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Publications (10 of 48) Show all publications
Lennstrm, D., Gutierrez Melian, A., Nykänen, A., Becker, J. & Sottek, R. (2019). Perception of tones below 1 kHz in electric vehicles. In: InterNoise19, Madrid, Spain: . Paper presented at 48th Internaional Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering (InterNoise 19), 16-19 June, 2019, Madrid, Spain (pp. 3675-3685). Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perception of tones below 1 kHz in electric vehicles
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2019 (English)In: InterNoise19, Madrid, Spain, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2019, p. 3675-3685Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The perception of tonal sounds is one of the most important psychoacoustic sensations of NVH sound engineering. Much work has been done in the past to quantify tonal sound events. Previous studies resulted in several metrics for quantifying tonality, such as Prominence Ratio, Tonality DIN 45681 and the recently standardized Psychoacoustic Tonality (ECMA-74). Although these metrics are designed to assess the tonality of a sound, they do not explain how the pleasantness of a sound is affected by tonal events. This article describes an experiment aimed at evaluating the relationship between tonality and pleasantness of electric vehicle interior sound at different speeds with tonal components between 200 Hz and 900 Hz. It also explores how the established metrics for tonality calculation can be used to predict the pleasantness of these sounds. The results of the listening test are analyzed and compared with the calculated tonality values of the various metrics. The detectability of the tones was also analyzed and could be linked to the pleasantness observations. Furthermore, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to further examine the subjective results. Two main groups were categorized from this analysis where one cluster had higher detectability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2019
Series
INTER-NOISE and NOISE-CON Congress and Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0736-2935
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78862 (URN)2-s2.0-85084161618 (Scopus ID)
Conference
48th Internaional Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering (InterNoise 19), 16-19 June, 2019, Madrid, Spain
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-848798531-7

Available from: 2020-05-12 Created: 2020-05-12 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
Nykänen, A., Johnsson, R. & Aråker, J. (2019). Rendering Environmental Noise Planning Models in Virtual Reality. In: Proceedings of the ICA 2019 and EAA Euregio: 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019. Paper presented at 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9-13 September, 2019, Aachen, Germany (pp. 6424-6431). Aachen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rendering Environmental Noise Planning Models in Virtual Reality
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the ICA 2019 and EAA Euregio: 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019, Aachen, 2019, p. 6424-6431Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In building and infrastructure projects sound design and requirement specification are often complicated by difficulties in understanding how the planned built environment will sound. Information about sounds is almost exclusively provided as sound pressure levels and sound reduction indices. It is difficult to understand how an environment will be perceived solely based on such data. VR models with sound give an experience much easier to comprehend. In this study, VR models were developed based on first order Ambisonics recordings. Such recordings provide spatial information and can be real time rendered based on the listener’s orientation. However, the recordings must be made in discrete points and therefore a model for cross-fading and mixing was developed. Recordings of road and railway sounds were made in a two dimensional grid and mixed and crossfaded based on the position of the listener. The sound levels were adjusted to match calculated levels from noise planning models. The spatial density of the grid of recordings, the cross-fading function, and the mix of recordings were varied and the realism of the models was assessed in listening tests. The results give guidance on how Ambisonics recordings could be mixed in order to achieve realistic sound in VR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: , 2019
Series
International Congress on Acoustics, ISSN 2226-7808, E-ISSN 2415-1599
Keywords
Ambisonics, Auralisation, VR, Noise Planning
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78877 (URN)
Conference
23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9-13 September, 2019, Aachen, Germany
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SM17-0023
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-3-939296-15-7

