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Al-Madhlom, Q., Nordell, B., Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Lindblom, J., Laue, J. & Hussain, H. M. (2020). Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10, Article ID 100283.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2020 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, article id 100283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a global attention that the future energy systems will be based on renewable energy like solar and wind. The large-scale utilization of renewables in space heating and cooling requires large Thermal Energy Storage TES to overcome the varying supply and demand. The process of producing the best Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES system pass through two steps: first, finding the best type of UTES system, second, finding the best locations to install UTES system. Both of these two steps depend extremely on the site specific parameters such that the depth to the groundwater, transmissivity, type of soil, the depth to the bedrock, and seepage velocity. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the site specific parameters that the type of UTES-system depends on and explain the suitable type of UTES systems. This study considers Babylon province (Iraq) as study area. This province has electricity deficiency due to Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC applications. The methodology of this study includes reviewing the literature that consider the study area, and using Arc Map/GIS to visualize some of the in-site parameters. The results indicate that the best type of UTES system for the considered region is either aquifer or pit type, due to the type of the soil and the depth to the crystalline bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and the seepage velocity in the considered region are (0.0023–2.5) m/d and (1.3 × 10−6 – 3.45 × 10−3) m/d respectively. These conditions satisfy the standards which regard aquifer type.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Renewable energy, Groundwater, Aquifer thermal energy storage, Pit thermal energy storage
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Water Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Soil Mechanics; Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76206 (URN)10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100283 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073592615 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-29
Silva, I., Lindblom, J., Viklander, P. & Laue, J. (2017). Assessment of internal erosion in the glacial till core of a Swedish dam. In: : . Paper presented at 85th Annual Meeting of International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD 2017), Prague, Czech Republic, July 3–7, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of internal erosion in the glacial till core of a Swedish dam
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Zoned embankment dams are a common type of dam in Sweden consisting of an impermeable central glacial till core flanked by zones of filter materials and rockfill shoulders. Dams with internal unstable core material allow fine particles to be transported by seepage, which may result in leakage paths and pore-pressure variations. These last two conditions are signs of initiated internal erosion. However, the effectiveness of the filter zone determines if the internal erosion will continue or not. This paper presents the assessment of internal erosion susceptibility of the glacial till core of a hydropower dam located in northern Sweden. The dam has experienced historical damages mainly in the form of sinkhole and leakage related to internal erosion. The study includes the analysis of the particle size distribution of samples obtained from boreholes, as well as a comparison of the geotechnical properties of the core with the Swedish dam safety guidelines available both during the dam construction in 1958 and today. The capability of the filter to stop the erosion process is not investigated.The results show that a well designed and constructed dams can be affected by local layers of internally unstable (suffusive) material susceptible to internal erosion.

The capability of the filter to stop the erosion process is not investigated.The results show that a well-designed and constructed dams can be affected by local layers of internally unstable (suffusive) material susceptible to internal erosion.

