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Derhamy, H., Eliasson, J. & Delsing, J. (2019). System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture. IEEE Systems Journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture
2019 (English)In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology has played a key role as an enabler. In the same manner, mechanical machines of the 1800s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another industrial revolution. Manufacturers are increasing the digital footprint on the factory floor. It is challenging to harness the vast amounts of data generated, stored, analyzed, archived, and returned. Data centralization has several well-known challenges, such as collection bottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure, and data scheme fragility as data heterogeneity increases. This paper proposes a method of information distribution based on the principle of data at its source. It proposes that contextual data be used at runtime through the creation of dynamic queries that build compositions of different systems. Such system of systems (SoS) compositions handle the flow of data across its life cycle and present it as information to the initiating system. The proposal starts by creating a graph model of the Arrowhead framework. Then, building on the graph model, the query-based approach for specifying, validating, and forming the SoS is proposed. The proposed graph model allows for unambiguous description of systems and their interrelations, including security relations. The proposed composer operates on the edge computing hardware and gives the production floor the ability to extract information without impacting the overall operation of the factory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Arrowhead framework (AF), edge computing, graph theory, Hypermedia as the engine of application state (HATEOAS), industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), information centric networking, RAMI4.0, RESTful, service-oriented architecture, system of systems (SoS), systems theory
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68462 (URN)10.1109/JSYST.2019.2894649 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-23 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2019-03-01
Kohlbacher, A., Eliasson, J., Acres, K., Chung, H. & Barca, J. C. (2018). A Low Cost Omnidirectional Relative Localization Sensor for Swarm Applications. In: IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things: . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), Singapore, 5-8 Feb. 2018 (pp. 694-699). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Low Cost Omnidirectional Relative Localization Sensor for Swarm Applications
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2018 (English)In: IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 694-699Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

