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Robinson, Ryan
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Engström, F., Lidström-Larsson, M., Samuelsson, C., Sandström, Å., Robinson, R. & Björkman, B. (2014). Leaching Behavior of Aged Steel Slags (ed.). Paper presented at . Steel Research International, 85(4), 607-615
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching Behavior of Aged Steel Slags
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2014 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 607-615Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large amounts of slag are generated by the Swedish Steel Industry each year. The Electric Arc Furnace process generates about 200 000 ton of slag per annum, from which approximately 40% is deposited. An alternative to deposit is to use slag as road construction material. However, leaching of metals from the slag can be a reason to limit slag use in road construction. The aim of this work was to investigate how stable these materials are when aged, in an environment open to seasonable weather conditions, with respect to leaching and mineralogy. Three different EAF-slags from domestic steel plants were used in this study. The materials were characterized after 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months to evaluate the ageing process. The analytical techniques that were used to evaluate the effect of ageing are scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and a standard test for leaching. The changes in ageing behavior differ between the three materials. The conductivity and the pH decreases with time for all samples. The leaching of calcium, chromium as well as aluminum decreases with time while the leaching of magnesium increases. CaCO3 was formed on slag surfaces as CaO reacts with moisture and CO2 from the air.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10049 (URN)10.1002/srin.201300119 (DOI)000333909700012 ()2-s2.0-84898076964 (Scopus ID)8ce7bd47-52a1-48e4-89b2-c44fffaa66f9 (Local ID)8ce7bd47-52a1-48e4-89b2-c44fffaa66f9 (Archive number)8ce7bd47-52a1-48e4-89b2-c44fffaa66f9 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20130909 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Kumpiene, J., Robinson, R., Brännvall, E., Nordmark, D., Bjurstöm, H., Andreas, L., . . . Ecke, H. (2011). Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses (ed.). Paper presented at . Waste Management, 31(1), 18-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses
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2011 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3066 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2010.06.011 (DOI)000284818100004 ()20630737 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-78149357318 (Scopus ID)0d4d9b80-9108-11df-8806-000ea68e967b (Local ID)0d4d9b80-9108-11df-8806-000ea68e967b (Archive number)0d4d9b80-9108-11df-8806-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20100716 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, D., Engström, F., Robinson, R. & Björkman, B. (2011). Cementitious phases in ladle slag (ed.). Paper presented at . Steel Research International, 82(4), 398-403
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cementitious phases in ladle slag
2011 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 398-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ladle slag is an internal by-product generated within the steelmaking industry during the refining of steel. The realisation of beneficial inherent properties of ladle slag as a binder supplement or substitute material is believed to be advantageous with respect to both economy and environment for steelmakers. For this reason, the current study has focused on highlighting the properties of ladle slag that are pertinent to the formation of calcium aluminate hydrates. Three fractions of ladle slag, two of which were based on different slag formers, have been characterised using XRF, XRD and calorimetric analysis. Commonly known hydraulic minerals such as mayenite, tricalcium aluminate and dicalcium silicate were detected during analysis. An important aspect in the utilisation of ladle slag is the slag handling methodology. Therefore, this study also highlights and discusses the need to reconsider slag handling procedures concerning unnecessary exposure to weathering and the possible need for further processing of the slag in order to better employ the inherent hydraulic properties of this material.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3197 (URN)10.1002/srin.201000176 (DOI)000290050900012 ()2-s2.0-79953702541 (Scopus ID)0fdccd71-4ad2-40dd-87a9-8cf23e7cf7b4 (Local ID)0fdccd71-4ad2-40dd-87a9-8cf23e7cf7b4 (Archive number)0fdccd71-4ad2-40dd-87a9-8cf23e7cf7b4 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20110510 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, D., Robinson, R., Engström, F. & Björkman, B. (2011). Influence of mineralogy on the hydraulic properties of ladle slag (ed.). Paper presented at . Cement and Concrete Research, 41(8), 865-871
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of mineralogy on the hydraulic properties of ladle slag
2011 (English)In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 865-871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study is aimed at investigating the hydraulic characteristics of ladle furnace slag (LFS), under the pretence of using LFS as a cement substitute in certain applications. Furthermore, LFS has been considered as a possible activator in a blend containing 50% LFS, and 50% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Phases detected in LFS were quantified using Rietveld analysis. Calorimetric studies were performed at 20, 25 and 30 °C in order to calculate the apparent activation energy of hydration and thereby to suggest a kinetic model for the tested compositions within this temperature interval. In addition, compressive strength tests were performed on mortar prisms made with LFS, and LFS/GGBFS which had hydrated for 2, 7 and 28 days. Both compositions reached acceptable early strengths, (e.g. LFS, 33.1 MPa, and LFS/GGBFS, 17.9 MPa, after 2 days), but after 28 days hydration the blend was superior to neat LFS. Related apparent activation energies were determined using an Avrami–Erofeev model and gave Ea = 58 kJ/mol for neat LFS and Ea = 63 kJ/mol for the blend. The results imply that LFS or a LFS/GGBFS blend can be favourably used as supplement in binder applications such as binder in by-product metallurgical briquettes, which are used as recycle to the blast furnace or basic oxygen furnace depending on the specific briquette composition.

