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Publications (10 of 64) Show all publications
Saiang, D. (2023). Back Analysis of Narrow Vein Open Stope Stability and Verification Using Kinematic and Empirical Methods. In: Reginald E. Hammah; Sina Javankhoshdel; Thamer Yacoub; Alireza Azami; Alison McQuillan (Ed.), Proceedings of the Rocscience International Conference (RIC 2023): . Paper presented at Rocscience International Conference 2023 (RIC2023), April 24-26, 2023, Toronto, Canada (pp. 13-22). Atlantis Press, 19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Back Analysis of Narrow Vein Open Stope Stability and Verification Using Kinematic and Empirical Methods
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the Rocscience International Conference (RIC 2023) / [ed] Reginald E. Hammah; Sina Javankhoshdel; Thamer Yacoub; Alireza Azami; Alison McQuillan, Atlantis Press , 2023, Vol. 19, p. 13-22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

High walls of open stopes in underground stoping mines can be considered to behave in a similar manner to open pit slopes if stability is largely controlled by geological structures. With this assumption the kinematic method of analyses can be used to assess the stability of the footwall, hangingwall, the roof and floor of an open stope. This paper demonstrates the application of kinematic analyses tools such as Rocscience’s DIPS® and UNWEDGE® to assess the stability of underground stopes in a narrow vein mine. A back analysis was conducted, using both kinematic methods and the empirical stability graph method, after field investigation of stope failures and review of stope closure reports. The stability graph method showed that the designed stopes were stable with support. However, majority of the stopes audited have apparently failed or were in state of failure, i.e., unstable. Kinematic analyses showed that these stopes were certainly at risk of failure which confirmed the observations. The stability chart used by the mine was eventually adjusted based on the kinematic analyses and observations made, resulting in the stability graph having only three regions: stable, unstable and fail.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlantis Press, 2023
Series
Atlantis Highlights in Engineering, ISSN 2589-4943
Keywords
narrow vein orebody, stope stability, back analyses, empirical stability graph analysis, kinematic analysis
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103090 (URN)10.2991/978-94-6463-258-3_3 (DOI)978-94-6463-258-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Rocscience International Conference 2023 (RIC2023), April 24-26, 2023, Toronto, Canada
Note

License full text: CC BY-NC 4.0

Available from: 2023-11-29 Created: 2023-11-29 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Sormunen, M. E. .., Esberg, C. & Saiang, D. (2023). First geomorphic site in Scandinavia—current status. In: B. Abbasi; J. Parshley; A. Fourie; M. Tibbett (Ed.), Mine Closure 2023: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Mine Closure: . Paper presented at Mine Closure 2023 - 16th International Conference on Mine Closure, Reno, Nevada, USA, October 2-5, 2023. Australian Centre for Geomechanics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First geomorphic site in Scandinavia—current status
2023 (English)In: Mine Closure 2023: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Mine Closure / [ed] B. Abbasi; J. Parshley; A. Fourie; M. Tibbett, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2023
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101807 (URN)10.36487/ACG_repo/2315_040 (DOI)
Conference
Mine Closure 2023 - 16th International Conference on Mine Closure, Reno, Nevada, USA, October 2-5, 2023
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy AgencyVinnova
Available from: 2023-10-27 Created: 2023-10-27 Last updated: 2023-10-27Bibliographically approved
Abele, H., Alekou, A., Algora, A., Andersen, K., Baeßler, S., Barron-Pálos, L., . . . Zou, Y. (2023). Particle physics at the European Spallation Source. Physics reports, 1023, 1-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle physics at the European Spallation Source
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2023 (English)In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 1023, p. 1-84Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Presently under construction in Lund, Sweden, the European Spallation Source (ESS) will be the world’s brightest neutron source. As such, it has the potential for a particle physics program with a unique reach and which is complementary to that available at other facilities. This paper describes proposed particle physics activities for the ESS. These encompass the exploitation of both the neutrons and neutrinos produced at the ESS for high precision (sensitivity) measurements (searches).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
ESS, Neutrons, NNBAR, ESSnuSB, nEDM
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-100262 (URN)10.1016/j.physrep.2023.06.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85166173118 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-12 (hanlid);