Available from: 2020-05-14 Created: 2020-05-14 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Nykänen, A., Fagerlönn, J., Lindberg, S., Johnsson, R. & Ramanathan, S. K. (2019). Sounds for Enhancing Energy Efficient Driving: A Simulator Pre-Study. In: Proceedings of the ICA 2019 and EAA Euroregio: 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019. Paper presented at 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9-13 September, 2019, Aachen, Germany (pp. 5182-5189). Aachen: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Akustik e.V. (DEGA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sounds for Enhancing Energy Efficient Driving: A Simulator Pre-Study
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the ICA 2019 and EAA Euroregio: 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019, Aachen: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Akustik e.V. (DEGA) , 2019, p. 5182-5189Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Computer game technology was used for rapid prototyping of a sound based interface encouraging truck drivers to drive energy efficiently. The design process was inspired by user-centred agile methods. Interior sounds were made interactive by actively controlling them based on speed, engine speed, torque and acceleration. User feedback was collected at an early stage through contextual enquiry sessions during simulated driving. Based on the feedback the sounds were adjusted and effects on driver behaviour were measured in a simulator experiment. The effects on driver behaviour were small and not statistically significant (p>.05). However, assessments of preference and informativeness showed statistically significant differences between the design concepts (p<.05). The qualitative part of the study showed that the use of game technology for enabling assessment of interactive sounds in early design phases was useful and allowed for getting users into the loop early on. The framework was found to be suitable for designing interactive sounds, and the data collected provides insight into driver responses to using active noise control as a means for providing information to the driver.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Akustik e.V. (DEGA), 2019
Series
International Congress on Acoustics, ISSN 2415-1599, E-ISSN 2226-7808
Keywords
auditory display, active noise control, user-centred design
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78878 (URN)
Conference
23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9-13 September, 2019, Aachen, Germany
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 42611-1
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-3-939296-15-7

Available from: 2020-05-14 Created: 2020-05-14 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Lindegren, D., Nykänen, A. & Ljung, R. (2018). The AMR-NB Voice Codec Reduces the Listener’s Capacity to Recall Speech. Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, 104(3), 381-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The AMR-NB Voice Codec Reduces the Listener’s Capacity to Recall Speech
2018 (English)In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 381-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modern telecommunication services generally use digital speech encoding. Speech encoding degrades the audio with compression and filters to make the data transmission more efficient. To keep conversations and on-line meetings productive and creative it is important that these digital services do not increase the cognitive load. Measuring effects on working memory is one way to estimate cognitive load of the listener. A test with 25 participants was performed to investigate the effects of using the AMR-NB codec, a standardized codec for mobile communication. The memory performance for spoken 12-word lists was measured and AMR-NB encoded speech was compared with unprocessed speech (LPCM 16 bit, 44.1 kHz). A within-subject analysis showed 9% lower recall rate for the AMR-NB coded speech.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Hirzel Verlag, 2018
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68372 (URN)10.3813/AAA.919181 (DOI)000434942500001 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SM13‐0074
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-28 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Lundkvist, A., Johnsson, R., Nykänen, A. & Stridfelt, J. (2017). 3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, 10(1), 17-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems
2017 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available. Both normal parking and parallel parking was conducted. Time taken for parking and the number of obstacles/curb hits were recorded. Participants answered a NASA TLX questionnaire after evaluating each PAS for estimation of their experienced workload. Most participants enjoyed the additional information provided by the 3D auditory displays. The winter trial showed a significant reduction in perceived effort when using a 3D auditory display compared to the baseline. The summer trial showed tendencies of higher mental demand and frustration with the baseline compared to the 3D auditory displays. The results suggest that 3D auditory displays can be appreciated and useful in difficult parking situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Automotive Engineers, 2017
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62804 (URN)10.4271/2017-01-9627 (DOI)000408315300003 ()2-s2.0-85018329108 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-04-26 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Nykänen, A., Löfdahl, M., Johannesson, T. & Berg, J. (2017). Do In-ear monitors protect musicians' hearing?. In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017: . Paper presented at 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do In-ear monitors protect musicians' hearing?
2017 (English)In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In-ear monitors for live performances are commonly considered to give better sound quality than loudspeaker monitors. They are also often assumed to reduce sound exposure. Because of lack of evidence for this, sound exposure for pop/rock/jazz musicians was compared between performances with in-ear and loudspeaker monitors. Equivalent sound pressure levels at the musicians' ears were 94 to 105 dBA with loudspeaker and 86 to 108 dBA with in-ear monitors. Many participants used earplugs when using loudspeaker monitors. Therefore, the recommendation, from a pure hearing protection perspective, is to use loudspeaker monitors and earplugs. However, the large spread in levels between musicians using in-ear monitors suggests that with better training and measurements of sound exposure, in-ear monitors could be used safely.