Keywords
Chemical engineering - Metallurgical process and manufacturing engineering, Kemiteknik - Metallurgisk process- och produktionsteknik
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15688 (URN)10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.04.003 (DOI)000292226900008 ()2-s2.0-79957539889 (Scopus ID)f3be8e77-641e-4993-aba0-240c72e05aa8 (Local ID)f3be8e77-641e-4993-aba0-240c72e05aa8 (Archive number)f3be8e77-641e-4993-aba0-240c72e05aa8 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20110525 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Robinson, R., Pattison, F. & Björkman, B. (2011). Low temperature reactivity in agglomerates containing iron oxide: Studies in the Ca(OH)2-C-Fe2O3 system (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), 103(1), 185-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low temperature reactivity in agglomerates containing iron oxide: Studies in the Ca(OH)2-C-Fe2O3 system
2011 (English)In: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we have attempted to explain the complex reactions that occur during the dehydration of Ca(OH)2, in the presence of solid carbon and Fe2O3, in order to clarify their role as eventual precursors to the reduction and high temperature strength characteristics in feedstock agglomerates of iron and steelmaking by-products. A series of simultaneous thermo-gravimetric (TG), differential thermal analytic (DTA), and mass spectrometric (MS) tests were performed on agglomerated sample mixes of Ca(OH)2, C, and Fe2O3 to test the influence of heating rate and particle size on the transformations occurring below 1,073 K in inert atmosphere. The overall transformation begins with calcium hydroxide dehydration. Nucleation and growth of CaO grains during dehydration, as well as subsequent gasification of solid carbon, are highly dependent on the governing interstitial particle porosity and mildly dependent on the heating rate in and around agglomerates. The reduction of hematite in current agglomerates is, by association to preceding reactions, partly dependent on porosity and heating rate, but the mechanism of reduction was also found to be highly dependent on the particle size of iron oxides. Furthermore, in areas of intimate contact between CaO and iron oxide, a calcium ferrite phase appears in the form of angular and calcium-rich particles.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14228 (URN)10.1007/s10973-010-1059-3 (DOI)000287714400032 ()2-s2.0-79951510019 (Scopus ID)d949ff60-ddc7-11df-8b36-000ea68e967b (Local ID)d949ff60-ddc7-11df-8b36-000ea68e967b (Archive number)d949ff60-ddc7-11df-8b36-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20101022 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, D., Robinson, R., Blagojevic, J. & Su, F. (2008). Assessment of ladle slag as binder alternative for cold bonded briquettes (ed.). In: (Ed.), B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das (Ed.), REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology ; held October 12 - 15, 2008 in Cancun, Mexico. Paper presented at Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology : 12/10/2008 - 16/10/2008 (pp. 117-123). : Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of ladle slag as binder alternative for cold bonded briquettes
2008 (English)In: REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology ; held October 12 - 15, 2008 in Cancun, Mexico / [ed] B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008, p. 117-123Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cold bonded briquetting of steel plant by-products has proven to be a viable recycling alternative concerning technology, economy and environment in both the traditional blast furnace route and the direct reduction process. A critical parameter in cold bonded briquettes is the type and amount of binder used during production. The binder material must meet certain quality requirements concerning low and high temperature strength, chemistry and economy. Currently, SSAB Tunnplåt uses ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as binder in their cold bonded briquettes. In order to improve binder quality and possibly decrease OPC dependency, a binder feasibility study has been conducted concerning an internal by-product, ladle slag, as a supplement and/or partial substitute for OPC. Several characterization techniques have been used to study the behaviour of ladle slag, these include: XRD, XRF, SEM, glass content analysis, calorimetric analysis, particle size distribution and thermochemical stability considerations concerning the CaO-Al2O3-SiO 2 system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-29994 (URN)3a42cb60-29bc-11de-adf6-000ea68e967b (Local ID)978-0-87339-726-1 (ISBN)3a42cb60-29bc-11de-adf6-000ea68e967b (Archive number)3a42cb60-29bc-11de-adf6-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology : 12/10/2008 - 16/10/2008
Note
Godkänd; 2008; 20090415 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, D., Robinson, R., Blagojevic, J. & Su, F. (2008). Assessment of ladle slag as bnder alternative for cold bonded briquettes (ed.). In: (Ed.), B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das (Ed.), REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment. Paper presented at Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology : 12/10/2008 - 16/10/2008 (pp. 117-124). : Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of ladle slag as bnder alternative for cold bonded briquettes
2008 (English)In: REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment / [ed] B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008, p. 117-124Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40110 (URN)f18c3180-b7c5-11dd-9c2e-000ea68e967b (Local ID)978-0-87339-726-1 (ISBN)f18c3180-b7c5-11dd-9c2e-000ea68e967b (Archive number)f18c3180-b7c5-11dd-9c2e-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology : 12/10/2008 - 16/10/2008
Note
Godkänd; 2008; 20081121 (ysko)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D., Robinson, R. & Kumpiene, J. (2008). Landfilled organic carbon: is it all organic? (ed.). Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 10/09/2008 - 12/09/2008. Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 10/09/2008 - 12/09/2008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfilled organic carbon: is it all organic?
