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Puurula, Arto
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Nilimaa, J., Sabau, C., Bagge, N., Puurula, A., Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., . . . Elfgren, L. (2018). Assessment and Loading to Failure of Three Swedish RC Bridges. In: Eva Lantsoght and Pinar Okumus (Ed.), Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Behavior through Load Testing: International Perspectives (pp. 8.1-8.18). Faarmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 323, Article ID SP-323-8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment and Loading to Failure of Three Swedish RC Bridges
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2018 (English)In: Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Behavior through Load Testing: International Perspectives / [ed] Eva Lantsoght and Pinar Okumus, Faarmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 2018, Vol. 323, p. 8.1-8.18, article id SP-323-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current codes often underestimate the capacity of existing bridges. The purpose of the tests presented here has been to assess the real behaviour and capacity of three types of bridges in order to be able to utilize them in a more efficient way.

The three studied bridges are: (1) Lautajokk – A one-span trough bridge tested in fatigue to check the shear capacity of the section between the slab and the girders; (2) Övik – A two span trough bridge strengthened with Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR) of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) tested in bending, shear and torsion; and (3) Kiruna – A five-span prestressed three girder bridge tested to shear-bending failures in the girders and in the slab.

The failure capacities were considerably higher than what the code methods indicated. With calibrated and stepwise refined finite element models, it was possible to capture the real behaviour of the bridges. The experiences and methods may be useful in assessment and better use of other bridges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Faarmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 2018
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69992 (URN)978-1-64195-007-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Bagge, N., Nilimaa, J., Puurula, A., Täljsten, B., Blanksvärd, T., Sas, G., . . . Carolin, A. (2017). Full-Scale Tests to Failure Compared to Assessments: Three Concrete Bridges. In: Hordijk D.A., Luković M. (Ed.), Lukovic M.,Hordijk D.A. (Ed.), High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium. Paper presented at 2017 fib Symposium - High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet, Maastricht, Netherlands, 12-14 June 2017 (pp. 1917-1924). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full-Scale Tests to Failure Compared to Assessments: Three Concrete Bridges
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2017 (English)In: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium / [ed] Lukovic M.,Hordijk D.A., Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 1917-1924Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Three Swedish concrete bridges have been tested to failure and the results have been compared to assessment using standard code models and advanced numerical methods.

The three tested and assessed bridges were:

  1. (1)

    Lautajokk, a 29 year old one span (7 m) concrete trough bridge tested in fatigue to check the concrete shear capacity.

     
  2. (2)

    Ӧrnskldsvik, a 50 year old two span trough bridge (12 + 12 m) strengthened to avoid a bending failure.

     
  3. (3)

    Kiruna Mine Bridge, a 55 year old five span prestressed concrete road bridge (18 + 21 + 23 + 24 + 20 m) tested in shear and bending of the beams and punching of the slab.

     

The main results in the paper are the experiences of the real failure types, the robustness/weakness of the bridges, and the accuracy of different codes and models. In all three cases the bridges had a considerable hidden capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2017
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63917 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-59471-2_219 (DOI)2-s2.0-85025656710 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-59470-5 (ISBN)978-3-319-59471-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 fib Symposium - High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet, Maastricht, Netherlands, 12-14 June 2017
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Puurula, A., Enochsson, O., Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Ohlsson, U., Bernspång, L., . . . Elfgren, L. (2015). Assessment of the Strengthening of an RC Railway Bridge with CFRP utilizing a Full-Scale Failure Test and Finite-Element Analysis (ed.). Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(1 (Special Issue)), D4014008-1-D4014008-11, Article ID D4014008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the Strengthening of an RC Railway Bridge with CFRP utilizing a Full-Scale Failure Test and Finite-Element Analysis
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 0733-9445, E-ISSN 1943-541X, Vol. 141, no 1 (Special Issue), p. D4014008-1-D4014008-11, article id D4014008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A finite element (FE) model was calibrated using the data obtained from a full-scale test to failure of a 50 year old reinforced concrete (RC) railway bridge. The model was then used to assess the effectiveness of various strengthening schemes to increase the loadcarrying capacity of the bridge. The bridge was a two-span continuous single-track trough bridge with a total length of 30 m, situated in Örnsköldsvik in northern Sweden. It was tested in situ as the bridge had been closed following the construction of a new section of the Railway line. The test was planned to evaluate and calibrate models to predict the load-carrying capacity of the bridge and assess the strengthening schemes originally developed by the European research project called Sustainable bridges. The objective of the test was to investigate shear failure, rather than bending failure for which good calibrated models are already available. To that end, the bridge was strengthened in flexure before the test using near-surface mounted square section carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. The ultimate failure mechanism turned into an interesting combination of bending, shear, torsion, and bond failures at an applied load of 11.7 MN (2,630 kips). A computer model was developed using specialized software to represent the response of the bridge during the test. It was calibrated using data from the test and was then used to calculate the actual capacity of the bridge in terms of train loading using the current Swedish load model which specifies a 330 kN (74 kips) axle weight. These calculations show that the unstrengthened bridge could sustain a load 4.7 times greater than the current load requirements (which is over six times the original design loading), whilst the strengthened bridge could sustain a load 6.5 times greater than currently required. Comparisons are also made with calculations using codes from Canada, Europe, and the United States.

