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Illankoon, P., Tretten, P. & Kumar, U. (2019). A prospective study of maintenance deviations using HFACS-ME. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 74, Article ID 102852.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A prospective study of maintenance deviations using HFACS-ME
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 74, article id 102852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The factors initiating aviation accidents are usually hidden behind various steps, systems, and tasks, and systematic root-cause analysis is required to uncover the initial factor(s). To reduce the risk of unfavourable events, it is more appropriate to study their causal factors. We argue that an in-depth study on maintenance process deviations could assist in uncovering hidden causal factors. We therefore analyse reported maintenance deviations from an aviation organisation using the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System-Maintenance Extension (HFACS-ME) taxonomy to aggregate and map hidden causal factors. We find attention and memory errors and inadequacy of processes and documentation are major causal factors. We argue a well-run organisation can capture hidden causal factors and reduce the risk of incidents and accidents. More specifically, we show how situation awareness (SA) interventions can assist in the mitigation of maintenance deviations and capture hidden causal factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Aviation maintenance, Incidents, Active error, Latent condition, Situation awareness
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76338 (URN)10.1016/j.ergon.2019.102852 (DOI)
Funder
Luleå Railway Research Centre (JVTC), 167522
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-10-15 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-10-10 Created: 2019-10-10 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Kour, R., Tretten, P., Karim, R. & Singh, S. (2019). Cybersecurity Workforce in Railway: A Case Study. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019: . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cybersecurity Workforce in Railway: A Case Study
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Railway will continue to adapt new digital solutions which are necessary and vulnerable to cyber threats. The history of cyber-attacks on critical infrastructures including railway suggests that there is a need for cybersecurity awareness. Both for employees and the general public. The very first step in cyber hygiene is cybersecurity training and awareness for the workforce. A well-educated workforce plays a vital role in building more cyber resiliency across the organization's operation and maintenance. The objective of this research is to evaluate the cybersecurity maturity level for workforce management in three railway organizations. The results show that there is a cybersecurity workforce gap and there is a need to eliminate this gap by enhancing cybersecurity workforce culture. Henceforth, this gap can be improved by developing cybersecurity culture, including cybersecurity training and awareness and by following recommendations provided in this paper.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75936 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-10
Kour, R., Al-Jumaili, M., Karim, R. & Tretten, P. (2019). eMaintenance in railways: Issues and challenges in cybersecurity. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 233(10), 1012-1022
Open this publication in new window or tab >>eMaintenance in railways: Issues and challenges in cybersecurity
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 233, no 10, p. 1012-1022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The convergence of information technology and operation technology and the associated paradigm shift toward Industry 4.0 in complex systems, such as railways has brought significant benefits in reliability, maintainability, operational efficiency, capacity, as well as improvements in passenger experience. However, with the adoption of information and communications technologies in railway maintenance, vulnerability to cyber threats has increased. It is essential that organizations move toward security analytics and automation to improve and prevent security breaches and to quickly identify and respond to security events. This paper provides a statistical review of cybersecurity incidents in the transportation sector with a focus on railways. It uses a web-based search for data collection in popular databases. The overall objective is to identify cybersecurity challenges in the railway sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Cybersecurity, railway, eMaintenance, challenges
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72536 (URN)10.1177/0954409718822915 (DOI)000483645500002 ()
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Normark, C. J. & Tretten, P. (2019). Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance. International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Highly specialised personnel are dependent on others and diverse systems to perform error-free aircraft maintenance. Research has shown that the maintenance process can be improved to reduce errors and increase usability by using a mobile tool. The goal of this project was to draw on theories of user-centred design to explore what human factors issues for maintenance personnel can be addressed by a mobile tool to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up. Military aircraft maintenance personnel at an air force unit were interviewed and observed. The following six problem areas that could be improved by the use of a mobile tool were identified: several information sources must constantly be consulted; information is constantly transferred between different locations and media types; technical documentation can be inconsistent and hard to access; there are strict hierarchies and certifications of personnel; the means of recording and transferring communicative information are insufficient; and there can be a long lag time for updates, error reporting and feedback of actions. A correctly designed mobile tool could solve these problems by combining all the information sources and recording relevant maintenance information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Olney, Bucks MK46 5WB UK: , 2019
