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van Eldert, J., Schunnesson, H., Johansson, D. & Saiang, D. (2020). Application of Measurement While Drilling Technology to Predict Rock Mass Quality and Rock Support for Tunnelling. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 53(3), 1349-1358
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Measurement While Drilling Technology to Predict Rock Mass Quality and Rock Support for Tunnelling
2020 (English)In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 1349-1358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A tunnelling project is normally initiated with a site investigation to determine the in situ rock mass conditions and to generate the basis for the tunnel design and rock support. However, since site investigations often are based on limited information (surface mapping, geophysical profiles, few bore holes, etc.), the estimation of the rock mass conditions may contain inaccuracies, resulting in underestimating the required rock support. The study hypothesised that these inaccuracies could be reduced using Measurement While Drilling (MWD) technology to assist in the decision-making process. A case study of two tunnels in the Stockholm bypass found the rock mass quality was severely overestimated by the site investigation; more than 45% of the investigated sections had a lower rock mass quality than expected. MWD data were recorded in 25 m grout holes and 6 m blast holes. The MWD data were normalised so that the long grout holes with larger hole diameters and the shorter blast holes with smaller hole diameters gave similar results. With normalised MWD data, it was possible to mimic the tunnel contour mapping; results showed good correlation with mapped Q-value and installed rock support. MWD technology can improve the accuracy of forecasting the rock mass ahead of the face. It can bridge the information gap between the early, somewhat uncertain geotechnical site investigation and the geological mapping done after excavation to optimise rock support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Measurement while drilling (MWD), Rock mass investigation, Tunnelling, Rock mass quality, Rock support, Drill and blast technology
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Infrastructure Engineering Construction Management Geotechnical Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76382 (URN)10.1007/s00603-019-01979-2 (DOI)000489294700001 ()
Funder
Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo), 344
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-04-21 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2020-04-21Bibliographically approved
Mertuszka, P., Szumny, M., Wawryszewicz, A., Fuławka, K. & Saiang, D. (2019). Blasting delay pattern development in the light of rockburst prevention: Case study from polish copper mine. In: M. Tyulenev, S. Zhironkin, A. Khoreshok, S. Vöth, M. Cehlár, D. Nuray, J. Janocko, S. Anyona, Y. Tan, A. Abay, D. Marasová and P. Stefanek (Ed.), E3S Web of Conferences: IVth International Innovative Mining Symposium. Paper presented at 14th International Innovative Mining Symposium, IIMS 2019; Kemerovo, Russian Federation, October 14-16, 2019.. EDP Sciences, 105, Article ID 01012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blasting delay pattern development in the light of rockburst prevention: Case study from polish copper mine
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2019 (English)In: E3S Web of Conferences: IVth International Innovative Mining Symposium / [ed] M. Tyulenev, S. Zhironkin, A. Khoreshok, S. Vöth, M. Cehlár, D. Nuray, J. Janocko, S. Anyona, Y. Tan, A. Abay, D. Marasová and P. Stefanek, EDP Sciences, 2019, Vol. 105, article id 01012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to reduce the risk of induced seismicity related to underground mining, a number of preventive actions are applied in the form of passive and active prevention methods. The former are mainly of an organisational nature and their effectiveness is usually considered in the long term, while the active methods are mostly based on the detonation of explosives and are aimed to release the seismic energy accumulated in the rock mass. In this paper, modifications of the firing pattern aimed to concentrate the paraseismic vibrations while maintaining the appropriate excavation of the mining face has been verified on the basis of underground tests. The evaluation was based on fragmentation analysis. The obtained results confirmed, that the blasting pattern modifications related to the reducing of the face firing time do not cause significant differences in terms of the appropriate excavation of the mining face.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2019
Series
E3S Web of Conferences, ISSN 2555-0403 ; 105
Keywords
Copper mines, Detonation, Induced Seismicity
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75633 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/201910501012 (DOI)
Conference
14th International Innovative Mining Symposium, IIMS 2019; Kemerovo, Russian Federation, October 14-16, 2019.