Abstract [en]

A finite element (FE) model was calibrated using the data obtained from a full-scale test to failure of a 50 year old reinforced concrete (RC) railway bridge. The model was then used to assess the effectiveness of various strengthening schemes to increase the load-carrying capacity of the bridge. The bridge was a two-span continuous single-track trough bridge with a total length of 30 m, situated in Örnsköldsvik in northern Sweden. It was tested in-situ as the bridge had been closed following the construction of a new section of the railway line. The test was planned to evaluate and calibrate models to predict the load-carrying capacity of the bridge and assess the strengthening schemes originally developed by the European Research Project “Sustainable Bridges”. The objective of the test was to investigate shear failure, rather than bending failure for which good calibrated models are already available. To that end, the bridge was strengthened in flexure before the test using near-surface mounted square section carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. The ultimate failure mechanism turned into an interesting combination of bending, shear, torsion and bond failures at an applied load of 11.7 MN (= 2630 kips).A computer model was developed using Brigade software (based on Abaqus), to represent the response of the bridge during the test. It was calibrated using data from the test and was then used to calculate the actual capacity of the bridge in terms of train loading using the current Swedish load model which specifies a 330 kN (= 74 kips) axle weight. These calculations show that the unstrengthened bridge could sustain a load 4.7 times greater than the current load requirements (which is over 6 times the original design loading), whilst the strengthened bridge could sustain a load 6.5 times greater than currently required. Comparisons are also made with calculations using codes from Canada, Europe and the U.S.

Keywords
Bridge, Train load, Failure analysis, Ultimate load-carrying capacity, Shear, Near-surfacemounted reinforcement (NSMR), Civil engineering and architecture - Building engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggnadsteknik
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Attractive built environment (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15842 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001116 (DOI)000346338100011 ()2-s2.0-84920771165 (Scopus ID)f66f5694-cfe1-40be-a43e-24618eb23eae (Local ID)f66f5694-cfe1-40be-a43e-24618eb23eae (Archive number)f66f5694-cfe1-40be-a43e-24618eb23eae (OAI)
Projects
Mainline-MAINtenance, renewaL and Improvement of rail transport iNfrastructure to reduce Economic and environmental impacts, Centrum för riskanalys och riskhantering, CRR, Sustainable Bridges
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; Bibliografisk uppgift: This work is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.; 20140524 (elfgren)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Sas, G., Bagge, N., Häggström, J., Nilimaa, J., Puurula, A., Blanksvärd, T., . . . Paulsson, B. (2015). Tested versus code capacity of existing bridges: Three examples (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges. Paper presented at IABSE Conference : Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges 23/09/2015 - 25/09/2015 (pp. 727-734). Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tested versus code capacity of existing bridges: Three examples
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2015 (English)In: IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, p. 727-734Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the results from three tests to failure of different types of bridges: a two span reinforced concrete railway trough bridge; a five-span prestessed concrete beam bridge; and a one span metal railway truss bridge. The results show that the capacity of the structures are underestimated by current standards, while numerical analysis combined with material testing can provide more accurate results. Some examples are also presented on how deficiencies incapacity can be mitigated using fiber reinforced polymer strengthening systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Attractive built environment (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40152 (URN)f26c63d9-2435-4c3e-bf36-a18858a100c8 (Local ID)9783857481406 (ISBN)f26c63d9-2435-4c3e-bf36-a18858a100c8 (Archive number)f26c63d9-2435-4c3e-bf36-a18858a100c8 (OAI)
Conference
IABSE Conference : Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges 23/09/2015 - 25/09/2015
Projects
Sustainable Bridges, Mainline-MAINtenance, renewaL and Improvement of rail transport iNfrastructure to reduce Economic and environmental impacts
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150923 (andbra)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Puurula, A., Enochsson, O., Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Ohlsson, U., Bernspång, L., . . . Elfgren, L. (2014). Loading to failure and 3D nonlinear FE modelling of a strengthened RC bridge. (ed.). Paper presented at . Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 10(12), 1606-1619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loading to failure and 3D nonlinear FE modelling of a strengthened RC bridge.
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2014 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1606-1619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A reinforced concrete railway trough bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, was strengthened in bending with rods of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer and loaded to failure. The aim was to test and calibrate methods developed in the European Research Project ‘Sustainable Bridges’ regarding assessment and strengthening of existing bridges. A steel beam was placed in the middle of one of the two spans and was pulled downwards. Failure was reached at an applied load of 11.7 MN. It was initiated by a bond failure caused by a combined action of shear, torsion as well as bending after yielding in the longitudinal steel reinforcement and the stirrups. The bond failure led to a redistribution of the internal forces from the tensile reinforcement to the stirrups, causing the final failure. The computer models developed to simulate the loading process were improved step by step from linear shell models to more detailed models. The most developed model, a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model with discrete reinforcement, gave accurate accounts of the response of the bridge.

