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Okwori, E., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2024). Data integration in asset management of municipal pipe networks in Sweden: Challenges, gaps, and potential drivers. Utilities Policy, 86, Article ID 101689.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data integration in asset management of municipal pipe networks in Sweden: Challenges, gaps, and potential drivers
2024 (English)In: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 86, article id 101689Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study involved a survey of Swedish water utilities to evaluate their pipe-network data-collection objectives, usage, storage, and exchange routines. Factors impacting data integration (and the associated benefits) were also identified. Results showed that current data storage and exchange routines can be augmented to support commonly identified objectives and data utilisation needs, especially in larger water utilities. Levels of awareness of the opportunities for and benefits gained through asset management processes and data integration varied between utilities. Further research on the benefits of data integration in pipe network asset management is required to develop an evidence base on benefits accrued in practice, especially considering metadata, the diversity of legacy systems still in operation, costs and policy use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Systems interoperability, Data sharing, Data storage, Data exchange, Decision making, Sewers, Water distribution networks
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101735 (URN)10.1016/j.jup.2023.101689 (DOI)
Projects
Stormwater & Sewers
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01178Swedish Water
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-01-01 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Vijayan, A., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2024). Variation in urban snow quality indicated by three seasonal sampling surveys conducted in Luleå (Sweden) within a span of 27 years. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 260, Article ID 104286.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in urban snow quality indicated by three seasonal sampling surveys conducted in Luleå (Sweden) within a span of 27 years
2024 (English)In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 260, article id 104286Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101682 (URN)10.1016/j.jconhyd.2023.104286 (DOI)38150790 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85181028710 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05176
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-01-16 (joosat);

Part of special issue: “Special Issue in Honour of Jacques Mehler, Cognition's founding editor”

Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Wei, H., Flanagan, K., Lundy, L., Muthanna, T. M. & Viklander, M. (2023). A study of 101 organic substances in gully pot sediments accumulated over a one-year period in Stockholm, Sweden. Science of the Total Environment, 894, Article ID 165028.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of 101 organic substances in gully pot sediments accumulated over a one-year period in Stockholm, Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 894, article id 165028Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stormwater runoff is a key pathway for diffuse pollutants to enter receiving waters. Mitigating measures include pollutant substitution, restricting their release into the urban technosphere and limiting the (re-)mobilisation of substances to minimise their negative impacts on receiving waters. Gully pots (GPs) are one of the most ubiquitous urban drainage infrastructure components, providing both a drainage function and limiting the onward transport of pollutants through in-pot sedimentation processes. In this study, sediments accumulated over a one-year period were collected from 26 GPs in catchments of four land-use types in Stockholm, Sweden. Sediments were analysed for 101 organic substances from eight substance groups (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates, organotins, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and brominated fire retardants) to inform an assessment of their occurrence and net accumulation rates over a typical unit operation period. A total of 63 substances were quantified in at least one GP, with aliphatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and organotins quantified in all GP sediments, highlighting their ubiquitous use. The identification of 14 and 21 organic substances in two pedestrian/bike path GPs emphasise the contribution of non-vehicular sources to diffuse pollutant loads. Significantly higher mass accumulation rates of 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenols, formaldehyde, dioctyltin and dibutyltin are identified in commercial catchment GPs suggesting the need to enhance source-tracing and runoff quality-control measures within catchments of this land-use type. Sediments in 25 GPs were identified with at least one substance exceeding toxicology-based threshold values, highlighting the runoff quality-control function of GPs in reducing the potential ecotoxic impacts on recipients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Xenobiotics, Urban water, Emerging pollutant, Urban runoff, Gully pot, Micropollutant
National Category
Water Engineering Environmental Sciences Environmental Management
Research subject
Centre - Centre for Stormwater Management (DRIZZLE); Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98958 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.165028 (DOI)001038835400001 ()37353017 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85163511916 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016–05176
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-28 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-06-27 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lange, K., Furén, R., Österlund, H., Winston, R., Tirpak, R. A., Nordqvist, K., . . . Blecken, G.-T. (2023). Abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastics in the filter media of nine aged stormwater bioretention systems. Chemosphere, 320, Article ID 138103.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastics in the filter media of nine aged stormwater bioretention systems
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2023 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 320, article id 138103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioretention systems are designed for quality treatment of stormwater. Particulate contaminants are commonly treated efficiently and accumulate mainly in the surface layer of the bioretention filter material. However, concerns exist that microplastic particles may not show equal accumulation behavior as other sediment particles. So far only two field and two laboratory studies are available on the fate of microplastics in few relatively newly built bioretention systems. Therefore, this study investigated the abundance and distribution of microplastics in nine 7–12 years old stormwater bioretention systems. It was found that microplastics generally accumulate on the surface of bioretention systems. Microplastic median particle concentrations decreased significantly from the surface layer (0–5 cm) of the filter material to the 10–15 cm depth layer from 448 to 136 particles/100 g, respectively. The distance to the inlet did not significantly affect the surface accumulation of microplastic particles, suggesting modest spatial variability in microplastics accumulation in older bioretention systems. Further, this study investigated the polymer composition in bioretention systems. It was shown that PP, EVA, PS and EPDM rubber are the most abundant polymer types in bioretention systems. Also, it was found that large percentages of microplastic particles are black particles (median percentage of black particles: 39%) which were found in 28 of the 33 investigated samples. This underlines the importance of including black particles in microplastic studies on stormwater, which has been overlooked in most previous studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Biofilter, LID, Plastic pollution, Rain garden, Soil media, Urban runoff
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Centre - Centre for Stormwater Management (DRIZZLE)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95676 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138103 (DOI)000944708300001 ()36775039 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147683211 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Water
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-02-21 (joosat);

