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Habibipour, A., Georges, A., Ståhlbröst, A., Schuurman, D. & Bergvall-Kåreborn, B. (2018). A Taxonomy of Factors Influencing Drop-Out Behaviour in Living Lab Field Tests. Technology Innovation Management Review, 5-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Taxonomy of Factors Influencing Drop-Out Behaviour in Living Lab Field Tests
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2018 (English)In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, p. 5-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concept of a “living lab” is a relatively new research area and phenomenon that facilitates user engagement in open innovation activities. Studies on living labs show that the users’ motivation to participate in a field test is higher at the beginning of the project than during the rest of the test, and that participants have a tendency to drop out before completing the assigned tasks. However, the literature still lacks theories describing the phenomenon of drop-out within the area of field tests in general and living lab field tests in particular. As the first step in constructing a theoretical discourse, the aims of this study are to present an empirically derived taxonomy for the various factors that influence drop-out behaviour; to provide a definition of “drop-out” in living lab field tests; and to understand the extent to which each of the identified items influence participant drop-out behaviour. To achieve these aims, we first extracted factors influencing drop-out behaviour in the field test from our previous studies on the topic, and then we validated the extracted results across 14 semi-structured interviews with experts in living lab field tests. Our findings show that identified reasons for dropping out can be grouped into three themes: innovation-related, process-related, and participant-related. Each theme consists of three categories with a total of 44 items. In this study, we also propose a unified definition of “drop-out” in living lab field tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Carleton University Graphic Services, 2018
Keywords
User engagement, Drop-out, Living Lab, Field test, Taxonomy
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems; Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69366 (URN)10.22215/timreview/1155 (DOI)
Projects
User Engagement for Large Scale Pilots in the Internet of Things, U4IoT
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 732078
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-12 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Habibipour, A., Ståhlbröst, A., Georges, A., Bergvall-Kåreborn, B. & Schuurman, D. (2018). Drop-out in living lab field test: analyzing consequences and some recommendations. In: Twenty-Sixth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth, UK, 2018: . Paper presented at 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth, UK, 23–28 June 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drop-out in living lab field test: analyzing consequences and some recommendations
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2018 (English)In: Twenty-Sixth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth, UK, 2018, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Involving individual users in the process of information systems development is a key dimension of open innovation. Living Labs are socio-technical systems that facilitate information systems development by integrating technical, social and organizational structures and focusing on individuals, tasks, technologies and the interactions between different stakeholders. Testing digital innovations in real-life use context is one of the key components of Living Labs. The users’ motivations to participate in Living Lab field tests at the beginning of the project are usually higher than once the field tests are underway. However, there is a dearth of research on other issues related to participants’ drop-out in Living Lab field tests. This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the consequences of drop-out in Living Lab field tests and providing recommendations that would facilitate prolonged user engagement. The paper also discusses some ethical considerations regarding involvement of participants within Living Lab field tests. In doing so, we interviewed fourteen Living Lab experts in two Living Labs in Sweden and Belgium. Based on these interviews, we propose a first set of consequences, recommendations and ethical considerations to take into account when setting up Living Lab field tests. Keywords: User