Abstract [en]

A reinforced concrete railway trough bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, was strengthened in bending with rods of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and loaded to failure. The aim was to test and calibrate methods developed in the European Research Project "Sustainable Bridges" regarding assessment and strengthening of existing bridges. A steel beam was placed in the middle of one of the two spans and was pulled downwards. An interesting failure was reached, which included bond, shear and torsion as well as bending, for an applied load of 11,7 MN. Three dimensional nonlinear finite element calculations with discrete reinforcement were used to simulate the loading process. The developed models – after several trials and errors - gave accurate accounts of the response of the bridge during increasing loading.

Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Building engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggnadsteknik
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14810 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2013.836546 (DOI)000348944400001 ()2-s2.0-84908043589 (Scopus ID)e3ae0583-b31d-4593-bf2d-f796601dcca4 (Local ID)e3ae0583-b31d-4593-bf2d-f796601dcca4 (Archive number)e3ae0583-b31d-4593-bf2d-f796601dcca4 (OAI)
Projects
Sustainable Bridges
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20130606 (elfgren)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Puurula, A. (2012). Load-carrying capacity of a strengthened reinforced concrete bridge: Non-linear finite element modeling of a test to failure. Assessment of train load capacity of a two span railway trough bridge in Örnsköldsvik strengthened with bars of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Load-carrying capacity of a strengthened reinforced concrete bridge: Non-linear finite element modeling of a test to failure. Assessment of train load capacity of a two span railway trough bridge in Örnsköldsvik strengthened with bars of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To meet the future traffic demands there is a constant need of making the infrastructure moreeffective. This can be achieved by increasing the capacity and/or life length of traffic lines. Apart of the efforts to do this is increasing the load carrying capacity of the railway bridges sothat it is possible to allow heavier freight trains to pass the bridges.In this thesis the assessment of the load carrying capacity of a strengthened concrete troughrailway bridge, The Övik Bridge, with two spans in Örnsköldsvik, in northern Sweden, istreated. To investigate the ultimate behavior of the bridge a full scale load test up to failure wasperformed in 2006.At the loading test in Örnsköldsvik a steel beam was placed in the mid of one of the spans ofthe bridge. The failure was caused by pulling the steel beam downwards with cables whichwere anchored with injection into the drilled holes in the bedrock beneath the bridge.While the mechanism of a bending failure is commonly considered to be well investigated, thestructural models for the shear failure are still the object of intense research. The bottom sidesof the edge beams of the Örnsköldsvik Bridge were strengthened with Near Surface Mountedreinforcement (NSM) consisting of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) to increase thebending capacity and in that way steer the bridge to failure in shear instead of bending.The material properties of the reinforcement were determined in tension tests. Concreteproperties were determined by testing drilled core samples. Displacements and deflections ofthe bridge, strains in concrete, steel and carbon fibre reinforcement were measured during thetest as a function of the increasing load.In this thesis the analysis of the failure of the bridge, structural models describing the behaviorand load carrying capacity are evaluated according to different design codes. Advanced finiteelement analysis is applied with both geometrical and material non-linearities included. Toverify the models used in codes and computer calculations the response of the bridge duringthe test is compared with the calculation results.The refined and calibrated FEM model is used to predict how high axle loads of a train theÖvik Bridge could have sustained. The Övik Bridge was designed in 1950’s for axle loads of20 ton. The calculations methods developed in this thesis show that the axle loads in the failurestate could have been increased at least up to 154 tons without strengthening and to 215 tonwith strengthening of the bridge slab with carbon fibre reinforcement bars with Af = 100 mm2c 150 mm using statistical mean values of loads and material properties in the calculations.

