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Frishammar, J., Söderholm, P., Hellsmark, H. & Mossberg, J. (2019). A Knowledge-based Perspective on System Weaknesses in Technological Innovation Systems. Science and Public Policy, 46(1), 55-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Knowledge-based Perspective on System Weaknesses in Technological Innovation Systems
2019 (English)In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The literature on technological innovation systems (TIS) provides policymakers and other actors with a scheme of analysis to identify system weaknesses. In doing so, TIS analysis centres on which system weaknesses policy interventions should target to promote further development of a particular system. However, prior TIS literature has not sufficiently elaborated on what may constitute the conceptual roots of a ‘weakness’. We apply a knowledge-based perspective and propose that many—albeit not all—system weaknesses may root in four types of knowledge problems: uncertainty, complexity, equivocality, and ambiguity. Employing these as sensitizing concepts, we study system weaknesses by analysing data from a biorefinery TIS in Sweden. This analysis results in novel implications for the TIS literature and for achieving a better match between system weaknesses and the design of innovation policies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019
National Category
Economics Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Entrepreneurship and Innovation; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72954 (URN)10.1093/scipol/scy037 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062499488 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 254-2013-100
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-03-11 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Söderholm, P., Hellsmark, H., Frishammar, J., Hansson, J., Mossberg, J. & Sandström, A. (2019). Technological development for sustainability: The role of network management in the innovation policy mix. Technological forecasting & social change, 138, 309-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technological development for sustainability: The role of network management in the innovation policy mix
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2019 (English)In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 138, p. 309-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the key role of actor networks in progressing new sustainable technologies, there is a shortage of conceptual knowledge on how policy can help strengthen collaborative practices in such networks. The objective of this paper is to analyze the roles of such policies – so-called network management – throughout the entire technological development processes. The analysis draws on the public management and sustainability transitions literatures, and discusses how various network characteristics could affect the development of sustainable technologies, including how different categories of network management strategies could be deployed to influence actor collaborations. The paper's main contribution is an analytical framework that addresses the changing roles of network management at the interface between various phases of the technological development process, illustrated with the empirical case of advanced biorefinery technology development in Sweden. Furthermore, the analysis also addresses some challenges that policy makers are likely to encounter when pursuing network management strategies, and identifies a number of negative consequences of ignoring such instruments in the innovation policy mix. The latter include inefficient actor role-taking, the emergence of small, ineffective and competing actor networks in similar technological fields, and a shortage of interpretative knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Sustainable technological development; Innovation policy mixes; Actor networks; Network management; Biorefinery technology
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Economics Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Political Science; Entrepreneurship and Innovation; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71671 (URN)10.1016/j.techfore.2018.10.010 (DOI)000454465700025 ()2-s2.0-85056403634 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Palage, K., Lundmark, R. & Söderholm, P. (2019). The impact of pilot and demonstration plants on innovation: The case of advanced biofuel patenting in the European Union. International Journal of Production Economics, 210, 42-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of pilot and demonstration plants on innovation: The case of advanced biofuel patenting in the European Union
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 210, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to investigate how pilot and demonstration plants affect innovation in the empirical context of advanced biofuel technology. Patent counts are used as a proxy for innovation; we employ data for eight EU Member States over the time-period 1980–2011, and negative binomial regression techniques. The focus is on plant investments that have received public co-funding. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and show that the knowledge generated through past investments in pilot and demonstration plants has had positive effects on advanced biofuel patenting activities. This result is particularly valid for so-called experimental plants, i.e., aiming at testing the technical viability of new technology. The empirical analysis does not indicate the presence of any positive interaction between investments in experimental plants and biofuel blending policies, i.e., in the sense that more stringent blending requirements can raise the rate-of-return on additional pilot tests. Moreover, advanced biofuel innovation is also affected through knowledge spillovers across the selected EU Member States. The paper ends by outlining avenues for future research on the role of pilot and demonstration plants in technology development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Innovation, Pilot and demonstration plants, Patents, Advanced biofuels, European Union
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72793 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpe.2019.01.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060346569 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-07 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Ek, K. (2019). Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden. In: M. Schröter, A. Bonn, S. Klotz, R. Seppelt, and C. Baessler (Ed.), Atlats of Ecosystem Services: Drivers, Risks and Societal Responses (pp. 125-128). Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Atlats of Ecosystem Services: Drivers, Risks and Societal Responses / [ed] M. Schröter, A. Bonn, S. Klotz, R. Seppelt, and C. Baessler, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019, p. 125-128-Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72843 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-96229-0 (DOI)978-3-319-96228-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-11
Lehmann, P. & Söderholm, P. (2018). Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes (ed.). Environmental and Resource Economics, 71(2), 475-505
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes
2018 (English)In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 28p. 475-505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While there is relatively limited disagreement on the general need for supporting the deployment of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E), there are diverging views on whether the granted support levels should be technology-neutral or technology-specific. In this review paper we question the frequently stressed argument that technology-neutral schemes will promote RES-E deployment cost-effectively. We use a simple partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector with one representative investor as a vehicle to synthesize the existing literature, and review potential rationales for technology-specific RES-E support. The analysis addresses market failures associated with technological development, long-term risk taking, path dependencies as well as various external costs, all of which drive a wedge between the private and the social costs of RES-E deployment. Based on analytical insight and a review of empirical literature, we conclude that the relevance of these market failures is typically heterogeneous across different RES-E technologies. The paper also discusses a number of possible caveats to implementing cost-effective technology-specific support schemes in practice, including the role of various informational and politico-economic constraints. While these considerations involve important challenges, neither of them suggests an unambiguous plea for technology-neutral RES-E support policies either. We close by highlighting principles for careful RES-E policy design, and by outlining four important avenues for future research.