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
Mertuszka, P., Szumny, M., Fulawka, K., Maslej, J. & Saiang, D. (2019). The Effect of the Blasthole Diameter on the Detonation Velocity of Bulk Emulsion Explosive in the Conditions of Selected Mining Panel of the Rudna Mine. Archives of Mining Sciences, 64(4), 725-737
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of the Blasthole Diameter on the Detonation Velocity of Bulk Emulsion Explosive in the Conditions of Selected Mining Panel of the Rudna Mine
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2019 (English)In: Archives of Mining Sciences, ISSN 0860-7001, E-ISSN 1689-0469, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 725-737Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The blasting technique is currently the basic excavation method in Polish underground copper mines. Applied explosives are usually described by parameters determined on the basis of specific standards, in which the manner and conditions of the tests performance were defined. One of the factors that is commonly used to assess the thermodynamic parameters of the explosives is the velocity of detonation. The measurements of the detonation velocity are carried out according to European Standard EN 13631-14:2003 based on a point-to-point method, which determines the average velocity of detonation over a specified distance. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of information on the detonation process along the explosive sample. The other method which provides detailed data on the propagation of the detonation wave within an explosive charge is a continuous method. It allows to analyse the VOD traces over the entire length of the charge. The examination certificates of a given explosive usually presents the average detonation velocities, but not the characteristics of their variations depending on the density or blasthole diameter. Therefore, the average VOD value is not sufficient to assess the efficiency of explosives. Analysis of the abovementioned problem shows, that the local conditions in which explosives are used differ significantly from those in which standard tests are performed. Thus, the actual detonation velocity may be different from that specified by the manufacturer. This article presents the results of VOD measurements of a bulk emulsion explosive depending on the diameter of the blastholes carried out in a selected mining panel of the Rudna copper mine, Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal diameter of the blastholes in terms of detonation velocity. The research consisted of diameters which are currently used in the considered mine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Polish Academy of Sciences, 2019
Keywords
emulsion explosives, detonation velocity, Blasthole diameter, Fragmentation analysis
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77858 (URN)10.24425/ams.2019.131062 (DOI)000503058400006 ()2-s2.0-85078619043 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-02-25 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-02-25 Created: 2020-02-25 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Svartsjaern, M. & Saiang, D. (2017). Discrete Element Modelling of Footwall Rock Mass Damage Induced by Sub-Level Caving at the Kiirunavaara Mine. Minerals, 7(7), Article ID 109.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrete Element Modelling of Footwall Rock Mass Damage Induced by Sub-Level Caving at the Kiirunavaara Mine
2017 (English)In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Kiirunavaara mine is one of the largest sub-level-caving (SLC) mines in the worldand has been in underground operation for more than 50 years. The mine has been the focus ofseveral case studies over the years. The previous works have either focused on the caving of thehanging wall, using the footwall as a passive support, or focused on the footwall using the hangingwall to apply a passive load. In this updated study the findings of the previous case studies arecombined to study the interaction between the caving hanging wall, the developing cave rock zoneand the footwall. The geological data for the rock types in the mine area are used to derive upperand lower limits for the geomechanical parameters calibrated for numerical models in the previousstudies. The calibrated parameters are used as inputs to a numerical model constructed usingItasca’s Particle-flow-code (PFC) encompassing a mine-scale 2D section at the mid portion of themine. The model captures the failure locations well in the footwall underground and indicatesdamage development without a coherent large-scale failure. The trend in subsidence data on thehanging wall is adequately simulated but the magnitude of deformation is underestimated. Theinput strength for the hanging wall was lowered to study the impact of hanging wall strength onfootwall damage development. It is shown that when the footwall strength is kept constant, whilelowering the hanging wall strength, the extent of damage and magnitude of displacements in thefootwall increases. From these observations it is argued that the hanging wall and footwall cannotbe studied independently for the Kiirunavaara mine since the cave rock zone significantly affectsthe damage development in both walls.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2017
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64484 (URN)10.3390/min7070109 (DOI)000407363800003 ()2-s2.0-85021436574 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-07-06 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Saiang, D. & Nordlund, E. (2017). Numerical Analyses of Field Monitoring in Stope J10-3 at Kristineberg Mine. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical Analyses of Field Monitoring in Stope J10-3 at Kristineberg Mine
2017 (English)Report (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017. p. 61
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62761 (URN)978-91-7583-857-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Idris, M. A., Nordlund, E. & Saiang, D. (2016). Comparison of different probabilistic methods for analyzing stability of underground rock excavations. The Electronic journal of geotechnical engineering, 21(21), 6555-6585