Abstract [sv]

Bärförmågan hos en förstärkt betongbroIcke-linjär finit elementmodellering av en brottbelastningTillståndsbedömning av en järnvägstrågbro med två spann i Örnsköldsvik förstärkt med stänger av kolfiberarmerade polymerer (CFRP)För att möta de framtida krav som trafiksektorn står inför måste infrastrukturen effektiviseras. Detta kan bland annat uppnås genom att öka trafikledernas kapacitet och livslängd. En del av denna ambition består av att öka lastkapaciteten på järnvägsbroar så att man kan tillåta tyngre godståg att passera.I denna avhandling behandlas tillståndsbedömning av en förstärkt trågbro av armerad betong. Bron hade två spann och var belägen i Örnsköldsvik i Sverige. Ett fullskaleförsök utfördes år 2006 för att studera brons beteende under ökande last tills brott uppstod.Under testet i Örnsköldsvik placerades en stålbalk i mitten av brons ena spann. Brottet frambringades genom att stålbalken drogs neråt med kablar, som hade förankrats i berget med injektion under bron, så att lasten på bron ökade. Medan mekanismen för böjmoment allmänt anses vara väl utredd är olika modeller för bärförmågan för tvärkraft fortfarande föremål för intensiv forskning. För att undvika det icke-intressanta böjbrottet förstärktes kantbalkarna i underkanten med kolfiberarmering (CFRP) i form av stavar som limmades fast i utsågade slitsar (Near Surface Mounted reinforcement, NSM). På det viset styrdes bron till att få skjuvbrott istället för böjbrott.Materialegenskaper för betongen bestämdes med hjälp av utborrade cylindrar och för armeringen med dragprov. Förskjutningar och utböjningar av bron samt töjningar i betong, stål- och kolfiberarmering mättes under pågående test som funktion av den ökande lasten.Bron analyserades på flera sätt för att jämföra verklig bärförmåga med olika normer. Ickelinjära finita element har härvid använts för att utvärdera hur avancerade beräkningsverktyg kan beskriva det verkliga skeendet. Olinjäriteter har beaktats i såväl material som geometri. Den förfinade och kalibrerade FEM -modellen användes för att bedöma den maximala axellasten för tåg som Öviksbron skulle ha kunnat bära. Öviksbron dimensionerades på 1950- talet för axellaster på 20 ton. Beräkningsmodellerna utvecklade i avhandlingen visar att bron i brottstadiet hade kunnat klara axellaster på minst 154 ton utan den utförda förstärkningen och på 215 ton med förstärkningen av broplattan med kolfiberstänger med Af = 100 mm2 c 150 mm. Statistiska medelvärden av laster och materialparametrar har härvid använts i beräkningarna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-26717 (URN)fbbbe3d0-6876-4acc-a193-303f9c1330ac (Local ID)978-91-7439-433-7 (ISBN)fbbbe3d0-6876-4acc-a193-303f9c1330ac (Archive number)fbbbe3d0-6876-4acc-a193-303f9c1330ac (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120425 (ysko); DISPUTATION Ämnesområde: Konstruktionsteknik/Structural Engineering Opponent: Docent Mario Plos, Institutionen för bygg- och miljöteknik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg Ordförande: Professor Mats Emborg, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå tekniska universitet Tid: Onsdag den 30 maj 2012, kl 10.15 Plats: F1031, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Sabourova, N., Grip, N., Puurula, A., Enochsson, O., Tu, Y., Ohlsson, U., . . . Thun, H. (2012). The railway concrete arch bridge over Kalix river: dynamic properties and load carrying capacity (ed.). In: (Ed.), Dirch H Bager; Johan Silfwerbrand (Ed.), Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community: proceedings of the International FIB Symposium 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, 11 - 14 June 2012. Paper presented at FIB Symposium : Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community 11/06/2012 - 14/06/2012 (pp. 609-612). Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The railway concrete arch bridge over Kalix river: dynamic properties and load carrying capacity
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2012 (English)In: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community: proceedings of the International FIB Symposium 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, 11 - 14 June 2012 / [ed] Dirch H Bager; Johan Silfwerbrand, Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association , 2012, p. 609-612Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association, 2012
National Category