Funder: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (208-0182-18)

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-02-21 Created: 2023-02-21 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Gavrić, S., Flanagan, K., Wei, H., Österlund, H., Lundy, L. & Viklander, M. (2023). Accumulation and contamination of gully pot sediments from varied land-use types: metal loads, concentrations and speciation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30, 109825-109840
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation and contamination of gully pot sediments from varied land-use types: metal loads, concentrations and speciation
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, p. 109825-109840Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban stormwater typically enters sewer networks through gully pots, which allow a primary sedimentation of solids upstream of the piped network. The regular removal and disposal of retained sediment are necessary, costly and can involve environmental risks due to the contamination of sediments with substances from the urban environment such as metals. The concentrations and speciation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were analysed in sediments from 26 gully pots located in different land use areas in Stockholm, Sweden. In addition, accumulation rates of both sediment and metal masses were evaluated, providing a basis for optimising maintenance practices and better understanding of impacts of characteristic urban land use types. Metal concentrations varied by at most a factor of eight between samples and were always below Swedish polluted site guidelines for less sensitive land use, with only eight samples exceeding the guideline values for Cu and Zn for sensitive land use. Sequential extraction showed Pb and Zn to be the most mobile metals. Sediment accumulation rates varied from 0.003 to 0.197 kg/m2 impermeable surface/year. Metal accumulation rates were much more variable than metal concentrations, with a factor of up to 172 between the highest and lowest rates and the highest metal accumulation rates corresponding to the lower range of mass loads in road runoff. Differences in metal concentrations, sediment or metal mass accumulations could not be solely attributed to either traffic or catchment land use. In contrast, traction grit used for winter road maintenance, which has low (but detectable) metal concentrations, is identified as a major component of gully pot sediments, with a combined effect of both moderating metal concentrations and contributing to total mass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Urban stormwater runof, Catch basin, Metal mobility, Sediment quality assessment, Sediment accumulation, Sediment loads
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101514 (URN)10.1007/s11356-023-30062-1 (DOI)001078239900002 ()
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05176
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-14 (marisr);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-10-02 Created: 2023-10-02 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Taneez, M., Österlund, H., Lundy, L. & Viklander, M. (2023). An evaluation of the impact of alternative pipe materials on stormwater quality: [Évaluation de l'impact de matériaux de canalisation alternatifs sur la qualité des eaux pluviales]. In: : . Paper presented at 11th Novatech international conference, Lyon, France, July 3-7, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of the impact of alternative pipe materials on stormwater quality: [Évaluation de l'impact de matériaux de canalisation alternatifs sur la qualité des eaux pluviales]
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103797 (URN)
Conference
11th Novatech international conference, Lyon, France, July 3-7, 2023
Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Furén, R., Österlund, H., Winston, R. J., Tirpak, R. A., Dorsey, J. D., Smith, J., . . . Blecken, G.-T. (2023). Concentration, distribution, and fractionation of metals in the filter material of 29 bioretention facilities: a field study. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 9(12), 3158-3173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration, distribution, and fractionation of metals in the filter material of 29 bioretention facilities: a field study