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of different probabilistic methods for analyzing stability of underground rock excavations
2016 (English)In: The Electronic journal of geotechnical engineering, ISSN 1089-3032, E-ISSN 1089-3032, Vol. 21, no 21, p. 6555-6585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stability analyses of underground rock excavations are often performed using traditional deterministic methods. In deterministic methods the mean or characteristics values of the input parameters are used for the analyses. These method neglect the inherent variability of the rock mass properties in the analyses and the results could be misleading. Therefore, for a realistic stability analyses probabilistic methods, which consider the inherent variability of the rock mass properties, are considered appropriate. A number of probabilistic methods, each based on different theories and assumptions have been developed for the analysis of geotechnical problems. Geotechnical engineers must therefore choose appropriate probabilistic method to achieve a specific objective while taking into account simplicity, accuracy and time efficiency. In this study finite difference method was combined with five different probabilistic methods to analyze the stability of an underground rock excavation. The probabilistic methods considered were the Point Estimate Method (PEM), the Response Surface Method (RSM), the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), the Monte Carlos Simulation (MCS), and the Strength Classification Method (SCM). The results and the relative merits of the methods were compared. Also the general advantages of the probabilistic method over the deterministic method were discussed. Though the methods presented in this study are not exhaustive, the results of this study will assist in the choice of appropriate probabilistic methods for the analysis of underground rock excavations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mete Öner, 2016
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59926 (URN)2-s2.0-84992509213 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Svartsjaern, M., Saiang, D., Nordlund, E. & Eitzenberger, A. (2016). Conceptual Numerical Modeling of Large-Scale Footwall Behavior at the Kiirunavaara Mine, and Implications for Deformation Monitoring (ed.). Paper presented at . Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49(3), 943-960
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual Numerical Modeling of Large-Scale Footwall Behavior at the Kiirunavaara Mine, and Implications for Deformation Monitoring
2016 (English)In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 943-960Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last 30 years the Kiirunavaara mine has experienced a slow but progressive fracturing and movement in the footwall rock mass which is directly related to the sublevel caving (SLC) method utilized by Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB). As part of an on-going work, this paper focuses on describing and explaining a likely evolution path of large-scale fracturing in the Kiirunavaara footwall. The trace of this fracturing was based on a series of damage mapping campaigns carried out over the last two years, accompanied by numerical modelling. Data collected from the damage mapping between mine levels 320 and 907 m was used to create a 3D surface representing a conceptual boundary for the extent of the damaged volume. The extent boundary surface was used as the basis for calibrating conceptual numerical models created in UDEC. The mapping data, in combination with the numerical models, indicated a plausible evolution path of the footwall fracturing that was subsequently described. Between levels 320 and 740 m the extent of fracturing into the footwall appears to be controlled by natural pre-existing discontinuities, while below 740 m there are indications of a curved shear or step-path failure. The step-path is hypothesised to be activated by rock mass heave into the SLC zone above the current extraction level. Above the 320 m level the fracturing seems to intersect a sub-vertical structure that daylights in the old open pit slope. Identification of these probable damage mechanisms was an important step in order to determine the requirements for a monitoring system for tracking footwall damage. This paper describes the background work for design of the system currently being installed.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10894 (URN)10.1007/s00603-015-0750-x (DOI)000371313300014 ()2-s2.0-84959154826 (Scopus ID)9c57e456-e493-4fed-a105-98f1373c0678 (Local ID)9c57e456-e493-4fed-a105-98f1373c0678 (Archive number)9c57e456-e493-4fed-a105-98f1373c0678 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20150527 (miknil)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Saiang, D. & Nordlund, E. (2016). Ground support modelling involving large ground deformation: Simulation of conceptual cases – Part 2. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction: . Paper presented at Ground Support 2016 : 11/09/2016 - 14/09/2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ground support modelling involving large ground deformation: Simulation of conceptual cases – Part 2
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a continuation of Part 1 of ground support modelling involving large ground deformation by Saiang and Nordlund (2016) this paper presents the conceptual models and results from the typically observed cases throughout the Kristineberg mine. The Part 1 of the paper focused primarily on results from measurements carried out at the J-orebody, whereas the Kristineberg mine consists of many ore bodies or lenses within the VMS (volcanic massive sulphides). Part 2 therefore presents some of the typically observed rock mass behaviours throughout the mine. The mine geology is very complex for each of the orebody due to the multiple phases of wall rock alterations and various geological processes that occurred throughout the history of the deposit. This history also included both local and regional events of folding, faulting and shearing. Despite the notable differences in the local geology around the different orebodies, there is nevertheless, a general trend that the stability of the stopes throughout the mine are in principal controlled by the altered wall rocks, the presence of other lithologies capable of inhibiting deformation and the geometry of the stopes themselves as demonstrated in Part 1.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61863 (URN)