Publisher
p. 28
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics; Renewable energy (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65088 (URN)10.1007/s10640-017-0169-9 (DOI)000444453900008 ()2-s2.0-85026455170 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-09(inah)

Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Acar, S., Söderholm, P. & Brännlund, R. (2018). Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis. Climate Policy, 18(4), 512-525
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis
2018 (English)In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63286 (URN)10.1080/14693062.2017.1314244 (DOI)000426093300010 ()
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-26 (svasva)

Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Mossberg, J., Söderholm, P., Hellsmark, H. & Nordqvist, S. (2018). Crossing the biorefinery valley of death?: A role-based typology for understanding actor networks ability to overcome barriers in sustainability transitions. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 27, 83-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crossing the biorefinery valley of death?: A role-based typology for understanding actor networks ability to overcome barriers in sustainability transitions
2018 (English)In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 27, p. 83-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) play important roles in technological development; they represent bridges between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs, on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption, on the other. This paper addresses the importance of the actor networks around the PDPs at which different biorefinery technologies have been demonstrated and verified. The aim of the paper is to propose a role-based typology that can be used as an illustrative tool to facilitate a more generic analysis – and enhanced understanding – of PDP actor networks and their dynamics. For this purpose the paper investigates the barriers experienced by the actors in their joint efforts to further utilise and transform the PDPs into permanent test facilities after the initial technology verification and demonstration. To aid the analysis the actor networks surrounding four Swedish biorefinery PDPs are investigated. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
pilot and demonstration plants, actor networks, roles, biorefinery technology
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Economics
Research subject
Entrepreneurship and Innovation; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66577 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2017.10.008 (DOI)000434454500008 ()
Projects
Commercializing the Bio-based Economy: Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Innovation Policy and Management
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 487-14
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-28 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2018-10-22Bibliographically approved
Söderholm, K., Larsson, L. & Söderholm, P. (2018). Managing the 1970s energy crises in a state-owned mining company: strategies pursued by the Swedish iron ore producer LKAB. Mineral Economics, 31(1-2), 179-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing the 1970s energy crises in a state-owned mining company: strategies pursued by the Swedish iron ore producer LKAB
2018 (English)In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyze the strategies adopted by the Swedish state-owned iron ore mining producer LKAB in response to the 1970s energy crises, i.e., soaring energy input expenses in combination with stagnating demand for iron ore. The analysis builds on a unique empirical material, e.g., minutes from board meetings, over an extended time period. This permits in-depth analyses of the two main strategies pursued by LKAB at the time: (a) securing energy supplies (as well as output sales) through upstream investments in uranium and coal mining; and (b) engaging in own R&D to enable energy-saving measures and product development. While the LKAB experiences tend to support the notion that investments supporting broader societal goals, although at the expense of firm productivity, may be likely in the presence of strong state government involvement, they also show that state-owned mineral enterprises can be highly innovative and competitive following investments in internal R&D. Specifically, LKAB’s R&D contributed to significant product development and energy savings, the latter occurring both in the company’s own pelletizing process as well as in the processes of key customers (i.e., the steel companies). The paper concludes by highlighting a number of important lessons for contemporary energy transitions in the process industries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
History Economics
Research subject
History; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66363 (URN)10.1007/s13563-017-0122-y (DOI)000445765000017 ()2-s2.0-85047182847 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-05-17 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved
Strunz, S., Gawel, E., Lehmann, P. & Söderholm, P. (2018). Policy convergence as a multifaceted concept: the case of renewable energy policies in the European Union. Journal of Public Policy, 38(3), 361-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy convergence as a multifaceted concept: the case of renewable energy policies in the European Union
2018 (English)In: Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 0143-814X, E-ISSN 1469-7815, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 361-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The literature on policy convergence has identified numerous facets and causal drivers of convergence. Distinguishing four dimensions of convergence (object, benchmark, drivers and directed process) helps clarify why and in what form policy convergence may occur (or not). Thus, depending on, for example, the object of analysis (policy outcome or instruments used), the same empirical case may give rise to opposing assessments. Furthermore, both economic and political drivers are necessary to account for successful policy convergence: economic convergence partly explains why countries may face similar problems, and political mechanisms explain why they might choose similar policies to solve a given problem. This article illustrates the multifaceted character of convergence for the dynamic field of renewable energy policies in the European Union. The empirical results indicate temporary convergence in the case of policy support instrument choices and conditional convergence in terms of renewable shares. However, the results suggest divergence of public R&D subsidies targeting renewables

