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Müller, A., Österlund, H., Nordqvist, K., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study. Science of the Total Environment, 680, 190-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 680, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Control of diffuse pollution is critical for achieving good surface water quality status. In this context, pollutant contributions from building materials have received increased attention in recent decades. This study examined the releases of metals, nonylphenols and phthalates from ten common building surface materials (installed in triplicates) into rainwater runoff from six rain events. The highest releases of metals were from copper and zinc sheets (average concentrations of 3090 μg/L Cu and 7770 μg/L Zn respectively), while other metal materials, e.g., Corten weathering steel, exhibited lower releases. PVC roofing released high concentrations of nonylphenols and phthalates (average concentrations of up to 26 μg/L nonylphenols and 455 μg/L Diisononyl phthalate, DINP) which have not been investigated in the earlier studies. Pollutant releases varied between events, likely because of weather conditions and rainfall characteristics. Study findings should be valuable for environmentally responsible applications of the existing building materials and the development of new ones, as well as the investigations and risk assessment of specific pollutants in stormwater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Building surface materials, Diffuse pollution sources, Metals, Nonylphenols, Phthalates, Stormwater quality
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73883 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.088 (DOI)000468863400019 ()31108449 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065712456 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942 – 2016-73Vinnova, 2016-05176
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-05 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Broekhuizen, I., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Calibration event selection for green urban drainage modelling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration event selection for green urban drainage modelling
2019 (English)In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, ISSN 1812-2108, E-ISSN 1812-2116Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Calibration of urban drainage models is typically performed based on a limited number of observed rainfall-runoff events, which may be selected from a longer time-series of measurements in different ways. In this study, 14 single- and two-stage strategies for selecting these events were tested for calibration of a SWMM model of a predominantly green urban area. The event selection was considered in relation to other sources of uncertainty such as measurement uncertainties, objective functions, and catchment discretization. Even though all 14 strategies resulted in successful model calibration, the difference between the best and worst strategies reached 0.2 in Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the calibrated parameter values notably varied. Most, but not all, calibration strategies were robust to changes in objective function, perturbations in calibration data and the use of a low spatial resolution model in the calibration phase. The various calibration strategies satisfactorily predicted 7 to 13 out of 19 validation events. The two-stage strategies performed better than the single-stage strategies when measuring performance using the Root Mean Square Error, flow volume error or peak flow error (but not using NSE); when flow data in the calibration period had been perturbed by ±40 %; and when using a lower model resolution. The two calibration strategies that performed best in the validation period were two-stage strategies. The findings in this paper show that different strategies for selecting calibration events may lead in some cases to different results for the validation period, and that calibrating impermeable and green area parameters in two separate steps may improve model performance in the validation period, while also reducing the computational demand in the calibration phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus Publications, 2019
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73294 (URN)10.5194/hess-2019-67 (DOI)
Projects
Reliable modeling of green infrastructure in green urban catchments
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-121
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-04-16
Pericault, Y., Bruaset, S., Ugarelli, R., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2019). Correcting for the impact of past coordination on the estimation of pipe cohorts survival functions. In: : . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks, Aalborg Denmark, August 27-30 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correcting for the impact of past coordination on the estimation of pipe cohorts survival functions
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Keywords
Asset management, coordinated replacement; cohort survival functions
National Category
Water Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75082 (URN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks, Aalborg Denmark, August 27-30 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Søberg, L., Winston, R., Viklander, M. & Blecken, G.-T. (2019). Dissolved metal adsorption capacities and fractionation in filter materials for use in stormwater bioretention facilities. Water Research X, 4, Article ID 100032.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissolved metal adsorption capacities and fractionation in filter materials for use in stormwater bioretention facilities
2019 (English)In: Water Research X, ISSN 2589-9147, Vol. 4, article id 100032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dissolved metal adsorption and association was determined for ten different filter materials recommended and/or implemented in bioretention facilities. Batch adsorption and batch kinetic experiments were performed at lab-scale using both single and multi-metal solutions. Metal strengths and association were determined by sequential extraction analysis. All materials adsorbed metals and 90% of adsorption occurred within 1 h. However, as metal solutions became more complex, adsorption behavior changed. Generally, filter materials classified as sand with a naturally high pH, relatively low organic matter (OM) content and large specific surface area seem to be good choices for removing dissolved metals. Additionally, a chalk additive might improve metal adsorption whereas biochar did not significantly improve metal retention and may be an unwanted (due to degradation over time) extra source of OM. Regardless of filter material, metals primarily adsorbed to the exchangeable form which indicates that metal adsorption might not be permanent, but rather substantially reversible in some cases. More research is needed to assess whether dissolved metals adsorbed in filter materials of bioretention systems pose a delayed threat instead of an immediate threat. Finally, the authors strongly recommend filter materials intended for stormwater bioretention facilities to be tested prior to implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Filter material, Biofilter, Heavy metals, Metal fractionation, Filter media
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73666 (URN)10.1016/j.wroa.2019.100032 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065547443 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-25 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Viklander, M., Österlund, H., Müller, A., Marsalek, J. & Borris, M. (2019). Kunskapssammanställning: Dagvattenkvalitet. Svensktvatten AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kunskapssammanställning: Dagvattenkvalitet
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Alternative title[en]
State of knowledge : Stormwater quality
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten sammanställer internationella forskningsresultat om källor till dagvattenföroreningar samt föroreningarnas koncentration, mängd och variation mellan platser och årstider. Den beskriver vad man bör tänka på vid utformning av provtagningsprogram och vid val av modellverktyg, och den diskuterar effekter på hälsa, miljö och samhälle samt vilka regelverk och riktlinjer som finns.