2008 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35151 (URN)990ae0d0-bfac-11dd-875e-000ea68e967b (Local ID)990ae0d0-bfac-11dd-875e-000ea68e967b (Archive number)990ae0d0-bfac-11dd-875e-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 10/09/2008 - 12/09/2008
Note
Godkänd; 2008; 20081201 (ryro)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Kumpiene, J., Nordmark, D. & Robinson, R. (2008). Minskad mängd organiskt avfall på deponi: Effekt på redox-förhållanden, nedbrytning av organiskt material och utlakning av redox-känsliga ämnen (ed.). Paper presented at . Malmö: Avfall Sverige utveckling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minskad mängd organiskt avfall på deponi: Effekt på redox-förhållanden, nedbrytning av organiskt material och utlakning av redox-känsliga ämnen
2008 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I den nya EU-lagstiftningen angående deponering av avfall (2003/33/EC) finns krav på att den totala organiska halten kol (TOC) i avfall inte bör överstiga 3% för inert avfall, 5% för icke farligt avfall, 6% för farligt avfall och 18% för restprodukter från avfallsförbränning, vilket innebär en sänkning av tidigare gränsvärden. Förändringen kan få konsekvenser för bland annat mobiliteten hos redox-känsliga ämnen. Vid analys av TOC enligt europeisk och svensk standard (EN 13 137) går det inte att särskilja mellan organiskt kol och elementärt kol vilket är ett problem eftersom elementärt kol är inert i deponeringssammanhang. Genom biologiska, kemiska och termogravimetriska analyser har det här projektet försökt ge svar på hur stor andel av TOC som motsvaras av organiskt, lätt nedbrytbart kol och hur stor effekt halten organiskt material har på utlakningen av redox-känsliga ämnen från avfall. Tre olika avfall har ingått i undersökningen och som representerar aktuella avfallsströmmar till svenska upplag: en CCAförorenad jord, en bottenaska från biobränsleförbränning och ett restavfall. Nedbrytningen av organiskt material i avfallen och dess inverkan på utlakningen av redoxkänsliga ämnen har studerats i laboratorieförsök med metoder som BMP-försök (metanbildningspotential vid nedbrytning av organiskt material) och olika laktest i oxiderad och reducerad miljö, med och utan tillsats av organiskt material. Kolspeciering har gjorts dels med standardiserade analysmetoder för TOC men också med termogravimetrisk (TG) analys kopplad till differentiell termisk analys (DTA) och quadrupole masspektrometri (QMS). Resultaten från kolspecieringen med TG-analys visar på att den dominerade andelen kol i samtliga avfall var elementärt kol (ca 60%) medan standardiserad TOC-analys visar på att allt kol i askan och jorden var organiskt. Kolinnehållet i restfraktionen varierade stort och gav inga signifikanta skillnader mellan totalt och organiskt kol. Bestämningen av TOC, med standardiserad metod, i jorden och askan gav signifikant högre värden än analys med TG. Restfaktionen uppvisade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de båda metoderna. Restfraktionen uppvisade den högsta gasbildningspotentialen medan nedbrytningen av organiskt material i askor kan vara svår att bedöma med biologiska metoder på grund av karbonatiseringsreaktioner i materialet. Utlakningen av redox-känsliga ämnen påverkades av mängden reaktivt organiskt material. En hög halt organiskt material sänkte redoxpotentialen i avfallen och krom och koppa visade på en minskad utlakning i reducerade miljö i samtliga avfall, zink även i jorden och restfaktionen. Utlakningen av arsenik och bly ökade i reducerande miljö från samtliga avfall. Från askan ökade också utlakningen av zink. Generellt ökar utlakningen av ämnen som till största delen är bundna till reducerbart material (t.ex. Fe-Mn-oxider) vid en högre halt organiskt material, medan det omvända gäller för ämnen som till största delen är bundna till oxiderbart material (organiskt material och sulfider). Andra faktorer som inverkar på mobiliteten hos kritiska ämnen är faktorer som pH och närvaron av ligander. Även materialens fysiska egenskaper som porositet och permeabilitet måste vägas in vid en bedömning av ändrad avfallssammansättnings effekt på utlakningen från deponier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Avfall Sverige utveckling, 2008. p. 40
Series
Deponeringssatsningen ; D2008:01
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Process Metallurgy; Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23618 (URN)7baeaef3-d468-4831-8972-ee09eacb1e56 (Local ID)7baeaef3-d468-4831-8972-ee09eacb1e56 (Archive number)7baeaef3-d468-4831-8972-ee09eacb1e56 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2008; 20110408 (desnor)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Robinson, R. (2008). Studies in low temperature self-reduction of by-products from integrated iron and steelmaking (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies in low temperature self-reduction of by-products from integrated iron and steelmaking
