of cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The CNF were extracted from banana rachis, a bioresidue from banana cultivation. The relationship between spinning rate, CNF concentration, and the mechanical properties of the filaments were investigated and the results showed that the modulus of the filaments was increased from 7.8 to 12.6 GPa and the strength increased from 131 to 222 MPa when the lowest concentration and highest speed was used. This improvement is believed to be due to an increased orientation of the CNF in the filament. A minimum concentration of 6.5 wt % was required for continuous filament spinning using the current setup. However, this relatively high concentration is thought to limit the orientation of the CNF in the filament. The process used in this study has a good potential for upscaling providing a continuous filament production with well-controlled speed, but further work is required to increase the orientation and subsequently the mechanical properties.

National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4989 (URN)10.1021/acsami.5b03091 (DOI)000356753500082 ()26017287 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84935018487 (Scopus ID)300d2d07-e9a6-4a48-abb5-c98754d8d41c (Local ID)300d2d07-e9a6-4a48-abb5-c98754d8d41c (Archive number)300d2d07-e9a6-4a48-abb5-c98754d8d41c (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20140929 (salhoo)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Hooshmand, S., Aitomäki, Y., Mathew, A. P. & Oksman, K. (2015). Influence of Matrix and Cold-drawing on Dry Spun Filaments of Cellulose Nanofibers (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at International Polysaccharide Conference : 18/10/2015 - 22/10/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Matrix and Cold-drawing on Dry Spun Filaments of Cellulose Nanofibers
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, two different types of single filament fibers were prepared by dry-spinning an aqueous suspension of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) as well as CNF and water-soluble hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) suspension. The filaments were prepared using a capillary rheometer with a single-hole die. Based on our previous study1, the lowest spinnable concentration was used to increase the CNF orientation induced by the shear force in the die. To further increase the orientation of the CNF in the fibers and subsequently increase their mechanical properties, the semi-dried fibers were cold-drawn to ≈4%. The effect of drawing on both CNF-only and CNF-HEC nanocomposite fibers was investigated. The addition of HEC improved the processability of the fibers and allowed a lower spinnable concentration (≈4.5wt%) to be used compared to the CNF-only fiber (≈7wt%). The HEC improved the modulus, strength and the strain of the non-drawn CNF-HEC fiber compared to the CNF-only fiber. The higher modulus and strength of the CNF-HEC fiber is thought to be due to an increase in orientation of CNF in the fiber because of the lower concentration of the suspension. The drawn CNF-HEC fiber showed further improved in the mechanical properties, with a modulus of 15 GPa and strength of 260 MPa, an increase of 76% and 72 % respectively, compared to undrawn CNF-only fiber. The continuous nature of these nanocomposites fibers and their characteristics mean they have potential for use in fiber-reinforced composites.

National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30929 (URN)4f208ac6-d878-40d7-a64f-f0ab02ba3cfa (Local ID)4f208ac6-d878-40d7-a64f-f0ab02ba3cfa (Archive number)4f208ac6-d878-40d7-a64f-f0ab02ba3cfa (OAI)
Conference
International Polysaccharide Conference : 18/10/2015 - 22/10/2015
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20160118 (salhoo)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Hooshmand, S., Aitomäki, Y., Skrifvars, M., Mathew, A. P. & Oksman, K. (2014). All-cellulose nanocomposite fibers produced by melt spinning cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose nanocrystals (ed.). Paper presented at . Cellulose (London), 21(4), 2665-2678
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-cellulose nanocomposite fibers produced by melt spinning cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose nanocrystals
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2014 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2665-2678Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bio-based continuous fibers were prepared by melt spinning cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and triethyl citrate. A CNC organo-gel dispersion technique was used and the prepared materials (2 and 10 wt% CNC) were melt spun using a twin-screw micro-compounder and drawn to a ratio of 1.5. The microscopy studies showed that the addition of CNC in CAB resulted in defect-free and smooth fiber surfaces. An addition of 10 wt% CNC enhanced the storage modulus and increased the tensile strength and Young's modulus. Fiber drawing improved the mechanical properties further. In addition, a micromechanical model of the composite material was used to estimate the stiffness and showed that theoretical values were exceeded for the lower concentration of CNC but not reached for the higher concentration. In conclusion, this dispersion technique combined with melt spinning can be used to produce all-cellulose nanocomposites fibers and that both the increase in CNC volume fraction and the fiber drawing increased the mechanical performance

National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-12089 (URN)10.1007/s10570-014-0269-4 (DOI)000341490200042 ()2-s2.0-84904356987 (Scopus ID)b26f892b-f136-4fe9-b6d5-05968978f294 (Local ID)b26f892b-f136-4fe9-b6d5-05968978f294 (Archive number)b26f892b-f136-4fe9-b6d5-05968978f294 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140612 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6702-4627

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