Abstract [en]

This report summarizes stormwater pollutants, their sources, concentrations, and variations in concentrations. Practical guidance for field data collection, adoption of standard data from the literature and computer modelling are given. Furthermore, the effects on health, the environment and society, and associated regulations are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensktvatten AB, 2019. p. 82
Keywords
Micropollutants, sampling, stormwater quality models, urban drainage, Dagvatten, dagvattenkvalitetsmodeller, föroreningar, provtagning
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72952 (URN)
Projects
Kunskapssammanställning: från regn till recipient – dagvattnets innehåll och dess variationer
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Gavric, S., Larm, T., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J., Wahlsten, A. & Viklander, M. (2019). Measurement and conceptual modelling of retention of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in soils of three grass swales. Journal of Hydrology, 574, 1053-1061
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and conceptual modelling of retention of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in soils of three grass swales
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 574, p. 1053-1061Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Grass swales are important elements of the urban green infrastructure that convey and attenuate urban runoff and improve its quality mostly through stormwater infiltration into, and retention of conveyed pollutants by, swale soils. The retention of metals by grass swales was addressed in this study investigating the enrichment of swale soils by three common traffic-related metals: Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales of various characteristics (L1, L2, L3) were selected for study and their soils were sampled by coring the top 30 cm and dividing the cores into 5 cm thick layers. Cumulative metal burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for the given land uses and stormwater treatment. The comparisons of measured (MBm) and simulated (MBs) metal burdens retained by swales showed that the measured values exceed the simulated ones, as described by average ratios MBs/MBm = 0.64, 0.50 and 0.59, for swales L1, L2 and L3, respectively. The measured burdens were calculated after subtracting the native soil metal concentrations, assumed equal to those found in the deepest sampled layer, 25–30 cm below the surface. The results suggest the feasibility of assessing performance of grass swales by modelling metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) retention by swales, however for older facilities considered for rehabilitation, the simulated results should be supplemented by soil chemistry sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
grass swale, heavy metals, roadside soils, planning–level modelling, metal transport
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73936 (URN)10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.05.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066065396 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-11 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Gavric, S., Larm, T., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J., Wahlsten, A. & Viklander, M. (2019). Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales. In: Giorgio Mannina (Ed.), New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018. Paper presented at International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018 (pp. 85-90). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales
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2019 (English)In: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 85-90Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Grass swales are important elements of urban green infrastructure that convey, attenuate and improve the quality of urban runoff mostly through stormwater infiltration into and retention of conveyed pollutants by swale soils. Such processes were addressed in this study, investigating the enrichment of swale soils by ubiquitous urban trace metals, Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales were selected for study in the City of Lulea (Northern Sweden) and their soils were sampled by coring. Sample cores covered soil depths up to 30 cm, but only the results from the top 5 cm layer characterized by 9–15 samples in each swale are discussed here. After estimating metal mass in this layer in individual swales, such burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for given land uses and is supported by an extensive database referenced to Swedish environmental conditions. The annual loads modelled for individual swales were multiplied by the swale age to obtain long–term inputs of the trace metals. A good agreement between the measured and modelled loads in soils was obtained and characterized by the ratio Lmod/Lmeas, with an average value of 0.96 and standard deviation of 0.55. Such results suggest the feasibility of assessing the long–term performance of grass swales by modelling trace metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) inputs into swales, estimating the metal loads retained in soils by sampling and analyses, and taking the difference (Lin − Lret) as the exported load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Green Energy and Technology
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70718 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99867-1_15 (DOI)978-3-319-99866-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-99867-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Gavric, S., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Processes improving urban stormwater quality in grass swales and filter strips: A review of research findings. Science of the Total Environment, 669, 431-447
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processes improving urban stormwater quality in grass swales and filter strips: A review of research findings
