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Publications (10 of 183) Show all publications
Gavric, S., Larm, T., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J., Wahlsten, A. & Viklander, M. (2019). Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales. In: Giorgio Mannina (Ed.), New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018. Paper presented at International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018 (pp. 85-90). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales
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2019 (English)In: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 85-90Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Grass swales are important elements of urban green infrastructure that convey, attenuate and improve the quality of urban runoff mostly through stormwater infiltration into and retention of conveyed pollutants by swale soils. Such processes were addressed in this study, investigating the enrichment of swale soils by ubiquitous urban trace metals, Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales were selected for study in the City of Lulea (Northern Sweden) and their soils were sampled by coring. Sample cores covered soil depths up to 30 cm, but only the results from the top 5 cm layer characterized by 9–15 samples in each swale are discussed here. After estimating metal mass in this layer in individual swales, such burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for given land uses and is supported by an extensive database referenced to Swedish environmental conditions. The annual loads modelled for individual swales were multiplied by the swale age to obtain long–term inputs of the trace metals. A good agreement between the measured and modelled loads in soils was obtained and characterized by the ratio Lmod/Lmeas, with an average value of 0.96 and standard deviation of 0.55. Such results suggest the feasibility of assessing the long–term performance of grass swales by modelling trace metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) inputs into swales, estimating the metal loads retained in soils by sampling and analyses, and taking the difference (Lin − Lret) as the exported load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Green Energy and Technology
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70718 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99867-1_15 (DOI)978-3-319-99866-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-99867-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Søberg, L., Viklander, M., Hedström, A. & Blecken, G.-T. (2019). Reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone. Journal of Hydrology X, 3, Article ID 100025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology X, ISSN 2589-9155, Vol. 3, article id 100025Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The impact of drying and temperature on the reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention systems with and without a submerged zone was assessed using 16 pilot-scale bioretention columns under controlled laboratory conditions. The experimental design enabled analysis of possible interactions between the factors. First outflow and event-based samples were collected. Outflow concentrations were independent of inflow concentrations and hence controlled by internal processes. Overall TSS removal was high but sensitive to bacterial synthesis. Event-based samples had significantly higher bacteria concentrations than first outflow samples, suggesting that remaining/surviving bacteria in the bioretention cells have little effect on initial peak outflow concentrations. The effect of temperature varied between bacterial species and sample types. Long dry periods seemed beneficial for bacteria reduction, but outflow bacteria concentrations peaked during the second watering after long dry periods. Submerged zones significantly reduced bacteria outflow concentrations. However, sudden temperature increases caused bioretention cells with a submerged zone to produce significantly higher bacteria outflow concentrations than before the temperature increase, which was not the case for standard cells. Bioretention cells with submerged zones may thus be poor choices for reducing bacterial concentrations in stormwater runoff in areas experiencing winter conditions. Finally, our results suggest that adsorption (e.g. further enhanced by biofilm formation) is the major mechanism governing bacteria reduction in bioretention systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Bacteria, submerged zone, stormwater, bioretention, winter performance, wet and dry periods
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73166 (URN)10.1016/j.hydroa.2019.100025 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-13
Søberg, L., Viklander, M., Blecken, G.-T. & Hedström, A. (2019). Reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone. Journal of Hydrology X, 3, Article ID 100025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology X, ISSN 2589-9155, Vol. 3, article id 100025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of drying and temperature on the reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention systems with and without a submerged zone was assessed using 16 pilot-scale bioretention columns under controlled laboratory conditions. The experimental design enabled analysis of possible interactions between the factors. First outflow and event-based samples were collected. Outflow concentrations were independent of inflow concentrations and hence controlled by internal processes. Overall TSS removal was high but sensitive to bacterial synthesis. Event-based samples had significantly higher bacteria concentrations than first outflow samples, suggesting that remaining/surviving bacteria in the bioretention cells have little effect on initial peak outflow concentrations. The effect of temperature varied between bacterial species and sample types. Long dry periods seemed beneficial for bacteria reduction, but outflow bacteria concentrations peaked during the second watering after long dry periods. Submerged zones significantly reduced bacteria outflow concentrations. However, sudden temperature increases caused bioretention cells with a submerged zone to produce significantly higher bacteria outflow concentrations than before the temperature increase, which was not the case for standard cells. Bioretention cells with submerged zones may thus be poor choices for reducing bacterial concentrations in stormwater runoff in areas experiencing winter conditions. Finally, our results suggest that adsorption (e.g. further enhanced by biofilm formation) is the major mechanism governing bacteria reduction in bioretention systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Bacteria, Submerged zone, Stormwater, Bioretention, Winter performance, Wet and dry periods
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73082 (URN)10.1016/j.hydroa.2019.100025 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
Broekhuizen, I., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Selection of Calibration Events for Modelling Green Urban Drainage. In: Giorgio Mannina (Ed.), New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018. Paper presented at International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018 (pp. 608-613). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection of Calibration Events for Modelling Green Urban Drainage
2019 (English)In: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 608-613Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Urban drainage models are often calibrated using a limited number of rainfall-runoff events, which may be selected in different ways from a longer observation series. This paper compares 13 different single- and two-stage strategies for selecting events used to calibrate a SWMM model of a predominantly green urban area. Most led to successful calibration, but performance varied for various validation events. Most selection strategies were insensitive to the choice of Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency or Root Mean Squared Error as the objective function. Calibrating impervious and green area parameters separately in two-stage strategies can help improve prediction of low-flow events in validation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Green Energy and Technology
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70715 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99867-1_105 (DOI)978-3-319-99866-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-99867-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Nyström, F., Nordqvist, K., Herrmann, I., Hedström, A. & Viklander, M. (2019). Treatment of road runoff by coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. Water Science and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of road runoff by coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation
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2019 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