Keywords
internal erosion, glacial till, suffusion, filter, core, dam, embankment dams, Swedish dam, sinkhole, RIDAS, Vattenfall 1958, dam safety, internal instability, erosion, silty sandy gravel, moraine, erosion interna, presas, presas de tierra, núcleo, filtro, grava arenosa limosa, internamente inestable
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65289 (URN)
Conference
85th Annual Meeting of International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD 2017), Prague, Czech Republic, July 3–7, 2017
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Yousefi, B., Boroomand-Nasab, S., Moazed, H. & Nordell, B. (2017). Condensation Irrigation Field Test: Measurements of Soil Moisture (ed.). International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 6(3), 263-268
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condensation Irrigation Field Test: Measurements of Soil Moisture
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, ISSN 2147-3749, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to the growing population and scarcity of fresh water it is increasingly important to produce potable water by desalination of saline water. However, desalination requires energy and in a sustainable world it has to be based on renewable energy. Condensation irrigation (CI) is a method that combines desalination and irrigation. In such systems solar energy could be used to provide needed energy. By letting air flow over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water, the air is humidified. The vapor-saturated airflow is then lead into buried pipes, where the air gradually cools and the water precipitates along the pipe surface. In current field study perforated PVC pipes were used i.e. the condensed water left the pipe through its walls and irrigated the surrounding soil. In PVC pipes without perforations the produced water was collected at the pipe outlet. A fan was used to force the air through the 25 m pipes of the CI system. The resulting amount of produced water per 8 hours for drinking water and irrigation was 4.0 and 6.0 l, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ankara: Academic Center for International Scientific Information, 2017
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9148 (URN)7b7d147f-b8cd-440a-88ba-3a708950fa8b (Local ID)7b7d147f-b8cd-440a-88ba-3a708950fa8b (Archive number)7b7d147f-b8cd-440a-88ba-3a708950fa8b (OAI)
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160401 (bon)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Elhammeli, A. A., Muntasser, M. A., Lindblom, J. & Nordell, B. (2017). Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management: Rabat, Morocco, April 11-13, 2017. Paper presented at 7th Annual Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2017, Rabat, Morocco, 11-13 April 2017 (pp. 2270-2281). IEOM Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management: Rabat, Morocco, April 11-13, 2017, IEOM Society , 2017, p. 2270-2281Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the possibility of using warm humid air for irrigation and drinking water production, by flowing air over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water. Vapor will be saturated during mixing with the warm air in buried pipe. Finite difference method is employed to simulate the flow of the air long the pipe. The amount of water produced and buried pipe length depends upon the flow velocity, humid air properties and buried pipe diameter. The amount of water produced is 0.02525kg/s (0.0909m3/h). The length of the buried pipe needed in this study is 77.36m for a selected air flow velocity 5m/s with the properties of 70°C, 100% relative humidity at pipe inlet, 40°C and 100% relative humidity at pipe outlet of 0.2m pipe diameter. The results agree with a previous study (Gustafsson & Lindblom, 2001) with -4.0% deviation in water production and 7% of required pipe length

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEOM Society, 2017
Keywords
Water Production, Condensation, Humid Air, Underground, Desalination
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Water Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65263 (URN)978-0-9855497-6-3 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Annual Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2017, Rabat, Morocco, 11-13 April 2017
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Elhammeli, A. A., Muntasser, M. A., Lindblom, J. & Nordell, B. (2017). Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management: . Paper presented at 7th Annual Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2017, Rabat, Morocco, 11-13 April 2017 (pp. 2270-2281). IEOM Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM Society , 2017, p. 2270-2281Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the possibility of using warm humid air for irrigation and drinking water production, by flowing air over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water. Vapor will be saturated during mixing with the warm air in buried pipe. Finite difference method is employed to simulate the flow of the air long the pipe. The amount of water produced and buried pipe length depends upon the flow velocity, humid air properties and buried pipe diameter. The amount of water produced is 0.02525kg/s (0.0909m3/h). The length of the buried pipe needed in this study is 77.36m for a selected air flow velocity 5m/s with the properties of 70°C, 100% relative humidity at pipe inlet, 40°C and 100% relative humidity at pipe outlet of 0.2m pipe diameter. The results agree with a previous study (Gustafsson & Lindblom, 2001) with -4.0% deviation in water production and 7% of required pipe length

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEOM Society, 2017
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Water Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63568 (URN)2-s2.0-85018965473 (Scopus ID)9780985549763 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Annual Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2017, Rabat, Morocco, 11-13 April 2017
Available from: 2017-05-29 Created: 2017-05-29 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Al-Madhlom, Q., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Lindblom, J., Abdullah, T., Abid Hamza, B. & Knutsson, S. (2017). Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq. Engineering, 9(3), 279-290
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq
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2017 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 279-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iraq highly depends on its surface water resources. Now it is facing water shortage problems. For these reasons, the utilization of groundwater will be increasing with time. Karbala Governorate is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 5034 km2 and the population exceeds one million. It is characterized by an arid or semiarid environment. Karbala Governorate lack surface water resource and consequently, groundwater is the only available resource. The main groundwater aquifer within the area is Dibdibba formation. It is composed of poorly sorted sand and sand stone with gravel. In this research hydrological and hydrogeological information were used to find out the magnitude and the direction of groundwater seepage velocity. The results indicate that groundwater flow toward the flood plain to the east of the study region. The seepage velocity ranges from 0 to 0.18 m/d, with a general increase when moving from the west to the east.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2017
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62922 (URN)10.4236/eng.2017.93015 (DOI)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 1; 2017-04-07 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Lindblom, J., Al-Ansari, N. & Al-Madhlom, Q. (2016). Possibilities of reducing energy consumption by Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Babylon, Iraq (ed.). Paper presented at . Engineering, 8(3), 130-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilities of reducing energy consumption by Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Babylon, Iraq
2016 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iraq is located in the Middle East with an area that reaches 437072 km2 and a population of about 36 million. This country is suffering from severe electricity shortage problems which are expected to increase with time. In this research, an attempt is made to minimize this problem by combining the borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) with a heat pump, the indoor temperature of a residential building or other facility may be increased or reduced beyond the temperature interval of the heat carrier fluid.Due to the relatively high ground temperature in Middle Eastern countries, the Seasonal thermal energy storages (STES) and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems have a remarkable potential, partly because the reduced thermal losses from the underground storage and the expected high COP (ratio of thermal energy gain to required driving energy (electricity)) of a heat pump, partly because of the potential for using STES directly for heating and cooling. In this research, groundwater conditions of Babylon city in Iraq were investigated to evaluate the possibility of using GSHP to reduce energy consumption. It is believed that such system will reduce consumed energy by about 60%.