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within the last decade, the landfill tax in Sweden has increased over 70% with comparable rates in the UK and elsewhere in EU. This development, among others, highlights the incentive for increased recycling efforts of fine particulate solid by-products in the iron and steel making industry in order to avoid depositing costs and to recover valuable metal fractions. As pre-treatment is necessary for recycling fine particulate material, cold bonded agglomeration is considered to be a well-suited alternative for recycling of steel industry by-product dust and sludge. The major objective of this work has been to provide insight to help further the development of cold bonded agglomeration technology in order to increase the recycling of iron and steelmaking by-products. Laboratory pelletizing tests were conducted based on a factorial design test plan to help identify those variables that most influence the cold strength and capacity of product cold bonded pellets (CBPs). The design variables were the individual components of the by-product pellet mix; i.e blast furnace (BF) flue dust, oily mill scale sludge, both fine and coarse basic oxygen furnace (BOF) dust and Portland cement as binder. A related statistical procedure was used to plan reduction experiments in inert gas over a temperature range of 20-1200¢XC. The results from cold strength and reduction tests have been evaluated using multivariate statistical analysis to model the experimental variables with chosen responses in order to help identify those variables that have most significance. For agglomerate dimensions used in this study, pellet blends with large fractions of particles in the size range of 10-40 ƒÝm promote good self-reduction while maintaining good cold strength. The fundamental reactions occurring during the heat treatment of CBPs have also been studied. BF flue dust, which contains fractions of coal and coke particles, has been included in the CBP blend as a source of solid reductant. Thermal analysis was performed on samples in inert atmosphere at a heating rate of 10¢XC/min in order to observe their high temperature properties, specifically, the mechanism(s) of self-reduction. The gases generated during thermal analysis were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Furthermore, raw and heat treated pellet samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results demonstrate that the decomposition of hydrates and carbonates in CBP samples contribute, as gaseous intermediates, to the prereduction of contained iron oxides. The gaseous intermediates are responsible for an initial gasification of carbon contained in BF flue dust leading to low temperature iron oxide reduction. The step-wise reduction of iron oxides in the pellets at the given conditions begins at roughly 500¢XC and is nearly completed at 1200¢XC. Detailed studies of the system Ca(OH)2-C-Fe2O3 have also been conducted because of the inherent importance of this system in the self-reduction of by-product agglomerates. Experiments have confirmed that carbon gasification does occur during the dehydration of lime and kinetic results highly correlate to behavior in CBPs. Hematite reduction in the simplified chemical system is controlled by either carbon gasification or availability of direct contact with graphite depending on hematite grain size. These results have less correlation with CBP behavior. After dehydration of Ca(OH) 2, calcium ferrite formation begins at temperatures below 600¢XC. Furthermore, the varying composition of this system has been studied in order to optimize self-reduction and low temperature bonding characteristics. The metallurgical characteristics of CBPs have been tested in additional laboratory tests; i.e. isothermal reduction tests, BF simulation and softening and melting tests. These test results indicate that CBPs; can disintegrate during reduction at high temperature, are self-reducing to a high extent and, as a supplement to the normal ferrous burden, show good softening and melting properties. Large-scale trials with CBPs have been conducted in a commercial BOF and a pilot scale BF. Results from BOF testing show that charging of CBPs is feasible at levels up to 2.2 wt% of the total charge. At these levels, CBP addition resulted in no adverse disturbances to steel and slag chemistry and to the process in general. Results from pilot scale BF tests show that operation was very stable during testing with 150 kg CBPs/tHM but that the burden descent rate and burden gas distribution were disturbed during periods with more CBP burden. The rate of reducing agents was significantly decreased and slag amount was increased when CBPs were charged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008. p. 69
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544 ; 2008:71
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17680 (URN)4a2896f0-b7c4-11dd-9c2e-000ea68e967b (Local ID)4a2896f0-b7c4-11dd-9c2e-000ea68e967b (Archive number)4a2896f0-b7c4-11dd-9c2e-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2008; 20081121 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
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