Keywords
Aircraft maintenance, Human Factors, Human error, Maintenance, User interface
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Industrial Design; Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75522 (URN)
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14
Illankoon, P., Manathunge, Y., Tretten, P., Abeysekara, J. & Singh, S. (2019). Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective. Safety, 5(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Safety, ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) applications. Few studies have examined LOTO effectiveness from a user perspective. This article studies LOTO processes at a manufacturing organization from a situation awareness (SA) perspective. Technicians and machine operators were interviewed, a focus group discussion was conducted, and operators were observed. Qualitative content analysis revealed perceptual, comprehension and projection challenges associated with different phases of LOTO applications. The findings can help lockout/tagout device manufacturers and organizations that apply LOTO to achieve maximum protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
lockout, tagout, qualitative content analysis, situation awareness
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73795 (URN)10.3390/safety5020025 (DOI)000474934600008 ()2-s2.0-85071440225 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-05-29 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Al-Jumaili, M., Karim, R. & Tretten, P. (2018). Data quality assessment using multi-attribute: maintenance perspective. International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences, 10(2), 147-161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data quality assessment using multi-attribute: maintenance perspective
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences, ISSN 1756-7017, E-ISSN 1756-7025, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 147-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper proposes a model for data quality (DQ) assessment in maintenance. Data has become an increasingly important since most of the maintenance planning and implementations are based on data analysis. Poor DQ reduces customer satisfaction, leading to poor decision making, and has negative impacts on strategy execution. To improve DQ as well as to evaluate the current status, DQ needs to be measured. A measure for DQ could be an important support for decision makers. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods can provide a framework for DQ assessment, however, they are not used in literature for DQ assessment. In order to assess DQ, the attributes or KPIs need to be defined, their hierarchy should be designed and the assessment model is proposed to evaluate these attributes. A case study is also presented in this paper. The study shows that MCDM methods could provide qualitative estimation for the quality of DQ attributes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2018
Keywords
Data quality, data science, eMaintenance
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69215 (URN)10.1504/IJIDS.2018.092423 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048767333 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 1;2018-06-21 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Al-Douri, Y. K. & Tretten, P. (2017). A critical review of Information Assurance (IA) framework forcondition-based maintenance of railway tracks (ed.). In: (Ed.), Walls L.,Revie M.,Bedford T (Ed.), Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016. Paper presented at European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2016), Glasgow, 25/09/2016 - 29/09/2016 (pp. 1072-1078). London: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A critical review of Information Assurance (IA) framework forcondition-based maintenance of railway tracks
2017 (English)In: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016 / [ed] Walls L.,Revie M.,Bedford T, London: CRC Press, 2017, p. 1072-1078Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Railway maintenance is faced with increasing demands, including the need to improve service.Data measuring the track state and suitable models or applications are needed to make good maintenancedecisions. This critical review paper investigates many research papers on the use of information assurance (IA)within condition-based maintenance (CBM) on a railway track. An IA framework sheds light on the data andinformation used to make maintenance decisions. The paper considers work on data processing and decisionmakingin CBM. The results show condition monitoring suffers from an inability to determine exact positioningon the track; some data are inaccurate or unavailable. Existing studies have not adequately dealt with data contentor the various technologies used. They focus on integrity, availability, authentication, authorisation and accuracy,but do not consider other IA principles important to understand data.CBMmodels and algorithms have difficultyunderstanding degradation models, and data problems mean it is difficult to make good decisions. There is alack of long term maintenance plans. Models also need to be integrated for more realistic but not necessarilyoptimum solutions and to ensure practical predictions of maintenance. Some models focus on degradation, othersconsider prediction, and still others calculate the maintenance cost; it is difficult to combine these. Overall, dataare inaccurate, there is no testing phase using realistic data, and existing models are insufficient. This has anegative impact on maintenance decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: CRC Press, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38175 (URN)000414164700151 ()2-s2.0-85016196837 (Scopus ID)c7c4730e-2cd0-4de0-808d-08e4869ca931 (Local ID)978-1-138-02997-2 (ISBN)978-1-315-37498-7 (ISBN)c7c4730e-2cd0-4de0-808d-08e4869ca931 (Archive number)c7c4730e-2cd0-4de0-808d-08e4869ca931 (OAI)