2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 669, p. 431-447Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing interest in urban drainage green infrastructure brings attention to grass swales and filter strips (GS&GFS) and their role in stormwater management. While the understanding of the hydrology and hydraulics of these stormwater control measures is adequate for current needs, there are knowledge gaps in understanding the water quality processes in GS&GFS and such a finding motivated preparation of the review paper that follows. The review revealed that most of the empirical studies of GS&GFS flow quality focused on the removal of pollutants associated with road runoff, and particularly solids, with relatively few studies addressing nutrients, traffic associated hydrocarbons, oxygen demanding substances, chloride, and faecal indicator bacteria. The reported results suffer from limitations caused by experimental conditions often representing a steady flow used to irrigate GS&GFS and generate runoff, non-submerged flows, no lateral inflows along swale side slopes, constant dosing of solids, emphasis on larger-than-typical solids, incomplete descriptions of experimental conditions, and limited attention to experimental uncertainties. Besides settling, other treatment processes, like adsorption/desorption, plant uptake, chemical precipitation and microbial degradation are often acknowledged, but without attempting to quantify their effects on flow quality. The modelling of GS&GFS flow quality would be beneficial for an improved understanding of green urban drainage infrastructure, but currently it is infeasible without a better knowledge of stormwater quality processes in GS&GFS facilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Green infrastructure, Pollutant transport, Runoff treatment, Stormwater management, SolidsTrace metals
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73262 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.072 (DOI)30889442 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063001613 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-03-21 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Søberg, L., Viklander, M., Blecken, G.-T. & Hedström, A. (2019). Reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone. Journal of Hydrology X, 3, Article ID 100025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology X, ISSN 2589-9155, Vol. 3, article id 100025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of drying and temperature on the reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention systems with and without a submerged zone was assessed using 16 pilot-scale bioretention columns under controlled laboratory conditions. The experimental design enabled analysis of possible interactions between the factors. First outflow and event-based samples were collected. Outflow concentrations were independent of inflow concentrations and hence controlled by internal processes. Overall TSS removal was high but sensitive to bacterial synthesis. Event-based samples had significantly higher bacteria concentrations than first outflow samples, suggesting that remaining/surviving bacteria in the bioretention cells have little effect on initial peak outflow concentrations. The effect of temperature varied between bacterial species and sample types. Long dry periods seemed beneficial for bacteria reduction, but outflow bacteria concentrations peaked during the second watering after long dry periods. Submerged zones significantly reduced bacteria outflow concentrations. However, sudden temperature increases caused bioretention cells with a submerged zone to produce significantly higher bacteria outflow concentrations than before the temperature increase, which was not the case for standard cells. Bioretention cells with submerged zones may thus be poor choices for reducing bacterial concentrations in stormwater runoff in areas experiencing winter conditions. Finally, our results suggest that adsorption (e.g. further enhanced by biofilm formation) is the major mechanism governing bacteria reduction in bioretention systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Bacteria, Submerged zone, Stormwater, Bioretention, Winter performance, Wet and dry periods
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73082 (URN)10.1016/j.hydroa.2019.100025 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Broekhuizen, I., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Selection of Calibration Events for Modelling Green Urban Drainage. In: Giorgio Mannina (Ed.), New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018. Paper presented at International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018 (pp. 608-613). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection of Calibration Events for Modelling Green Urban Drainage
2019 (English)In: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 608-613Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Urban drainage models are often calibrated using a limited number of rainfall-runoff events, which may be selected in different ways from a longer observation series. This paper compares 13 different single- and two-stage strategies for selecting events used to calibrate a SWMM model of a predominantly green urban area. Most led to successful calibration, but performance varied for various validation events. Most selection strategies were insensitive to the choice of Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency or Root Mean Squared Error as the objective function. Calibrating impervious and green area parameters separately in two-stage strategies can help improve prediction of low-flow events in validation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Green Energy and Technology
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70715 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99867-1_105 (DOI)978-3-319-99866-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-99867-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1725-6478

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