National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6877 (URN)10.4236/eng.2016.83014 (DOI)532f325d-89bb-4a2a-9871-18635d0210f3 (Local ID)532f325d-89bb-4a2a-9871-18635d0210f3 (Archive number)532f325d-89bb-4a2a-9871-18635d0210f3 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20160328 (nadhir)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Lindblom, J. (2012). Condensation irrigation: a combined system for desalination and irrigation (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condensation irrigation: a combined system for desalination and irrigation
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Condensation Irrigation (CI) is a new irrigation method that combines desalination and subsurface irrigation by making use of saline water for supplying clean irrigation. In this system, solar stills are used for evaporating non-potable water, and the formed vapour heats and humidifies the ambient air above the water surface. The warm, humid air is led from the stills into a system of horizontally buried drainage pipes. While flowing through the pipes, the air is cooled by the ground and vapour precipitates as freshwater inside the pipes. The perforations in the pipe wall enable the formed freshwater to percolate into the surrounding soil, and thereby irrigate it. Some of the humid air also infiltrates the soil through the perforations, which further increases irrigation by vapour condensation in the cooler ground. The airflow through the ground supplies soil aeration, which is important for high crop yield.Because the CI system generates freshwater from saline or otherwise contaminated water sources, this system can operate in locations that would normally lack irrigation possibilities. This subsurface irrigation system has also further advantages, such as reduced water losses through surface evaporation and deep percolation, increased soil aeration, and low tech / low cost design. To investigate the potential of the CI system, an implicit transient finite element simulation model, CI2D, was developed in Matlab, that was able to simulate the complex coupled mechanisms of gas, liquid and heat transfer in the soil-pipe system, including water evaporation and condensation. The validated and verified model also included solar radiation, root water extraction, and surface evaporation.The CI2D model was used to simulate a reference example of a theoretical CI facility in Malta. The irrigation rate under steady operation was 3.44 mm d-1 and the root water uptake was 19.8% of the supplied water. By lowering the inlet air temperature, the crop could be placed closer to the pipes without the roots being overheated. The irrigation rate obtained by decreasing the inlet air temperature from 70°C to 50°C, and reducing the pipe spacing from 1.2 m to 0.6 m, was 3.00 mm d-1. The root water uptake was, however, increased to 48% of the irrigation, resulting in a higher root water uptake.The principle behind CI can be used for drinking water production by using pipes without perforations in the ground. The condensed freshwater can then be collected at the pipe endings. This system was simulated under the same reference scenario as the irrigation system. The daily water production rate in a 50 m long pipe was in the example 135 kg d-1, corresponding to 2.26 mm d-1.A small scale laboratory setup where humid air was led through a perforated pipe in a sand box was tested and theoretically simulated. In the experiments, the importance of a free flow path for the gas phase through the soil was visualized. It could therefore be concluded that the CI system should not be implemented in low-permeability soils. From simulations in CI2D, it was evident that soils with high capillarity are unsuitable for CI systems as well, because the water accumulation around the pipe prevents humid air from entering the soil through the perforations.CI is a system with many unexplored possible designs and applications. For example, by leading the cooler saline feed water to the solar stills through the perforated irrigation pipes, the vapour condensation in the pipes would increase. This would also increase the solar still efficiency since the incoming saline water would be preheated by the humid airflow. In future work on this system, this, and other suggested improvements should be explored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-26210 (URN)d2d5948f-a3d3-4e59-9a03-8e9355aa00b6 (Local ID)978-91-7439-516-7 (ISBN)d2d5948f-a3d3-4e59-9a03-8e9355aa00b6 (Archive number)d2d5948f-a3d3-4e59-9a03-8e9355aa00b6 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20121005 (jeli); DISPUTATION Ämne: Vattenteknik/Water Resources Engineering Opponent: Associate Professor M. Thameur Chaibi (Maitre de recherche at the INRGREF), Tunis, Tunisia Ordförande: Professor Bo Nordell, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå tekniska universitet Tid: Fredag den 7 december 2012, kl 10.00 Plats: F1031, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Lindblom, J. & Nordell, B. (2012). Experimental Study of Underground Irrigation by Condensation of Humid Air in Perforated Pipes (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Study of Underground Irrigation by Condensation of Humid Air in Perforated Pipes
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Experimental Study of Underground Irrigation by Condensation of Humid Air in Perforated Pipes
Abstract [en]