Series
AIS Electronic Library (AISeL)
Keywords
User engagement, Drop-out, Living Lab, Field test, Recommendations, Ethics
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69367 (URN)
Conference
26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth, UK, 23–28 June 2018
Projects
UNaLabUser Engagement for Large Scale Pilots in the Internet of Things, U4IoT
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 732078
Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Chronéer, D., Ståhlbröst, A. & Habibipour, A. (2018). Towards a unified definition of Urban Living Labs. In: : . Paper presented at The ISPIM Innovation Conference – Innovation, The Name of The Game, Stockholm, Sweden on 17-20 June 2018. International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a unified definition of Urban Living Labs
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today’s ongoing urbanisation and the climate changes there is anincreasing demand on cities to be innovative and inclusive to solve these issues.As an answer to these challenges, the concept of Urban Living Labs has startedto emerge. These Urban Living Labs aims to involve citizens in the process ofdeveloping the city. To date, there is a confusion concerning these UrbanLiving Labs are, what their objective is, their characteristics and theirorganisation. Hence, in this paper we build on the ongoing project UNaLab andthe city representatives perspective of what an Urban Living Lab is and how itcan contribute to their city´s challenges, to define Urban Living Labs and itsthree dimensions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM), 2018
Keywords
Urban Living Lab; Citizens; Nature-based solutions; UNaLab; Innovation; Stakeholders; Urban development; Characteristics, Experimentation; Sustainability
National Category
Social Sciences Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70051 (URN)
Conference
The ISPIM Innovation Conference – Innovation, The Name of The Game, Stockholm, Sweden on 17-20 June 2018
Projects
UNaLab
Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Ziouvelou, X., Alexandrou, P., Angelopoulos, M., Evangelatos, O., Fernandes, J., Loumis, N., . . . Ziegler, S. (2017). Crowd-driven IoT/IoE ecosystems: a multidimensional approach. In: Jordi Mongay Batalla, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Evangelos Pallis (Ed.), Beyond the Internet of Things: Everything Interconnected (pp. 341-375). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crowd-driven IoT/IoE ecosystems: a multidimensional approach
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2017 (English)In: Beyond the Internet of Things: Everything Interconnected / [ed] Jordi Mongay Batalla, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Evangelos Pallis, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 341-375Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During the past few years an astonishing paradigm shift has occurred; user-driven, open and collaborative innovation practices have emerged and an increasing number of users mutually collaborate by openly communicating their ideas, sharing best practices, and creating new knowledge across various sectors. These online, distributed crowd-driven networks leverage the network effects so as to harness the collective power and intelligence. Recently, there is an increasing interest in mobile crowd sensing (MCS) in the context of IoT/IoE which leverages both the power and the wisdom of the crowd in order to observe, measure and make sense of particular phenomena, such as environmental ones, using user-owned mobile and wearable devices. However, in order to ensure the success of such ecosystems, a number of diverse criteria need to be considered. As such this paper provides a framework, which supports the use of multiple perspectives (holistic approach) for the design of crowd-driven ecosystems. The proposed framework utilises three key perspectives: technical, business and end-user (people), in order to describe, analyse and finally design crowd-driven IoT/IoE ecosystems. In addition, this chapter examines the proposed model, in the context of IoT Lab, as a best practice crowd-driven IoT ecosystem, in order to explain how these perspectives can be used to promote ecosystem success.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2017
Series
Internet of Things, ISSN 2199-1073
Keywords
Internet of things, Internet of everything
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59947 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-50758-3_14 (DOI)2-s2.0-85027250868 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-50756-9 (ISBN)978-3-319-50758-3 (ISBN)
Projects
IoT Lab
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 610477
Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Habibipour, A., Padyab, A., Bergvall-Kåreborn, B. & Ståhlbröst, A. (2017). Exploring Factors Influencing Participant Drop-Out Behavior in a Living Lab Environment. In: Susanne Stigberg, Joackim Karlsen, Harald Holone, Cathrine Linnes (Ed.), Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems: 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6-8, 2017, Proceedings. Paper presented at 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6-9, 2017 (pp. 28-40). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Factors Influencing Participant Drop-Out Behavior in a Living Lab Environment
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems: 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6-8, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Susanne Stigberg, Joackim Karlsen, Harald Holone, Cathrine Linnes, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 28-40Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concept of “living lab” is a rather new phenomenon that facilitates user involvement in open innovation activities. The users’ motivations to contribute to the living lab activities at the beginning of the project are usually higher than once the activities are underway. However, the literature still lacks an understanding of what actions are necessary to reduce the likelihood of user drop-out throughout the user engagement process. This study aims to explore key factors that are influential on user drop-out in a living lab setting by engaging users to test an innovation during the pilot phase of the application’s development. The stability of the prototype, ease of use, privacy protection, flexibility of the prototype, effects of reminders, and timing issues are the key influential factors on user drop-out behavior. This paper summarizes the key lessons learned from the case study and points to avenues for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348 ; 294
Keywords
User engagement, Drop-out, Living lab, Case study, Field test
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Information Systems
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65068 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-64695-4_3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85028300455 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-64694-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-64695-4 (ISBN)
Conference
8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6-9, 2017
Projects
USEMP, Privacy Flag, U4IOTUser Engagement for Large Scale Pilots in the Internet of Things, U4IoT
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 732078
Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Ståhlbröst, A. & Holst, M. (2017). Reflecting on Actions in Living Lab Research. Technology Innovation Management Review, 7(2), 27-34, Article ID 1055.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflecting on Actions in Living Lab Research
2017 (English)In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 27-34, article id 1055Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Living labs deploy contemporary open and user-centred engagement processes in real-world contexts where all relevant stakeholders are involved and engaged with the endeavour to create and experiment with different innovations. The approach is evidently successful and builds on the perspective that people have a democratic right to have influence over changes that might affect them, such as those brought about by an innovation. In this article, we will reflect on and discuss a case in which end users took part in the development of a method that stimulates learning and adoption of digital innovations in their own homes while testing and interacting with it. The results show that, when end users were stimulated to use the implemented innovation through different explicit assignments, they both increased their understanding of the situation as well as changed their behaviour. Living lab processes are complex and dynamic, and we find that it is essential that a living lab have the capability to adjust its roles and actions. We argue that being reflective is beneficial for innovation process managers in living labs because it allows them to adjust processes in response to dynamic circumstances.

