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Kour, R., Al-Jumaili, M., Karim, R. & Tretten, P. (2019). eMaintenance in railways: Issues and challenges in cybersecurity. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit
Open this publication in new window or tab >>eMaintenance in railways: Issues and challenges in cybersecurity
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The convergence of information technology and operation technology and the associated paradigm shift toward Industry 4.0 in complex systems, such as railways has brought significant benefits in reliability, maintainability, operational efficiency, capacity, as well as improvements in passenger experience. However, with the adoption of information and communications technologies in railway maintenance, vulnerability to cyber threats has increased. It is essential that organizations move toward security analytics and automation to improve and prevent security breaches and to quickly identify and respond to security events. This paper provides a statistical review of cybersecurity incidents in the transportation sector with a focus on railways. It uses a web-based search for data collection in popular databases. The overall objective is to identify cybersecurity challenges in the railway sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Cybersecurity, railway, eMaintenance, challenges
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72536 (URN)10.1177/0954409718822915 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-30
Normark, C. J. & Tretten, P. (2019). Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance. International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Highly specialised personnel are dependent on others and diverse systems to perform error-free aircraft maintenance. Research has shown that the maintenance process can be improved to reduce errors and increase usability by using a mobile tool. The goal of this project was to draw on theories of user-centred design to explore what human factors issues for maintenance personnel can be addressed by a mobile tool to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up. Military aircraft maintenance personnel at an air force unit were interviewed and observed. The following six problem areas that could be improved by the use of a mobile tool were identified: several information sources must constantly be consulted; information is constantly transferred between different locations and media types; technical documentation can be inconsistent and hard to access; there are strict hierarchies and certifications of personnel; the means of recording and transferring communicative information are insufficient; and there can be a long lag time for updates, error reporting and feedback of actions. A correctly designed mobile tool could solve these problems by combining all the information sources and recording relevant maintenance information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Olney, Bucks MK46 5WB UK: , 2019
Keywords
Aircraft maintenance, Human Factors, Human error, Maintenance, User interface
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Industrial Design; Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75522 (URN)
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14
Illankoon, P., Manathunge, Y., Tretten, P., Abeysekara, J. & Singh, S. (2019). Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective. Safety, 5(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective
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2019 (English)In: Safety, ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) applications. Few studies have examined LOTO effectiveness from a user perspective. This article studies LOTO processes at a manufacturing organization from a situation awareness (SA) perspective. Technicians and machine operators were interviewed, a focus group discussion was conducted, and operators were observed. Qualitative content analysis revealed perceptual, comprehension and projection challenges associated with different phases of LOTO applications. The findings can help lockout/tagout device manufacturers and organizations that apply LOTO to achieve maximum protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
lockout, tagout, qualitative content analysis, situation awareness
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73795 (URN)10.3390/safety5020025 (DOI)000474934600008 ()
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-05-29 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Al-Jumaili, M., Karim, R. & Tretten, P. (2018). Data quality assessment using multi-attribute: maintenance perspective. International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences, 10(2), 147-161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data quality assessment using multi-attribute: maintenance perspective
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences, ISSN 1756-7017, E-ISSN 1756-7025, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 147-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper proposes a model for data quality (DQ) assessment in maintenance. Data has become an increasingly important since most of the maintenance planning and implementations are based on data analysis. Poor DQ reduces customer satisfaction, leading to poor decision making, and has negative impacts on strategy execution. To improve DQ as well as to evaluate the current status, DQ needs to be measured. A measure for DQ could be an important support for decision makers. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods can provide a framework for DQ assessment, however, they are not used in literature for DQ assessment. In order to assess DQ, the attributes or KPIs need to be defined, their hierarchy should be designed and the assessment model is proposed to evaluate these attributes. A case study is also presented in this paper. The study shows that MCDM methods could provide qualitative estimation for the quality of DQ attributes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2018
Keywords
Data quality, data science, eMaintenance
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69215 (URN)10.1504/IJIDS.2018.092423 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048767333 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 1;2018-06-21 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Al-Douri, Y. K. & Tretten, P. (2017). A critical review of Information Assurance (IA) framework forcondition-based maintenance of railway tracks (ed.). In: (Ed.), Walls L.,Revie M.,Bedford T (Ed.), Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016. Paper presented at European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2016), Glasgow, 25/09/2016 - 29/09/2016 (pp. 1072-1078). London: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A critical review of Information Assurance (IA) framework forcondition-based maintenance of railway tracks
2017 (English)In: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016 / [ed] Walls L.,Revie M.,Bedford T, London: CRC Press, 2017, p. 1072-1078Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Railway maintenance is faced with increasing demands, including the need to improve service.Data measuring the track state and suitable models or applications are needed to make good maintenancedecisions. This critical review paper investigates many research papers on the use of information assurance (IA)within condition-based maintenance (CBM) on a railway track. An IA framework sheds light on the data andinformation used to make maintenance decisions. The paper considers work on data processing and decisionmakingin CBM. The results show condition monitoring suffers from an inability to determine exact positioningon the track; some data are inaccurate or unavailable. Existing studies have not adequately dealt with data contentor the various technologies used. They focus on integrity, availability, authentication, authorisation and accuracy,but do not consider other IA principles important to understand data.CBMmodels and algorithms have difficultyunderstanding degradation models, and data problems mean it is difficult to make good decisions. There is alack of long term maintenance plans. Models also need to be integrated for more realistic but not necessarilyoptimum solutions and to ensure practical predictions of maintenance. Some models focus on degradation, othersconsider prediction, and still others calculate the maintenance cost; it is difficult to combine these. Overall, dataare inaccurate, there is no testing phase using realistic data, and existing models are insufficient. This has anegative impact on maintenance decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: CRC Press, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38175 (URN)000414164700151 ()2-s2.0-85016196837 (Scopus ID)c7c4730e-2cd0-4de0-808d-08e4869ca931 (Local ID)978-1-138-02997-2 (ISBN)978-1-315-37498-7 (ISBN)c7c4730e-2cd0-4de0-808d-08e4869ca931 (Archive number)c7c4730e-2cd0-4de0-808d-08e4869ca931 (OAI)