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400, E-ISSN 2053-1419, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 3158-3173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pollutant loads stemming from anthropogenic activities conveyed in urban stormwater runoff contribute to the impairment of downstream water bodies. Cities and municipalities are increasingly turning toward green infrastructure stormwater control measures to treat pollutants at the source of runoff. One example of these technologies is bioretention, which is commonly applied for stormwater treatment in urban areas due to its demonstrated effectiveness in removing various pollutants from water, including sediment, nutrients (e.g., N and P), and metals. As metals are mainly removed by filtration or adsorption to soil particles, the filter media is important for metal removal in bioretention. However, the capacity to remove metals through adsorption by bioretention media is finite; thus, the media may need to be replaced and disposed of after maintenance or at the end of its operational lifespan. Pollutant accumulation in bioretention media has the potential to approach toxicity thresholds, which may introduce complexities for safe handling and disposal. To fully capture the potential challenges associated with metals accumulation in media over time, it is important to understand the accumulation processes and mobility of metals in bioretention facilities as they age. Although several studies have investigated metal accumulation and distribution in bioretention media, few have assessed metal mobility by fractionation using sequential extraction methods in older (i.e., >7 years) facilities. In November 2019, we conducted a comprehensive field study of older facilities in Ohio, Michigan, and Kentucky (USA) to improve the understanding of the accumulation processes and metal mobility in bioretention. In this study, concentrations of several metals (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed in samples of filter material from 29 bioretention sites in operation for 7–16 years. Except for Cd, all metals were found in all samples. Metals accumulation was clear with highest concentrations found in the top (0–5 cm) layer of the filter material, attributable to the filtration of particles percolating through the media profile. Lower concentrations were observed in deeper (i.e., >10 cm) layers of the bioretention media. The fractionation showed that the metals of interest were present at high levels with a risk of leaching over time, among which Cd, Zn, and Pb were suggested to be mobile from the filter material during precipitation. Thus, there is a potential risk of leakage from filter material or sediment removed from biofilters, e.g., during maintenance and disposal. The results of principal component analysis indicated specifically correlations between metal concentrations and the filter material soil texture including the organic matter content. These results contribute to improved design and operation and suggest regular maintenance to reduce long-term risks associated with the accumulation of metals in bioretention and similar urban stormwater treatment facilities. Since most metals are trapped in the top layer of the filter it may be enough to remove only the top layer. However, metal fractionation should be considered when handling the material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93529 (URN)10.1039/D2EW00823H (DOI)000996904200001 ()2-s2.0-85161513644 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05176 DRIZZLESvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF), 13623
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-06 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Beryani, A., Flanagan, K., Viklander, M. & Blecken, G.-T. (2023). Datasets of a stormwater treatment train facility consisting of a gross pollutant trap and biofilters/sand filter in Sundsvall, Sweden. Svensk nationell datatjänst (SND)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Datasets of a stormwater treatment train facility consisting of a gross pollutant trap and biofilters/sand filter in Sundsvall, Sweden
2023 (English)Data set, Primary data
Alternative title[sv]
Dataset från ett reningståg för dagvatten bestående av en grov föroreningsfälla och biofilter/sandfilter i Sundsvall, Sverige
Abstract [en]