By enabling coordinated task execution and movement, robotic swarms can achieve efficient exploration of unknown environments. In this paper, we propose a relative localization sensor system using Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology for ranging. This system is light-weight and relatively indifferent to the types of surrounding environments. Infrastructure dependency such as the requirement of beacons at known locations is eliminated by making an array of sensors on a swarm agent. In this paper, a novel algorithm is implemented on hardware with limited resources and compared to a more traditional trilateration approach. Both utilize Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to be more robust against noise and to achieve similar accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm runs up to ten times faster than the existing trilateration approach. The sensor array which forms the localization system weighs only 56g, and achieves around 0.5m RMSE with a 10Hz update rate. Experiments show that the accuracy can be further improved if the rotational bias observed in the UWB devices are compensated for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67643 (URN)10.1109/WF-IoT.2018.8355093 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050488383 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), Singapore, 5-8 Feb. 2018
Projects
Productive4.0Arrowhead
Available from: 2018-02-14 Created: 2018-02-14 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Kolluru, K. K., Paniagua, C., van Deventer, J., Eliasson, J., Delsing, J. & DeLong, R. J. (2018). An AAA Solution for Securing Industrial IoT Devices using Next Generation Access Control. In: : . Paper presented at 1st IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, ICPS 2018, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 15-18 May 2018 (pp. 737-742). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An AAA Solution for Securing Industrial IoT Devices using Next Generation Access Control
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Industry 4.0 is advancing the use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in industrial applications, which enablesefficient device-to-device (D2D) communication. However, these devices are often heterogeneous in nature, i.e. from different manufacturers, use different protocols, etc. and adds requirements such as security, interoperability, etc.To address these requirements, the Service-Oriented Architecture-Based (SOA) Arrowhead Framework was previously proposed using the concept of local clouds. These local clouds provide a set of mandatory and support core systems to enable industrial automation applications. One of these mandatory core systems is an Authentication, Authorisationand Accounting (AAA) system, which is used to authenticate and provide access control to the devices in a local cloud. In an industrial context, with multiple stakeholders, the AAA mustsupport fine-grain access control. For example, in a distributed control loop, a controller should only have read access to its sensor such as a flow meter and write access to its actuator, such as a valve. The controller should not have access to anyother information besides what is needed to implement the desired functionality. In this work, an NGAC-based AAA solution to achieve fine-grain service level access control between IoT devices has been proposed and implemented. The solution is presented using a district heating use case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
National Category
Embedded Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Embedded Systems; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69313 (URN)10.1109/ICPHYS.2018.8390799 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050142256 (Scopus ID)9781538665312 (ISBN)
Conference
1st IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, ICPS 2018, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 15-18 May 2018
Projects
Productive 4.0OPTi Optimisation of District Heating Cooling systems, OPTi
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 649796
Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
Derhamy, H., Andersson, M., Eliasson, J. & Delsing, J. (2018). Workflow management for edge driven manufacturing systems. In: : . Paper presented at 1st IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, ICPS 2018, ITMO University Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 15-18 May 2018 (pp. 774-779). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workflow management for edge driven manufacturing systems
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The fourth industrial revolution is one of digitization. As manufacturers build more digital equipment into their process harnessing the potential becomes a challenge. ISA 95 based manufacturers rely on top down decision making, with redundant flow of information in order to organize Workflows on the factory floor. With advances in edge computing and smart objects, more decision are made at lower levels of the infrastructure hierarchy. However, how can the MES tracking and execution functions be decentralized while maintain an organized collaboration of smart objects? This paper proposes a Cyber Physical Service Oriented System of Systems operating on edge computing. There are three systems proposed here; Smart Product, Workflow Manager and Workflow Executor. These systems operate within Arrowhead Local Clouds and create a fully autonomous set of system to complete a production order. Planning, Supply chain and Quality of Service monitoring are out of scope and remain as centralized activities. The Smart Product is the core Cyber Physical System that must be context-aware in order to pass the correct Workflow information to the Workflow System responsible for current activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70248 (URN)10.1109/ICPHYS.2018.8390805 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050081836 (Scopus ID)9781538665312 (ISBN)
Conference
1st IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, ICPS 2018, ITMO University Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 15-18 May 2018
Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Derhamy, H., Eliasson, J. & Delsing, J. (2017). IoT Interoperability: On-demand and low latency Transparent Multi-protocol Translator (ed.). IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 4(5), 1754-1763
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IoT Interoperability: On-demand and low latency Transparent Multi-protocol Translator
2017 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1754-1763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the Industrial Internet of Things there is a clear need for a high level of interoperability between independently developedsystems, often from different vendors. Traditional methods of interoperability including protocol gateways and adapters, are often usedat the network layer. Recent work on application interoperability has emphasized the use of middleware or protocol proxy/gateway.However, middleware tends to move the interoperability problem rather than solving it, and there are scalability issues with increasingthe number of proxies; re-configuration effort, and required bandwidth and processing overheads.This paper proposes a secure, on-demand and transparent protocol translator for the Industrial Internet of Things. Targeting thechallenge of interoperability between IP-based communication protocols, the paper analyses current solutions and develops a set ofrequirements to be met by IoT protocol interoperability. The proposed protocol translator is not a middleware, it is a SOA-basedparticipant, it is used on-demand when needed, it does not introduce design time dependencies, it operates transparently, it supportslow-latency, and it is secured through the use of Arrowhead authorization and authentication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Industrial automation, Internet of Things (IoT), Multi-Protocol Translation, Protocol conversion, Arrowhead, Interoperability, Information technology - Computer engineering, Informationsteknik - Datorteknik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7879 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2017.2697718 (DOI)000412362300056 ()2-s2.0-85037051630 (Scopus ID)64dff8e4-1dd0-48cd-af81-277e714a9939 (Local ID)64dff8e4-1dd0-48cd-af81-277e714a9939 (Archive number)64dff8e4-1dd0-48cd-af81-277e714a9939 (OAI)
Projects
Arrowhead
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-10-30 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
Varga, P., Blomstedt, F., Ferreira, L. L., Eliasson, J., Johansson, M., Delsing, J. & Martínez de Soria, I. (2017). Making system of systems interoperable: The core components of the arrowhead framework. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 81, 85-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making system of systems interoperable: The core components of the arrowhead framework
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 81, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the Arrowhead Framework is to efficiently support the development, deployment and operation of interconnected, cooperative systems. It is based on the Service Oriented Architecture philosophy. The building elements of the framework are systems that provide and consume services, and cooperate as systems of systems. Some commonly used systems, such as orchestration, authorization or service registry are considered as core. These can be used by any system of systems that follow the guidelines of the Arrowhead Framework.