Keywords
Living Lab, User participation, Innovation, Reflection
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62821 (URN)
Projects
Enabling Crowd-sourcing based privacy protection for smartphone applications, websites and Internet of Things deployments, PrivacyFlagUser Engagement for Large Scale Pilots in the Internet of Things, U4IoT
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 653426EU, Horizon 2020, 732078
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-04-03 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-03-31 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Runardotter, M. & Ståhlbröst, A. (2016). CLASH!: the open data policy meets an organizational context. International Journal of Public Information Systems, 12(1), 1-21, Article ID 151-363-1-PB.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CLASH!: the open data policy meets an organizational context
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-21, article id 151-363-1-PBArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we explore the on-going implementation of the Public Sector Information (PSI) directive in the Swedish National Archives. The directive is in line with current trends of opening up data for re-use, innovations and new digital services. The PSI directive has applied since 2003; the process of implementation is still, however, on-going, more or less successfully. We focus on the policy implementation process and analyse and discuss reasons why this process can be time-consuming and as a result, also delayed. Our findings build on research from a case study consisting of two projects that focussed on creating digital services based on archival material. We use a sociotechnical perspective as an analytical lens, and reason that the open data initiative clashes with the professional culture among archivists and the organizational culture found in archives. The mission of an organization is reflected in its professional and organizational culture, and when these cultures (with related values, behaviours, artefacts and functions) are not in line with the intentions in a policy, the members of the organization need to reach a common understanding before a successful policy implementation can take place.

Keywords
professional culture, organizational culture, open innovation, open data, policy implementation
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60416 (URN)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-11-15 (inah)

Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Padyab, A., Päivärinta, T., Ståhlbröst, A. & Bergvall-Kåreborn, B. (2016). Facebook Users Attitudes towards Secondary Use of Personal Information. In: Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh International Conference on Information Systems: ICIS 2016. Paper presented at 37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, Ireland, 11-14 December 2016 (pp. 1-15).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facebook Users Attitudes towards Secondary Use of Personal Information
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh International Conference on Information Systems: ICIS 2016, 2016, p. 1-15Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a study of how user attitudes to institutional privacy change after exposing users to potential inferences that can be made from information disclosed on Facebook. Two sets of focus group sessions with Facebook users were conducted. Three sessions were conducted by demonstrating to the users, on a general level, what can be inferred from posts using prototypical software called DataBait. Another set of three sessions let the users experience the potential inferences from their own actual Facebook profiles by using the DataBait tool. Findings suggest that the participants’ attitudes to secondary use of information changed from affective to cognitive when they were exposed to potential third-party inferences using their own actual personal information. This observation calls for more research into online tools that allow users to manage and educate themselves dynamically about their own disclosure practices.