For funding information see: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2023.06.001;

Part of special issue: Particle Physics at the European Spallation Source

Available from: 2023-08-16 Created: 2023-08-16 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Alekou, A., Baussan, E., Bhattacharyya, A. K., Kraljevic, N. B., Blennow, M., Bogomilov, M., . . . Zou, Y. (2023). The ESSnuSB Design Study: Overview and Future Prospects. Universe, 9(8), Article ID 347.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ESSnuSB Design Study: Overview and Future Prospects
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2023 (English)In: Universe, E-ISSN 2218-1997, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 347Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ESSnuSB is a design study for an experiment to measure the CP violation in the leptonic sector at the second neutrino oscillation maximum using a neutrino beam driven by the uniquely powerful ESS linear accelerator. The reduced impact of systematic errors on sensitivity at the second maximum allows for a very precise measurement of the CP violating parameter. This review describes the fundamental advantages of measurement at the second maximum, the necessary upgrades to the ESS linac in order to produce a neutrino beam, the near and far detector complexes, and the expected physics reach of the proposed ESSnuSB experiment, concluding with the near future developments aimed at the project realization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
neutrino, oscillation, long baseline, CP violation, second maximum, precision
National Category
Subatomic Physics Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101192 (URN)10.3390/universe9080347 (DOI)2-s2.0-85169097154 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 777419
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-12 (hanlid);

Funder: COST Action EuroNuNet. For more funding information see: https://doi.org/10.3390/universe9080347;

Part of special Issue: Neutrinos from Artificial Sources;

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-09-04 Created: 2023-09-04 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Saiang, D., Idris, M. A. & Nordlund, E. (2022). Block Erosion of Unlined Rock Spillway Canals. Stockholm: Stiftelsen för bergteknisk forskning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Block Erosion of Unlined Rock Spillway Canals
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Blockerosion av utskov i berg
Abstract [en]