A small scale Condensation Irrigation (CI) system was constructed to investigate the flow patterns of water, air and heat in the soil surrounding a perforated pipe from which water, heat and humid air was transferred. A 0.2 m long cross-section of sand and pipe was used to emulate a two-dimensional section of a CI system. Under these downscaled conditions, the mean irrigation rate in the sand box was 1.03 mm d-1. The major heat transfer mechanism in the sand profile was gas advection, which greatly reduced the sand temperature around the pipe.Nearly 50% of the vapour leaving the airflow inside the pipe, was transported to the sand surface by gas advection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012. p. 22
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23306 (URN)66d3d152-2f89-4008-a6ca-2c3ac9e23ade (Local ID)978-91-7439-513-6 (ISBN)66d3d152-2f89-4008-a6ca-2c3ac9e23ade (Archive number)66d3d152-2f89-4008-a6ca-2c3ac9e23ade (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20121105 (jeli)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Lindblom, J. & Nordell, B. (2007). Underground condensation of humid air for drinking water production and subsurface irrigation (ed.). Paper presented at . Desalination, 203(1-3), 417-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Underground condensation of humid air for drinking water production and subsurface irrigation
2007 (English)In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 203, no 1-3, p. 417-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Condensation Irrigation (CI) is a combined system for solar desalination and irrigation and/or drinking water production. Solar stills are used for humidifying ambient air flowing over the saline water surface in the still. This warm, humid air is then led into an underground pipe system where it is cooled and vapour precipitates as freshwater on the pipe walls. If drainage pipes are used the condensed water and some of humid air percolate through the pipe perforations and irrigates and aerates the ground. Drinking water can be collected at the pipe endings when using non-perforated pipes. The CI system has attracted attention from several North African countries, and pilot plants are now in operation in Tunisia and Algeria. Mass and heat transfer in the soil around the buried pipes has been modelled to evaluate the theoretical potential for these types of systems and to gain understanding of the mechanisms governing their productivity. For a presumed reference system, the mean water production rate in the drinking water system was 1.8 kg per meter of pipe and day. When using drainage pipes for subsurface irrigation, this number increased to 3.1 kg/m/d, corresponding to 2.3 mm/d of supplied irrigation water.

National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10900 (URN)10.1016/j.desal.2006.02.025 (DOI)000244548500043 ()2-s2.0-33846291028 (Scopus ID)9c78ce70-b5e6-11db-bf94-000ea68e967b (Local ID)9c78ce70-b5e6-11db-bf94-000ea68e967b (Archive number)9c78ce70-b5e6-11db-bf94-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2007; Bibliografisk uppgift: Presented at EuroMed 2006 conference on Desalination Strategies in South Mediterranean Countries: Cooperation between Mediterranean Countries of Europe and the Southern Rim of the Mediterranean. Sponsored by the European Desalination Society and the University of Montpellier II, Montpellier, France, 21-25 May 2006; 20070206 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8564-4360

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