The data were collected from a stormwater treatment train facility in Sundsvall, Sweden. The facility consists of a gross pollutant trap (GPT) followed by three parallel biofilter cells: a vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter (BFC or F1), a non-vegetated sand filter (SF or F2), and a vegetated biofilter (BF or F3).One of the objectives of our research project was to assess and monitor stormwater quality received from a major road catchment (incl. E4 highway bridge in Sundsvall) and also evaluate the performance of the various sections of the treatment train in removing organic micropollutants from the stormwater.

The file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.csv" contains event mean concentration (EMC) data on stormwater samples collected from 8 rain events (coded by A to H) in one year between September 2020 and September 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and global water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data elaborate on the generated distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. Besides, the number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples are mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.docx". Stormwater flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Stormwater_SND.csv".

The file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.csv" presents event mean concentration (EMC) data not only for the stormwater runoff quality but also for the treated stormwater in the GPT-biofilter/sand filter treatment train downstream of the catchment. In addition to the untreated stormwater runoff as the system's inflow (SW), EMCs have been presented for 4 more sampling points: GPT outflow (GPT), vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter outflow (BFC), non-vegetated sand filter (SF), and vegetated biofilter outflow (BF). For this part of the research, a total of 11 rain events (coded by A to K) were covered from Sep. 2020 until Sep. 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and other conventional water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data present a distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. The number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples is also mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.docx". Flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Treatment train_SND.csv".

Abstract [sv]

Uppgifterna samlades in från ett reningståg för dagvatten i Sundsvall, Sverige. Anläggningen består av en grov föroreningsfälla (GPT) följd av tre parallella biofilterceller: ett vegeterat, kritomvandlat biofilter (BFC eller F1), ett icke-vegeterat sandfilter (SF eller F2) och ett vegeterat biofilter (BF eller F3).Ett av syftena med vårt forskningsprojekt var att bedöma och övervaka dagvattenkvaliteten från ett större vägavrinningsområde (inkl. motorvägsbro E4 i Sundsvall) och även utvärdera hur de olika sektionerna av reningståget presterar när det gäller att ta bort organiska mikroföroreningar från dagvattnet.

Filen med namnet "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.csv" innehåller data för händelsemedelkoncentration (EMC) på dagvattenprover som samlats in från 8 regnhändelser (kodade av A till H) under ett år mellan september 2020 och september 2021. Proverna har analyserats för organiska mikroföroreningar och globala vattenkvalitetsparametrar (42 parametrar totalt). EMC:er har matematiskt genererats av en Monte-Carlo-simulering från uppmätta koncentrationer i delprover som samlats in under varje händelse. Datan utvecklar den genererade fördelningen för varje EMC med Q2.5, Q50 och Q97.5 percentiler och standardavvikelse från medelvärdet. Dessutom nämns antalet upptäckta och icke-upptäckta (censurerade) data för delprover. En lista med alla olika föroreningar och deras förkortningar finns inkluderade i dokumentationsfilen ”StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.docx”.