Conference
European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2016), Glasgow, 25/09/2016 - 29/09/2016
Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Parida, A. & Tretten, P. (2017). Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Modern Dynamic Complex Systems using Criticality aspect of Key Performance Indicators. International Journal of COMADEM, 20(1), 35-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Modern Dynamic Complex Systems using Criticality aspect of Key Performance Indicators
2017 (English)In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Proactive condition monitoring, diagnosis and prognosis of modern complex engineering systems are becoming an increasingly challenging issue. This is mainly attributed to the dynamic global scenario and the ever increasing stakeholders conflicting interests. One of the most important missing links that is often given a low priority while assessing the health of a complex dynamic system is the key criticality of the system in question. This paper discusses some of the challenging issues facing the Asset Management personnel and highlights the importance of incorporating criticality aspect of the key performance indicator in the diagnosis and prognosis of all modern complex systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Birmingham, UK: COMADEM International, 2017
Keywords
Asset Management; Condition Monitoring, Key Performance Indicators, diagnosis, prognosis.
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67466 (URN)2-s2.0-85048751238 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Al-Douri, Y. K., Tretten, P. & Karim, R. (2016). Improvement of Railway Performance: A Study of Swedish Railway Infrastructure (ed.). Journal of Modern Transportation, 24(1), 22-37, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Railway Performance: A Study of Swedish Railway Infrastructure
2016 (English)In: Journal of Modern Transportation, ISSN 2095-087X, E-ISSN 2196-0577, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 22-37, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The volume of rail traffic was increased by 5% from 2006 to 2010, in Sweden, due to increased goods and passenger traffic. This increased traffic, in turn, has led to a more rapid degradation of the railway track, which has resulted in higher maintenance costs. In general, degradation affects comfort, safety, and track quality, as well as, reliability, availability, speed, and overall railway performance. This case study investigated the needs of railway stakeholders responsible for analysing the track state and what information is necessary to make good maintenance decisions. The goal is to improve the railway track performance by ensuring increased availability, reliability, and safety, along with a decreased maintenance cost. Interviews of eight experts were undertaken to learn of general areas in need of improvement, and a quantitative analysis of condition monitoring data was conducted to find more specific information. The results show that by implementing a long-term maintenance strategy and by conducting preventive maintenance actions maintenance costs would be reduced. In addition to that, problems with measured data, missing data, and incorrect location data resulted in increased and unnecessary maintenance tasks. The conclusions show that proactive solutions are needed to reach the desired goals of improved safety, improved availability and improved reliability. This also includes the development of a visualisation tool and a life cycle cost model for maintenance strategies.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6764 (URN)10.1007/s40534-015-0092-0 (DOI)000373117100002 ()2-s2.0-85016228183 (Scopus ID)50d53c30-5089-413d-8b4e-dc7abce009a0 (Local ID)50d53c30-5089-413d-8b4e-dc7abce009a0 (Archive number)50d53c30-5089-413d-8b4e-dc7abce009a0 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20151124 (yamald)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Tretten, P. (2016). Is Kinect suitable for Ergonomic Evaluation? (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Annual Meeting : 14/10/2015 - 16/10/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Kinect suitable for Ergonomic Evaluation?
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Motion Capture solutions are very expensive and Digital Human Model simulations are time consuming. Off the shelf solutions like Kinect show potential as a cheaper and more flexible method. By using both Kinect and DHM tools together, physical measurements can be produced and analyzed. This study was an investigation on how Motion Capture Technology can be used as an ergonomic assessment tool in the product development process of truck cabs. A literature study to assess relevant methods and tools led to the testing of several 3D camera and 3D manikin solutions. The results showed that the Kinect could be used together with IMMA software to measure truck driver’s motions outside of the cab. This included the use of ergonomic assessment tools. Presently, the technology is limited and the software needs to be developed further but it shows much potential.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30870 (URN)4da5c4ca-7f3b-4c68-a8c6-924faada4659 (Local ID)4da5c4ca-7f3b-4c68-a8c6-924faada4659 (Archive number)4da5c4ca-7f3b-4c68-a8c6-924faada4659 (OAI)
Conference
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Annual Meeting : 14/10/2015 - 16/10/2015
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160227 (phitre)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Aljumaili, M., Karim, R. & Tretten, P. (2016). Metadata-Based Data Quality Assessment (ed.). Vine: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 46(2), 232-250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metadata-Based Data Quality Assessment
2016 (English)In: Vine: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, ISSN 0305-5728, E-ISSN 1474-1032, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 232-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High quality data and data quality assessment can support the decision-makingprocess. In the literature, discussions of the assessment process are mainly focused on theoretical approaches to content analysis or on user evaluations. Metadata is important source for quality information in any database system, however, it is not considered for data quality assessment. Metadata contains information that describes the data in a database, including the constraints and the database schema. High quality data can be produced by designing a database system with accurate metadata descriptions. Having accurate and detailed metadata will reduce the errors in data values which can lead to data quality issues. In this study, data quality assessment model is proposed based on both content and metadata analysis. The model is validated by developing an application tool to assess the quality of the data in a database based on the proposed model. The results show that metadata can provide important information about the quality of the database and its adoption can help togive faster, more accurate and user independent assessment of data quality.