A laboratory investigation of the treatment potential of a coagulation process in the context of stormwater treatment was undertaken. The initial 25 L road runoff generated from four rain events was collected and subjected to a jar-testing regime with two commercial coagulants. The treatment effect was assessed by analysing the runoff before and after treatment for turbidity, suspended solids and metal content. The coagulation process resulted in particle and total metal reduction of more than 90% compared to 40% for only sedimentation. Up to 40% reduction of dissolved Cr, Cu and Pb was also observed compared to 0% for sedimentation. This study shows that coagulation may be a useful process for stormwater treatment systems when the treatment requirements are high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2019
Keywords
advanced stormwater treatment, coagulation, metals, particles, road runoff, suspended solids
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73090 (URN)10.2166/wst.2019.079 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-20075Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01447
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-03-14
McCarthy, D. T., Zhang, K., Westerlund, C., Viklander, M., Bertrand-Krajewski, J.-L., Fletcher, T. D. & Deletic, A. (2018). Assessment of sampling strategies for estimation of site mean concentrations of stormwater pollutants. Water Research, 129, 297-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of sampling strategies for estimation of site mean concentrations of stormwater pollutants
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2018 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 129, p. 297-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The estimation of stormwater pollutant concentrations is a primary requirement of integrated urban water management. In order to determine effective sampling strategies for estimating pollutant concentrations, data from extensive field measurements at seven different catchments was used. At all sites, 1-min resolution continuous flow measurements, as well as flow-weighted samples, were taken and analysed for total suspend solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). For each of these parameters, the data was used to calculate the Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) for each event. The measured Site Mean Concentrations (SMCs) were taken as the volume-weighted average of these EMCs for each parameter, at each site. 17 different sampling strategies, including random and fixed strategies were tested to estimate SMCs, which were compared with the measured SMCs. The ratios of estimated/measured SMCs were further analysed to determine the most effective sampling strategies. Results indicate that the random sampling strategies were the most promising method in reproducing SMCs for TSS and TN, while some fixed sampling strategies were better for estimating the SMC of E. coli. The differences in taking one, two or three random samples were small (up to 20% for TSS, and 10% for TN and E. coli), indicating that there is little benefit in investing in collection of more than one sample per event if attempting to estimate the SMC through monitoring of multiple events. It was estimated that an average of 27 events across the studied catchments are needed for characterising SMCs of TSS with a 90% confidence interval (CI) width of 1.0, followed by E.coli (average 12 events) and TN (average 11 events). The coefficient of variation of pollutant concentrations was linearly and significantly correlated to the 90% confidence interval ratio of the estimated/measured SMCs (R2 = 0.49; P < 0.01) as well as the number of events required to achieve certain accuracy, and hence could be a promising surrogate for determining the sampling frequency needed to accurately estimate SMCs of pollutants

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66254 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2017.10.001 (DOI)000424716800029 ()29156394 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85034587155 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-23 (svasva)