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2018
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63418 (URN)10.1017/S0143814X17000034 (DOI)000440323000004 ()
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-07 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Söderholm, P. & Frishammar, J. (2018). Statens roll vid grön omställning genom aktiv industripolitik. Stockholm: Myndigheten för tillväxtpolitiska utvärderingar och analyser
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statens roll vid grön omställning genom aktiv industripolitik
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The state plays a potentially important role in the processes of industrial renewal by adopting an active “green” industrial policy, since different types of market failures or system weaknesses can prevent the growth of new and more environmentally friendly technology. All too often, however, attempts to address such failures give rise to new problems and additional cost because the shaping of the policy fails to achieve the goals set and/or it creates unintentional repercussions in the economy. The role of the state in the development of new technology is therefore difficult and complex.

This report discusses and reviews the role of the state in the green transition of industry whereby it adopts a so-called green industrial policy. Our purpose has been to look specifically at the role of the state in connection with sustainable capital-intensive investment, a typical example of which is the possibility of a lithium-ion battery factory in Sweden. This report is based on an analysis of the existing research on the pros and cons of green industrial policy.

A first step is to discuss the various arguments for and against green industrial policy. One argument overriding the others in favour of such a policy is that high investment risks mean private-sector actors are not sufficiently keen to invest in new and untried technology. Their level of keenness may also be adversely affected by the fact that knowledge about new technology is a collective benefit; i.e. the knowledge developed “spills over” to other actors, which means any investment return will be lower for the private-sector actor than for the economy as a whole.

The risks associated with green industrial policy include the fact that it could be “hijacked” by special interests which do not have the ability to develop the new technology by effective means, and the fact that the insufficient amount of information available would make it difficult for state actors to invest in the right technology. There are, moreover, difficulties associated with shaping a policy that can accurately pinpoint the most important risks and gaps in knowledge, including the risk that the different positive effects of the industrial policy will be realised outside the country’s borders.

In a further step the report identifies and discusses the basis on which to shape green industrial policy. There needs to be clear accountability and transparency on the part of the state in the sense that there are clear visions, goals and ideas about which specific role the state ought to play in order to promote the desired development. In addition, the industrial policy ought to be based on a good understanding of the process of technological develop-ment; i.e. the stages of development, feedback mechanisms and the specific obstacles encountered by new technology in the innovation system. In the case of capital-intensive green investment with a long life it is also especially important that a consistent, far-sighted policy is in place to make the transition. Furthermore, no decisions regarding the shaping and implementing of the policy ought to be done independently of the skills and experience available in the industry in question, although this should involve making sure at all times that it does not compromise the independent standing of the state.

Different types of specific instruments have different purposes, and as a rule what is needed is a “mix” of different instruments for implementing a green industrial policy that is fit for purpose. The report makes a distinction between technical, market-driving and system-wide instruments. In the context of this categorisation, the report concludes with a brief review of which specific instruments could be used for realising the policy chosen. The analysis here is not exhaustive, but the report provides a number of examples of how the choice of instruments can influence the conditions for implementing a green industrial policy that is fit for purpose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Myndigheten för tillväxtpolitiska utvärderingar och analyser, 2018. p. 37
Series
PM ; 2018:10
National Category
Economics Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Economics; Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69006 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2264-7043

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