Keywords
Information technology - Computer science, Informationsteknik - Datorvetenskap
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7058 (URN)10.1108/VJIKMS-11-2015-0059 (DOI)000403823400005 ()2-s2.0-85015326022 (Scopus ID)55f53188-d739-46ef-bbc6-2a01ff36f251 (Local ID)55f53188-d739-46ef-bbc6-2a01ff36f251 (Archive number)55f53188-d739-46ef-bbc6-2a01ff36f251 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20151225 (musalj)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Tretten, P. & Karim, R. (2016). Project: iMain ‘Methodologies and tools for the sustainable, predictive maintenance of production equipment’. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: iMain ‘Methodologies and tools for the sustainable, predictive maintenance of production equipment’
2016 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

“iMain” is an European level research project aiming to develop a novel decision support system for predictive maintenance. To that end, a multi-layer solution integrating embedded information devices and artificial intelligence techniques for knowledge extraction and novel reliability & maintainability practices will be developed. The resulting solution will provide extended capabilities compared to those achievable with current state-of-the-art maintenance practices, increasing system lifetime of the production equipment at least 30%, energy efficiency at least 20%, maintenance cost at least 40% and availability of whole process at least 30%. As for maximizing project impact, “iMain” project is strongly committed to deployment issues, including innovation and implementation actions focused on value chains and bridging the gap from research to market. To that end, “iMain” emphasizes on the commercialization of results, taking also into account the needs of post-project monitoring of commercialization, which will be conducted after the end of the project in order to assess the achievement of the requested funding and for promoting the project as an effective innovation mechanism. As a step towards the Europe 2020 strategy, “iMain” project will thus make a contribution in terms of R&D investment, employment and resource efficiency, aiming to assist EU manufacturers, particularly SMEs, to adapt to global competitive pressures by increasing the technological base of EU manufacturing through the development and integration of the enabling technologies of the future, specifically engineering technologies for novel predictive maintenance solutions.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36175 (URN)97d49065-ee75-4f29-92d1-96e7463d23f3 (Local ID)97d49065-ee75-4f29-92d1-96e7463d23f3 (Archive number)97d49065-ee75-4f29-92d1-96e7463d23f3 (OAI)
Note

Finansieringskälla: EU research programme (public); Forskningsprogram: Framework Programme 7; Internetadress: http://www.imain-project.eu; Belopp: 3 400 000,00 Svenska kronor; Status: Ended; Period: 07/09/2013 → 09/09/2015

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3827-0295

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