Mathematical Analysis Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Mathematics; Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27231 (URN)0995d66a-9097-44cb-838f-92a00c30f8bf (Local ID)978-91-980098-1-1 (ISBN)0995d66a-9097-44cb-838f-92a00c30f8bf (Archive number)0995d66a-9097-44cb-838f-92a00c30f8bf (OAI)
Conference
FIB Symposium : Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community 11/06/2012 - 14/06/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120328 (grip)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved
Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Enochsson, O., Emborg, M., Täljsten, B., Puurula, A. & Elfgren, L. (2011). Flexural-shear failure of a full scale tested RC bridge strengthened with NSM CFRP: Shear capacity analysis (ed.). Paper presented at . Nordic Concrete Research, 2/2011(44), 189-206
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexural-shear failure of a full scale tested RC bridge strengthened with NSM CFRP: Shear capacity analysis
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2011 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 2/2011, no 44, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Building engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggnadsteknik
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6082 (URN)44720aad-6930-482c-9a97-744e29ae60f0 (Local ID)44720aad-6930-482c-9a97-744e29ae60f0 (Archive number)44720aad-6930-482c-9a97-744e29ae60f0 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20111215 (mem)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Puurula, A., Enochsson, O., Sas, G., Täljsten, B. & Elfgren, L. (2011). Load carrying capacity of a RC Bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Nordic Concrete Research: Proceedings of the XXI Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Hämeenlinna, Finland 2011. Paper presented at Nordic Concrete Research Symposium : 30/05/2011 - 01/06/2011 (pp. 29-32). Oslo: The Nordic Concrete Federation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Load carrying capacity of a RC Bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden
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2011 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research: Proceedings of the XXI Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Hämeenlinna, Finland 2011, Oslo: The Nordic Concrete Federation , 2011, p. 29-32Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: The Nordic Concrete Federation, 2011
Series
Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377 ; 43:1
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39339 (URN)e071ccc7-2a7d-4300-834b-b7707cb53456 (Local ID)978-82-8208-025-5 (ISBN)e071ccc7-2a7d-4300-834b-b7707cb53456 (Archive number)e071ccc7-2a7d-4300-834b-b7707cb53456 (OAI)
Conference
Nordic Concrete Research Symposium : 30/05/2011 - 01/06/2011
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20111216 (ysko)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Elfgren, L., Enochsson, O., Puurula, A., Nilimaa, J. & Töyrä, B. (2009). Preliminary Assessment of Finnish Railway Bridges: Railway Infrastructure Upgrading with Increase of Axle loads from 25 to 30 tonnes on the Line Tornio - Kolari, A Comparison with Swedish Railway Bridges on the Lines Luleå - Narvik and Haparanda - Boden (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preliminary Assessment of Finnish Railway Bridges: Railway Infrastructure Upgrading with Increase of Axle loads from 25 to 30 tonnes on the Line Tornio - Kolari, A Comparison with Swedish Railway Bridges on the Lines Luleå - Narvik and Haparanda - Boden
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2009 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Some 60 bridges on the Finnish Railway Line between Tornio and Kolari have been assessed in a preliminary way. The study is based on experiences on the two neighbouring Swedish Railway Lines Malmbanan and Haparandabanan.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2009. p. 40
Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Building engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggnadsteknik
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-22803 (URN)451146e9-6ce1-4634-a807-1a1b0253477f (Local ID)451146e9-6ce1-4634-a807-1a1b0253477f (Archive number)451146e9-6ce1-4634-a807-1a1b0253477f (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2009; Bibliografisk uppgift: Published by Lulea Railway Research Centre (JVTC) and Division of Structural Engineering at Luleå University of Technology; 20150411 (elfgren)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
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