Keywords
Privacy, Facebook, User attitude, DataBait
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60685 (URN)2-s2.0-85019398333 (Scopus ID)978-0-9966831-3-5 (ISBN)
Conference
37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, Ireland, 11-14 December 2016
Projects
USEMP
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2016-11-25 Created: 2016-11-25 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Habibipour, A., Bergvall-Kåreborn, B. & Ståhlbröst, A. (2016). How to sustain user engagement over time: A research agenda. In: AMCIS 2016: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave - 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems. Paper presented at 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems : Surfing the IT Innovation Wave, AMCIS 2016, San Diego, United States, 11-14 August 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to sustain user engagement over time: A research agenda
2016 (English)In: AMCIS 2016: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave - 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

User participation in the Information Systems (IS) user studies has become a popular and widely studied research topic. Understanding of how users should be involved in the projects and how to deal with the various challenges of involving users is important. Keeping users motivated over the time is one of the biggest challenges in the process of user involvement. As the first step of research on how to build a sustained user engagement, the aim of this study is to identify, categorize and sum up existing research on why people drop-out of user studies before the project or activity has ended. The main findings of our study indicate that the performance of the prototype, user selection, user preparation, interaction with the users, privacy concerns and scheduling are highly influential on this issue. Based on the findings, this study also proposes a research agenda to guide future studies in this area.

National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59844 (URN)2-s2.0-84987617426 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems : Surfing the IT Innovation Wave, AMCIS 2016, San Diego, United States, 11-14 August 2016
Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Ståhlbröst, A. & Holst, M. (2016). Living Lab: Stimulating Adoption of Smart City Innovations. In: Open Living Lab Days 2016: Research Day Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at OpenLivingLab Days 2016, Montreal, Canada, 23-26 August 2016 (pp. 145-162). Montreal: European Network of Living Lab
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living Lab: Stimulating Adoption of Smart City Innovations
2016 (English)In: Open Living Lab Days 2016: Research Day Conference Proceedings, Montreal: European Network of Living Lab , 2016, p. 145-162Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cities are facing complex and widespread problems such as changing demographics, reduction of resources and climate changes, unequal social participation, overfilled transport networks, and difficult trade-offs in land use decisions can only be turned into opportunities if suitable strategies are applied. To facilitate the efforts related to creating and sustaining smart city development, supportive infrastructures and innovative eco-systems need to be implemented and used, and one such infrastructure can be the concept of Living Labs. These Living Labs deploy contemporary open and user driven innovation processes into real world contexts in which all relevant stakeholders are involved and engaged with the endeavour to create and experiment with innovations. In this paper, we will illustrate and discuss a Living Lab approach focusing on a way to stimulate adoption of smart cities innovations among citizens in their domestic context and thus lowering their energy consumption. Our findings show that applying a Living Lab approach for adoption of innovation was successful in several ways. By stimulating participants to use the socio-technical solution in their context by assigning them well-defined tasks, participants both increased their understanding of the socio-technical solution, they changed their behaviour and they fulfilled the purpose of the technology. Hence, applying an interactive Living Lab approach in innovation processes can strengthen the adoption of smart city solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Montreal: European Network of Living Lab, 2016
Keywords
Living Lab, Smart city, Innovation, Adoption, User engagement, Test storyline
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59943 (URN)9789082102758 (ISBN)
Conference
OpenLivingLab Days 2016, Montreal, Canada, 23-26 August 2016
Projects
IoT LabUSEMPApollon
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 610477EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 611596EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 250516
Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9468-6821

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