Conference
Ground Support 2016 : 11/09/2016 - 14/09/2016
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Saiang, D. & Nordlund, E. (2016). Ground support modelling involving large ground deformation: Simulation of field observations – Part 1. In: E . Nordlund, T.H. Jones and A. Eitzenberger (eds) (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction: . Paper presented at Ground Support 2016 : 11/09/2016 - 14/09/2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ground support modelling involving large ground deformation: Simulation of field observations – Part 1
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction / [ed] E . Nordlund, T.H. Jones and A. Eitzenberger (eds), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Kristineberg mine has a long history of large ground deformation which consequently incites ground control problems for the mine. Over the years the mine has developed various mining techniques, backfilling and ground support procedures to manage this problem. In general the ground control problems at the mine are highly influenced by the wall rock geology. The wall rock, that is the footwall and hanging wall, comprise of highly altered chlorite schist, which are internally referred to as talc-schist. They very often occur as seams with thickness barely ranging from 0.1 m to as wide as 3.0 m. Coupled with high ground stresses the talc squeezes and slides into the stope if undercut by the excavation, or either bends or bulges inwards when exposed but not undercut depending on the loading direction. The deformation magnitudes have often been reported to be in the order of 0.2 to 0.5 m and seldom up to 1.0 m. Conventional rock support system, consisting of fibre re-enforced shotcrete and rebar rock bolts, has regularly failed under these conditions. As part of Ground Support Research Initiative at Luleå University of Technology a monitoring program was designed to measure ground deformation and the response of the ground support system. Numerical modelling was conducted to capture the responses as observed during monitoring. The numerical models revealed all the typical mechanisms of instability that have been conceptualized through observations and earlier studies. Talc obviously was the most influential lithology that controlled the deformation characteristics of the stope and ultimately on the rock support system. Combinations of bending, bulging, shearing and tensile mechanisms induced a complex loading pattern on the rock support system. Often the rock bolts, for example, would experience all of these mechanisms at once or during different stages of the excavation rounds as a cut is developed.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61862 (URN)
Conference
Ground Support 2016 : 11/09/2016 - 14/09/2016
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Svartsjaern, M., Saiang, D. & Mäkitaavola, K. (2016). Underground Footwall Monitoring at the Sublevel Caving Mine – Kiirunavaara, Sweden (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016). Paper presented at International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016 (pp. 773-780). Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Underground Footwall Monitoring at the Sublevel Caving Mine – Kiirunavaara, Sweden
2016 (English)In: Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016), Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2016, p. 773-780Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Kiirunavaara mine is a large-scale (28 Mt per annum) iron ore mine located in northern Sweden. The mine is owned and operated by Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) using sublevel caving (SLC). The SLC area underlies an open pit decommissioned in the 1950s, the current main SLC haulage level is situated at an depth of 1100 m. The main orebody dips 60 degrees to the east with a distinct boundary defining the hanging wall to the east and footwall to the west. Since the 1980s damage has been observed both in the footwall rock mass as well as on the footwall crest of the open pit. Recent investigations indicate that the underground footwall damage is primarily controlled by large-scale slope failure mechanisms. Structurally controlled near-vertical planar shear failures in the upper footwall appear to be driven or facilitated by a step-path like curved shear failure situated in a zone starting ca 250 m, and intersecting the SLC about 100 m above the active mining level. To confirm this failure evolution a pilot underground measuring system has been designed and installed to monitor the expected rock mass displacements indicated by numerical models based on the above mechanisms. The systems consists of 50 m time domain reflectometry (TDR) coaxial cables installed in the footwall both across and away from an estimated damage extent boundary to monitor shear movements along natural joint surfaces. The TDR installation is combined with long extensometers to facilitate differentiation between diffuse shear and rock mass normal expansion. Additionally, a low-tech system of tape extensometer lines are installed in drifts and stopes running perpendicular to the ore strike to monitor horizontal displacements in the infrastructure as the footwall ‘slope’ loses confinement during mining advance when the mined out areas are replaced by caved rock from the hanging wall.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2016
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-29284 (URN)2b4bf3f0-1153-45c7-861c-0a434e8324ad (Local ID)9781925100433 (ISBN)2b4bf3f0-1153-45c7-861c-0a434e8324ad (Archive number)2b4bf3f0-1153-45c7-861c-0a434e8324ad (OAI)
Conference
International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016
Note
Godkänd; 2016; 20160401 (miknil)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8001-9745

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