National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Audio Technology; Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65103 (URN)2-s2.0-85026655617 (Scopus ID)
Conference
142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Berg, J., Johannesson, T., Löfdahl, M. & Nykänen, A. (2017). In-ear vs. loudspeaker monitoring for live Sound and the effect on audio quality attributes and musical performance. In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017: . Paper presented at 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-ear vs. loudspeaker monitoring for live Sound and the effect on audio quality attributes and musical performance
2017 (English)In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A successful performance of live music is dependent on how well musicians can hear themselves and the other members of the ensemble. Sound reinforcement systems can offer monitoring either by on-stage loudspeakers or in-ear headphones. These two monitoring conditions were compared to search for perceived auditory differences that affect parts of musical performance. Four jazz/pop/rock bands made live performances where monitor sound was provided to the musicians. Each band repeated their performance, changing from one monitoring condition to the other. After every performance, the musicians responded to questionnaires covering musical performance and audio quality. Experts also assessed recordings of the performances. Results show that perceived differences exist in audio quality and musical performance between loudspeaker monitors and in-ear headphone monitors.

National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Audio Technology; Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65100 (URN)2-s2.0-85026625310 (Scopus ID)
Conference
142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Lennström, D. & Nykänen, A. (2016). Influence of Inverter Modulation Strategy on Electric Drive Efficiency and Perceived Sound Quality. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, 2(1), 24-35, Article ID 7370814.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Inverter Modulation Strategy on Electric Drive Efficiency and Perceived Sound Quality
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, ISSN 2332-7782, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 24-35, article id 7370814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an evaluation of differentmodulation techniques and different levels of switching frequencyrandomization for a rear axle electrical drive unit used in auto-motive applications. Inverter and machine losses, and perceivedsound quality of high-frequency acoustic noise are investigated byfinite element calculations, experimental testing, and subjectivenoise assessment. Additionally, stator current harmonics, airgapflux density harmonics, and force density harmonics are comparedfor space vector modulation (SVM) and discontinuous pulsewidthmodulation through finite element modeling. The main conclusionis that, primarily in the field weakening region, significant energysavings can be achieved (up to 17% decrease in total inverter losseswith a switching frequency of 10 kHz). This is obtained withoutdeterioration of perceived sound quality by the use of discontinu-ous pulsewidth modulation with switching frequency randomiza-tion. Furthermore, randomization of the switching frequency doesnot improve the perceived sound quality of the acoustic noise whenusing SVM. However, for discontinuous pulsewidth modulation,improvements in perceived sound quality when randomizing theswitching frequency are observed, primarily below base speed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61463 (URN)10.1109/TTE.2015.2514162 (DOI)000425279200003 ()2-s2.0-85028719528 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 1;2017-07-05 (inah)

Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Lundkvist, A. & Nykänen, A. (2016). Response Times for Visual, Auditory and Vibrotactile Directional Cues in Driver Assistance Systems (ed.). SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety, 4(1), 8-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response Times for Visual, Auditory and Vibrotactile Directional Cues in Driver Assistance Systems
2016 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety, ISSN 2327-5626, E-ISSN 2327-5634, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems. Attention was assessed in a driving simulator using Lane Change Task together with a secondary task, designed to measure choice response times and error rates to directional (left/right) information for multisensory signals. Different combinations of visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals were tested and compared. Visual signals alone (when captured by the driver) or in combination with other modalities provided shortest response times (570 ms on average). Auditory and vibrotactile signals captured attention equally well in terms of response time (650 ms and 740 ms on average). No significant differences in localization error rates were observed.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3313 (URN)10.4271/2015-01-9153 (DOI)000449969600002 ()2-s2.0-84979209151 (Scopus ID)11e93edc-f012-44cf-9438-b2710c8cf883 (Local ID)11e93edc-f012-44cf-9438-b2710c8cf883 (Archive number)11e93edc-f012-44cf-9438-b2710c8cf883 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20151127 (lunand)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Nykänen, A., Lopez, M. & Toulson, R. (2016). Safe and Sound Drive: Design of Interactive Sounds Supporting Energy Efficient Behaviour. In: Proceedings of the Interactive Audio Systems Symposium, September 23rd 2016: . Paper presented at Interactive Audio Systems Symposium, York, 23 September 2016. York: Audio Lab, The Department of Electronics, The University of York
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safe and Sound Drive: Design of Interactive Sounds Supporting Energy Efficient Behaviour
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Interactive Audio Systems Symposium, September 23rd 2016, York: Audio Lab, The Department of Electronics, The University of York, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
York: Audio Lab, The Department of Electronics, The University of York, 2016
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61467 (URN)
Conference
Interactive Audio Systems Symposium, York, 23 September 2016
Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7048-523x

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