I filen med namnet "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.csv" presenteras inte bara händelsemedelkoncentrationen (EMC) för dagvattenavrinningens kvalitet, utan också för det behandlade dagvattnet i reningssystemet nedströms från avrinningsområdet, vilket inkluderar en försedimenteringsanläggning (GPT) och ett sandfilter. Förutom att dagvattenavrinningen utgör systemets inflöde (SW), har händelsemedelkoncentrationen (EMC) från fyra andra provtagningspunkter också presenterats: försedimenteringsanläggningens utflöde (GPT), växtbevuxet, kritomvandlat biofilterutflöde (BFC), icke-växtbevuxet sandfilter (SF) och växtbevuxet biofilterutflöde (BF). Den här delen av undersökningen täcker in 11 regnhändelser (kodade A till K) under perioden sep 2020 och sep 2021. Proverna har analyserats för organiska mikroföroreningar och globala vattenkvalitetsparametrar (42 parametrar totalt). EMC:er har matematiskt genererats av en Monte-Carlo-simulering från uppmätta koncentrationer i delprover som samlats in under varje händelse. Datan utvecklar den genererade fördelningen för varje EMC med Q2.5, Q50 och Q97.5 percentiler och standardavvikelse från medelvärdet. Dessutom nämns antalet upptäckta och icke-upptäckta (censurerade) data för delprover. En lista med alla olika föroreningar och deras förkortningar finns inkluderade i dokumentationsfilen ” TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.docx”.

Place, publisher, year
Svensk nationell datatjänst (SND), 2023
Keywords
Hydrocarbons, Biological contamination, Phenol, Pollution control technology, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Biodegradable pollutant, Water pollutant, Water pollution prevention, Storm water, Stormwater runoff, Bioretention, Biofilter, Sand filter, Event mean concentration, Hydrocarbons, Biologisk förorening, Fenol, Föroreningsbekämpande teknik, Polycykliskt aromatiskt kolväte, Biologiskt nedbrytbar förorening, Vattenförorening, Förebyggande av vattenförorening, Dagvatten, Dagvattenavrinning, Bioretention, Biofilter, Sandfilter, Händelsemedelkoncentration
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-100701 (URN)10.5878/nny1-2045 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Marsalek, J., Viklander, M. & Blecken, G. (2023). Drainage of railway transportation infrastructure: Status and environmental concerns. Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drainage of railway transportation infrastructure: Status and environmental concerns
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Dagvatten från järnvägsinfrastruktur: kunskapssammanställning och miljöpåverkan
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2023. p. 51
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103327 (URN)978-91-8048-288-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-12-15 Created: 2023-12-15 Last updated: 2023-12-15Bibliographically approved
Kaykhaii, S., Herrmann, I., Hedström, A., Nordqvist, K., Heidfors, I. & Viklander, M. (2023). Enhancing stormwater treatment through ultrafiltration: impact of cleaning chemicals and backwash duration on membrane efficiency. Water Reuse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing stormwater treatment through ultrafiltration: impact of cleaning chemicals and backwash duration on membrane efficiency
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2023 (English)In: Water Reuse, ISSN 2709-6092Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The effect of chemical cleaning and regular backwashing on the efficiency of an ultrafiltration membrane fouled during stormwater treatment was studied. Increasing backwash time from 30 to 60 s resulted in an increase in productivity by 20%. However, the productivity was highest when a backwash time of 45 s was used (3% higher than using 60 s). Chemical cleaning was carried out using an alkaline solution (NaOH with or without NaOCl) followed by acid washing with HCl. The addition of NaOCl to the cleaning chemical did not significantly increase the efficiency of chemical cleaning, and the average pure water permeability increase was 97 ± 13 LMH bar−1 after chemical cleaning with NaOH followed by HCl and 117 ± 15 LMH bar−1 after chemical cleaning with NaOH + NaOCl followed by HCl, on average. In addition, reversibility after chemical cleaning was 96 ± 67%, on average. The result from scanning electron microscopy showed that at the end of the experiments, inorganic foulants existed in both the inner layer (feed side) and the outer layer (permeate side) of the membrane.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2023
Keywords
dead-end filtration, fouling, permeability, pulsatile fluid flow, runoff, stormwater treatment
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Centre - Centre for Stormwater Management (DRIZZLE)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103058 (URN)10.2166/wrd.2023.106 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-20075
Note

License full text: CC BY 4.0

Available from: 2023-11-28 Created: 2023-11-28 Last updated: 2023-11-28
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1725-6478

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