Canals and tunnels in hydropower plants must be able to receive high shock-like flows without damaging either the dam or the rock foundation. Although the canals often consist of rock, erosion can occur when water is released. The natural riverbeds and lakes in Sweden usually run along large faults and other zones of weakness in the rock. This is because the water could more easily erode its way along these weakness zones. Spillways of hydropower dams are generally unlined thereby exposing the bedrock to erosion during floods.This study focuses on block erosion mechanisms and characteristics in unlined spillway canals that comprises hard rock mass systems. Two hydropower dam spillway canals were investigated as case studies; identified as Dam1 and Dam 2. The spillway canals of these two dams have uniquely different bed rock characteristics. At Dam 1 the rock mass is very blocky with visually estimated GSI classification in the range of 50 to 70, while Dam 2 is composed of massive rock mass with visually assessed GSI classification of 70 to 90.The erosion characteristics observed in these two spillway canals are uniquely different. The rock mass is obviously the principal factor contributing to these observations. However, there are also other factors, namely the hydraulic factors, as well as the geometrical factors of the canals. In this report these factors have been described in detail.  Three main mechanisms of block erosion were observed, (i) removal or plucking of rock blocks, (ii) fracturing of intact rock blocks and (iii) abrasion. At Dam 1 spillway canal all three mechanisms were observed to be significantly evident. At Dam 2, abrasion is the dominant mechanism of erosion. Hydraulic parameters, water pressure and velocity, affect the criticality of the erosion.Numerical simulations of the spillway canals were conducted using 3DEC. These simulations show that block displacements greater than 10 m are experienced within 1 to 2 minutes of flow. This observation is consistent with observations made during an actual discharge from a dam. Numerical simulations indicated that blocks with sizes less than 1 m3 would easily be plucked and transported downstream. If they are intact and with unfavourable geometry, they can be easily fractured by the spill water loads. Field investigations support these observations.Remedial measures would first require classification of a spillway canal into erosion domains based on erosion vulnerability. For example, the upstream sections of the channels are typically vulnerable to high intensity erosion. Hydraulic jumps, plunge pools, stilling basins, etc, have been typically used to break up the energy before the water flows downstream. However, erosion still occurs further down since the energy is still very large. Reinforcing the bedrock with artificial supports such as rock bolting, widening and levelling of canals, diverting the flow to less vulnerable areas of the canal, etc, have been some means to reduce block erosion. This study concludes that, remedial measures must start with identifying the mechanisms of block erosion, three of which have been described above. Domaining of the channels into erosion critically domains may also assist in monitoring and application of remedial measures. Empirical methods, such as Pells (2016) can be applied in each domain to identify their erosion potential. This study also concludes that the hydraulic pressure and displacements that occur around a rock block needs to be further investigated, either by field measurements in a spillway or by using physical models. In this way, it will be possible to better understand the conditions around blocks in a spillway and erosion mechanisms during a discharge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stiftelsen för bergteknisk forskning, 2022. p. 128
Series
BeFo Report, ISSN 1104-1773 ; 230
Keywords
Block erosion, scouring, spillway channels/canals, hydropower dams
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94154 (URN)BEFO-R-230-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2022-11-18 Created: 2022-11-18 Last updated: 2022-11-28Bibliographically approved
Jones, T. & Saiang, D. (2022). Damage mapping and monitoring in sublevel caving crosscuts at the Malmberget mine. In: Y. Potvin (Ed.), Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume Two: . Paper presented at Caving 2022 - Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30-September 1, 2022 (pp. 1019-1030). Australian Centre for Geomechanics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damage mapping and monitoring in sublevel caving crosscuts at the Malmberget mine
2022 (English)In: Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume Two / [ed] Y. Potvin, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2022, p. 1019-1030Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The LKAB’s Malmberget mine in Sweden is one of the largest sublevel caving mines in the world, with an annual production rate averaging 18 million tons. This high rate of production at depth (>1,000 m) creates significant mining-induced stress redistribution on a global scale. At a production-level scale, this redistribution results in undesirable amounts of deformation in the entries and typically leads to general degradation in the footwall contact zones. This is exacerbated by highly varied geological and geotechnical characteristics of the lithology often found in the contact zone. To better understand the impact of mininginduced stress on production level entries, a study was conducted to measure stress changes and associated deformation over a two year period, as mining progressed in the vicinity of the instrumentation. Three-dimensional relative stress measurements using digital hollow inclusion stress cells and multiple-point borehole extensometer measurements were combined with convergence and floor heave measurements and regular damage mapping throughout the contact zone to better understand the evolution of damage in these areas. A site-specific Entry Condition Rating (ECR) system was developed to help geomechanics better track and understand the expected performance of the crosscut given the current state of mining. The result of the work is a better understanding of where and when damage is expected to occur, and the ability to properly time the installation of secondary support in a pre-emptive manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2022
Keywords
stress, deformation, instrumentation, condition ratings
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Geophysics
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93520 (URN)10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_70 (DOI)
Conference
Caving 2022 - Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30-September 1, 2022
Projects
Design Methods for Variable Stress, Variable-Geology Environments
Funder
Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo), 406Luleå University of Technology, 406
Note

Funder: Luossavaara Kiirunavaara AB (406);

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-0-6450938-3-4

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Jones, T. & Saiang, D. (2022). Design methods for variable-stress, variable-geology environments. Stockholm: Stiftelsen Bergteknisk Forskning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design methods for variable-stress, variable-geology environments
2022 (English)Report (Refereed)
Alternative title[en]
Designmetoder för bergmassor med varierande geologi och spänningsförhållanden
Abstract [en]

Building and excavating in the underground environment naturally results in changes in the stresses. Induced stresses can concentrate in sensitive areas leading to rock falls and high deformation. As construction proceeds to deeper levels, or as multiple excavations are created in the same area stresses accumulate and can overcome the strength of the geology hosting the excavations.