Conference
European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2016), Glasgow, 25/09/2016 - 29/09/2016
Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Parida, A. & Tretten, P. (2017). Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Modern Dynamic Complex Systems using Criticality aspect of Key Performance Indicators. International Journal of COMADEM, 20(1), 35-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Modern Dynamic Complex Systems using Criticality aspect of Key Performance Indicators
2017 (English)In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Proactive condition monitoring, diagnosis and prognosis of modern complex engineering systems are becoming an increasingly challenging issue. This is mainly attributed to the dynamic global scenario and the ever increasing stakeholders conflicting interests. One of the most important missing links that is often given a low priority while assessing the health of a complex dynamic system is the key criticality of the system in question. This paper discusses some of the challenging issues facing the Asset Management personnel and highlights the importance of incorporating criticality aspect of the key performance indicator in the diagnosis and prognosis of all modern complex systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Birmingham, UK: COMADEM International, 2017
Keywords
Asset Management, Condition Monitoring, Key Performance Indicators, diagnosis, prognosis
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67466 (URN)2-s2.0-85048751238 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Al-Douri, Y. K., Tretten, P. & Karim, R. (2016). Improvement of Railway Performance: A Study of Swedish Railway Infrastructure (ed.). Journal of Modern Transportation, 24(1), 22-37, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Railway Performance: A Study of Swedish Railway Infrastructure
2016 (English)In: Journal of Modern Transportation, ISSN 2095-087X, E-ISSN 2196-0577, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 22-37, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The volume of rail traffic was increased by 5% from 2006 to 2010, in Sweden, due to increased goods and passenger traffic. This increased traffic, in turn, has led to a more rapid degradation of the railway track, which has resulted in higher maintenance costs. In general, degradation affects comfort, safety, and track quality, as well as, reliability, availability, speed, and overall railway performance. This case study investigated the needs of railway stakeholders responsible for analysing the track state and what information is necessary to make good maintenance decisions. The goal is to improve the railway track performance by ensuring increased availability, reliability, and safety, along with a decreased maintenance cost. Interviews of eight experts were undertaken to learn of general areas in need of improvement, and a quantitative analysis of condition monitoring data was conducted to find more specific information. The results show that by implementing a long-term maintenance strategy and by conducting preventive maintenance actions maintenance costs would be reduced. In addition to that, problems with measured data, missing data, and incorrect location data resulted in increased and unnecessary maintenance tasks. The conclusions show that proactive solutions are needed to reach the desired goals of improved safety, improved availability and improved reliability. This also includes the development of a visualisation tool and a life cycle cost model for maintenance strategies.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6764 (URN)10.1007/s40534-015-0092-0 (DOI)000373117100002 ()2-s2.0-85016228183 (Scopus ID)50d53c30-5089-413d-8b4e-dc7abce009a0 (Local ID)50d53c30-5089-413d-8b4e-dc7abce009a0 (Archive number)50d53c30-5089-413d-8b4e-dc7abce009a0 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20151124 (yamald)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Tretten, P. (2016). Is Kinect suitable for Ergonomic Evaluation? (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Annual Meeting : 14/10/2015 - 16/10/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Kinect suitable for Ergonomic Evaluation?
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Motion Capture solutions are very expensive and Digital Human Model simulations are time consuming. Off the shelf solutions like Kinect show potential as a cheaper and more flexible method. By using both Kinect and DHM tools together, physical measurements can be produced and analyzed. This study was an investigation on how Motion Capture Technology can be used as an ergonomic assessment tool in the product development process of truck cabs. A literature study to assess relevant methods and tools led to the testing of several 3D camera and 3D manikin solutions. The results showed that the Kinect could be used together with IMMA software to measure truck driver’s motions outside of the cab. This included the use of ergonomic assessment tools. Presently, the technology is limited and the software needs to be developed further but it shows much potential.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30870 (URN)4da5c4ca-7f3b-4c68-a8c6-924faada4659 (Local ID)4da5c4ca-7f3b-4c68-a8c6-924faada4659 (Archive number)4da5c4ca-7f3b-4c68-a8c6-924faada4659 (OAI)
Conference
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Annual Meeting : 14/10/2015 - 16/10/2015
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160227 (phitre)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3827-0295

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