Available from: 2017-10-25 Created: 2017-10-25 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
Pericault, Y., Kärrman, E., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2018). Data supporting the life cycle impact assessment and cost evaluation of technical alternatives for providing water and heating services to a suburban development in Gällivare Sweden. Data in Brief, 21, 1204-1208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data supporting the life cycle impact assessment and cost evaluation of technical alternatives for providing water and heating services to a suburban development in Gällivare Sweden
2018 (English)In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 21, p. 1204-1208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The article presents input data that were used in Pericault et al. (2018) for life cycle impact assessment and total cost assessment of five technical alternatives for heat and water services provision in a suburban development in Sweden. The data consists of a list of environmental impacts (cumulative exergy demand of energy carriers – CExDe, global warming potential – GWP, abiotic depletion potential of elements – ADPE), costs, amortisation periods, lifetimes and output flows of the system processes composing the alternatives. The data was derived from values collected in lifecycle databases, environmental product declarations, scientific publications and personal communications with companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71489 (URN)10.1016/j.dib.2018.10.058 (DOI)000457925900164 ()
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Tondera, K., Blecken, G.-T., Tournebize, J., Viklander, M., Österlund, H., Andersson-Wikström, A. & Tanner, C. C. (2018). Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Treatment Efficiency and Accumulation Under Varying Flows. In: Katharina Tondera, Godecke-Tobias Blecken, Florent Chazarenc, Chris C. Tanner (Ed.), Ecotechnologies for the Treatment of Variable Stormwater and Wastewater Flows: (pp. 93-109). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Treatment Efficiency and Accumulation Under Varying Flows
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2018 (English)In: Ecotechnologies for the Treatment of Variable Stormwater and Wastewater Flows / [ed] Katharina Tondera, Godecke-Tobias Blecken, Florent Chazarenc, Chris C. Tanner, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 93-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emerging contaminants became a major topic in water treatment when laboratory detection methods for concentrations at a nanogram-scale improved approximately two decades ago. Research on using ecotechnologies to remove emerging contaminants in variable stormwater and wastewater flows has been conducted for more than a decade, but so far, not all removal mechanisms are well understood and only few setups have been investigated. This chapter summarises the current knowledge, focussing on pesticides and emerging contaminants listed on the watch list of the European Union. However, large-scale investigations are still rare and further research will have to be conducted in this field to enable practitioners to provide recommendations for design and maintenance of treatment facilities in the field of ecotechnologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology, ISSN 2194-7244, E-ISSN 2194-7252
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66683 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-70013-7_6 (DOI)978-3-319-70012-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-70013-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Pericault, Y., Kärrman, E., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2018). Expansion of Sewer, Water and District Heating Networks in Cold Climate Regions: an Integrated Sustainability Assessment. Sustainability, 10(10), Article ID 3743.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expansion of Sewer, Water and District Heating Networks in Cold Climate Regions: an Integrated Sustainability Assessment
2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 3743Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents an integrated sustainability assessment of technical alternatives for water and heating services provision in suburban areas affected by a cold climate. Each alternative combines a drinking water supply, sewerage (gravity or low-pressure), pipe freeze protection (deep burial or shallow burial with heat tracing) and heating solution (district heating or geothermal heat pumps). An innovative freeze protection option was considered, in which low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is used to heat trace shallow sewer and water pipes. First, the performance of each alternative regarding seven sustainability criteria was evaluated on a projected residential area in Sweden using a systems analysis approach. A multi-criteria method was then applied to propose a sustainability ranking of the alternatives based on a set of weights obtained from local stakeholders. The alternative with a deep buried gravity sewer and geothermal heat pumps was found to have the highest sustainability score in the case study. In the sensitivity analysis, the integrated trench solution with a gravity sewer, innovative heat tracing and LTDH was found to potentially top the sustainability ranking if geothermal energy was used as the district heating source, or if the weight of the cost criterion increased from 24% to 64%. The study highlights the need for integrated decision-making between different utility providers as an integrated solution can represent sustainability gains.

Keywords
low pressure sewer, low temperature district heating, freeze protection, life cycle assessment, multi-criteria
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71253 (URN)10.3390/su10103743 (DOI)000448559400385 ()2-s2.0-85055094129 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-30 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, J., Hedström, A., Westerlund, L., Dahl, J., Ashley, R. & Viklander, M. (2018). Impacts on rural wastewater systems in subarctic regions due to changes in inputs from households (ed.). Journal of cold regions engineering, 32(1), Article ID 04017019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts on rural wastewater systems in subarctic regions due to changes in inputs from households
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2018 (English)In: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 04017019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of water-saving appliances and heat exchangers is becoming increasingly popular to decrease water consumption and recover energy from preheated water. However, such in-household changes can bring particular implications for subarctic rural areas, in terms of solids deposition in sewers and drops in performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), because these are already experiencing diminishing wastewater flows due to depopulation and seasonal dips in wastewater temperature resulting from infiltration into sewers. Hence, this study has considered two communities in Sweden, postulating three different cases with various scales of retrofitting and usage. The results indicate that the decrease in in-pipe velocities when all households are retrofitted with water-saving appliances could be counteracted by sewer relining, but not by the inclusion of a conventional estimate of infiltration. However, for the case in which retrofitting was combined with decreased usage of the appliances, the decrease in self-cleansing capacity could not be counteracted. The retrofitting of heat exchangers under shower trays in all households did not have a significant effect on treatment processes at the WWTP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2018
National Category
Water Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14539 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)CR.1943-5495.0000145 (DOI)000428257200005 ()2-s2.0-85030121882 (Scopus ID)de948167-31d8-4bac-a3d7-ca6af781096b (Local ID)de948167-31d8-4bac-a3d7-ca6af781096b (Archive number)de948167-31d8-4bac-a3d7-ca6af781096b (OAI)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-09-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1725-6478

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