Specifically, problems can be encountered when excavating through geologies with highly varied properties. Stresses in these areas are concentrated not only under the effect of multiple different excavations, but by the natural capabilities of the different geologies to withstand and/or transmit that stress. It is a situation in which analytical and/or empirical methods are insufficient, and numerical methods can produce inaccurate or non-verifiable results. Improvements in modelling methodology are required to enable the numerical tool to be of greater help to design in these situations where it is potentially unsafe, and certainly inefficient, to design based solely on “what was done before”.

To better design openings and support systems in these areas, it is necessary to better understand how excavation-induced stresses and geologically driven stress concentrations interact to create rock failure. This project addresses this problem by using a combination of data collection in a controlled environment, and numerical modelling of complex, multi-opening excavations in order develop a method for improving design and support systems.

The research generated significant amount of data which can be used for further research and has already been assessed in the daily mine operations and planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stiftelsen Bergteknisk Forskning, 2022. p. 258
Series
BeFo Report, ISSN 1104-1773 ; 229
Keywords
variable stress, variable geology, monitoring, stress, deformation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94136 (URN)BEFO-R-229-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2022-11-17 Created: 2022-11-17 Last updated: 2022-12-03Bibliographically approved
Jones, T. & Saiang, D. (2022). Empirical damage prediction in sublevel cave crosscuts at the Malmberget mine. In: Y. Potvin (Ed.), Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume Two: . Paper presented at Caving 2022 - Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30-September 1, 2022 (pp. 1007-1018). Australian Centre for Geomechanics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical damage prediction in sublevel cave crosscuts at the Malmberget mine
2022 (English)In: Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume Two / [ed] Y. Potvin, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2022, p. 1007-1018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Building on the empirical research completed in the footwall contact zone of LKAB’s Malmberget mine, a method has been developed for predicting damage in the crosscut entries of the mine layout. Threedimensional stress measurements combined with analyses of measured and observed damage in the crosscuts have allowed new interpretations of the crosscut performance. Stress analysis focused on the relative differential stresses measured in the area of interest. These stress changes were then linked directly to observed changes in the entry condition according to the Entry Condition Rating (ECR) system, a damage mapping system developed for the mine. A bilinear model was used to describe the entry condition rate of change such that the peak measured differential stress corresponds to increased degradation rates. These bilinear degradation rate trends are shown to be directly related to the geotechnical qualities of the rock using the Geologic Strength Index (GSI) of the monitored locations, irrespective of lithology. The final step was to develop an empirical model that allows prediction of a crosscut’s future ECR based on changes in the relative differential stress and the GSI of the crosscut. In combination with simple numerical modelling tools the model can be used to predict ahead of time when additional reinforcement will be necessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2022
Keywords
differential stress, damage, condition ratings, Geologic Strength Index
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93518 (URN)10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_69 (DOI)
Conference
Caving 2022 - Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30-September 1, 2022
Projects
Design Methods for Variable Stress, Variable-Geology Environments
Funder
Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo), 406Luleå University of Technology, 406
Note

Funder: Luossavaara Kiirunavaara AB (406);

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-0-6450938-3-4

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Sormunen, M. & Saiang, D. (2022). Future underground mining at LKAB Svappavaara: potential to combine caving and stoping methods. In: Y. Potvin (Ed.), Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume One: . Paper presented at Caving 2022 Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30-September 1, 2022 (pp. 417-432). Australian Centre for Geomechanics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future underground mining at LKAB Svappavaara: potential to combine caving and stoping methods
2022 (English)In: Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume One / [ed] Y. Potvin, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2022, p. 417-432Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Two of LKAB’s Svappavaara area open pit operations, Gruvberget and Leveäniemi, nestled between Kiruna and Malmberget SLC mines, have been initially considered for transition to underground mining using SLC or block caving methods. However, any underground mining operations at the Svappavaara site will be strongly influenced by external factors. For example, there are presently extremely tight constraints on ground deformation and land use, which are two factors that strongly discourage SLC and block caving methods. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate other alternative underground mining methods that can limit environmental disturbances while maintaining high productivity. Such alternatives may include combination of caving and stoping methods to create a form of hybrid method, with backfilling applied in this scenario. Such methods will decrease mining footprints associated with the cave mining methods. Hybrid mining methods and operations already exist but it is not well understood how they work and how they could be applied to suit more complex deposits. This paper considers the specific settings for the Svappavaara site and discusses how the concept of hybrid mining method can be applied in taking the Svappavaara orebodies underground.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2022
Keywords
hybrid mining method, low impact environment mining, complex orebodies
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93516 (URN)10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_28 (DOI)
Conference
Caving 2022 Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30-September 1, 2022
Note

Funder: LKAB;

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-0-6450938-3-4

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Alekou, A., Baussan, E., Bhattacharyya, A. K., Blaskovic Kraljevic, N., Blennow, M., Bogomilov, M., . . . Zou, Y. (2022). The European Spallation Source neutrino super-beam conceptual design report. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 231(21), 3779-3955
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The European Spallation Source neutrino super-beam conceptual design report
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2022 (English)In: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 231, no 21, p. 3779-3955Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A design study, named ESSνSB for European Spallation Source neutrino Super Beam, has been carried out during the years 2018–2022 of how the 5 MW proton linear accelerator of the European Spallation Source under construction in Lund, Sweden, can be used to produce the world’s most intense long-baseline neutrino beam. The high beam intensity will allow for measuring the neutrino oscillations near the second oscillation maximum at which the CP violation signal is close to three times higher than at the first maximum, where other experiments measure. This will enable CP violation discovery in the leptonic sector for a wider range of values of the CP violating phase δCPδCP and, in particular, a higher precision measurement of δCPδCP. The present Conceptual Design Report describes the results of the design study of the required upgrade of the ESS linac, of the accumulator ring used to compress the linac pulses from 2.86 ms to 1.2 μs, and of the target station, where the 5 MW proton beam is used to produce the intense neutrino beam. It also presents the design of the near detector, which is used to monitor the neutrino beam as well as to measure neutrino cross sections, and of the large underground far detector located 360 km from ESS, where the magnitude of the oscillation appearance of νe from νμ is measured. The physics performance of the ESSνSB research facility has been evaluated demonstrating that after 10 years of data-taking, leptonic CP violation can be detected with more than 5 standard deviation significance over 70% of the range of values that the CP violation phase angle δCPδCP can take and that δCPδCP can be measured with a standard error less than 8° irrespective of the measured value of δCPδCP. These results demonstrate the uniquely high physics performance of the proposed ESSνSBESSνSB research facility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94139 (URN)10.1140/epjs/s11734-022-00664-w (DOI)000884643800003 ()2-s2.0-85142170052 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 777419Uppsala University
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-12 (hanlid);

Funder: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules, France; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (423761110); Agencia Estatal de Investigacion (CEX2020-001007-S); MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 (PID2019-108892RB); Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (W129/H2020/2018); Ministry of Science and Education of Republic of Croatia (KK.01.1.1.01.0001); Ramanujan Fellowship of SERB, Govt. of India (RJF/2020/000082);

Full text license: CC BY;

Publikationen finns även som preprint här: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2206.01208 och https://essnusb.eu/DocDB/public/ShowDocument?docid=1364;

A correction is available for this publication, please see: Alekou, A., Baussan, E., Bhattacharyya, A.K. et al. Correction: The European Spallation Source neutrino super-beam conceptual design report. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjs/s11734-022-00729-w

Available from: 2022-11-17 Created: 2022-11-17 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
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