Within the framework, systems – using different information exchange technologies during collaboration – are helped through various approaches. These include the so-called Interoperability Layer, as well as systems and services for translation. Furthermore, one of the main problems of developing such highly interoperable systems is the lack of understanding between various development groups. Adequate development and service documentation methodologies can help to overcome this issue.

The design, development and verification methodology for each service, system and system of systems within the Arrowhead Framework supports that these can be implemented, verified, deployed, and run in an interoperable way. This paper presents an overview of the framework together with its core elements – and provides guidelines for the design and deployment of interoperable, Arrowhead-compliant cooperative systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
System interoperability, System of systems, Systems, Services, Service oriented architectures, Internet of things
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59689 (URN)10.1016/j.jnca.2016.08.028 (DOI)000394068000009 ()2-s2.0-84994852297 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-02-23 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Ramirez, B., Chung, H., Derhamy, H., Eliasson, J. & Barca, J. C. (2017). Relative localization with computer vision and UWB range for flying robot formation control. In: 2016 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2016: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2016, Phuket, Thailand, 13-15 November 2016. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 7838839.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relative localization with computer vision and UWB range for flying robot formation control
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2017 (English)In: 2016 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7838839Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Relative localization is a core problem for swarm robotics since each swarm node must determine where neighboring robots are located to accomplish cooperative tasks such as formation control. In this paper we present a system that performs relative localization between a stationary marker and a flying robot in real-time. Relative distances are obtained using ultra-wide band radio, while a low-cost webcam provide angle measurements. To achieve the latter, we employed the Camshift algorithm and a Kalman filter. We tested our system outdoors during daylight using centimeter-accuracy GPS measurements as ground truth. Three data sets have been collected from a series of experiments and it shows that errors in estimated relative positions are between +/-0.190 m on the x-East axis and +/-0.291 m on the z-North axis at 95% confidence level

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
International Conference on Control Automation Robotics and Vision, E-ISSN 2474-2953
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62659 (URN)10.1109/ICARCV.2016.7838839 (DOI)000405520900240 ()2-s2.0-85015222381 (Scopus ID)9781509035496 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2016, Phuket, Thailand, 13-15 November 2016
Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Delsing, J., van Deventer, J., Eliasson, J., Johansson, J., Löfqvist, T. & Sandin, F. (2016). Concepts and Architecture for a Thumb-Sized Smart IoT Ultrasound Measurement System. In: IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium 2016: . Paper presented at IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium, Tours, France, 18-21 Sep 2016. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concepts and Architecture for a Thumb-Sized Smart IoT Ultrasound Measurement System
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2016 (English)In: IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the technology concepts for a “thumb”-sized self-contained ultrasonic IoT measurement sys- tem. An overall architecture is proposed, and key elements are discussed with solutions using existing technology, thus arguing that realization is possible with the current technology.

Such an ultrasonic IoT measurement system is constrained by its size and available energy, although it requires at least decent computational and communication resources. Because streaming data from such a device is not advisable from an energy viewpoint, there is a need for resource efficient (energy, memory and computational power) data analysis.

An architecture with the following parts as well as some implementation details and performance data are proposed here:

  • Energy supply, battery and super capacitor

  • Transducer excitation achieving almost zero electrical losses

  • Event detection sensor interface

  • Data aggregation using sparse approximation and learned

    feature dictionaries, adapted to resource constrained em-

    bedded systems

  • IoT communication protocols and implementations enabling

    event -based communication and System of Systems integra- tion capabilities

    The optimization of system level performance requires each subsystem to be optimized for the specific measurement situation taking into account the subsystem interdependencies. This can be performed using a combined electrical and acoustical model of the system. Here, the model allowing electronic and acoustic co-simulation using SPICE is an important tool bridging the electronic and acoustic domains. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59677 (URN)10.1109/ULTSYM.2016.7728708 (DOI)978-1-4799-8182-3 (ISBN)978-1-4673-9897-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium, Tours, France, 18-21 Sep 2016
Projects
Arrowhead
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, O., Puñal Pereira, P., Eliasson, J., Delsing, J., Ahmad, B., Harrison, R. & Jansson, O. (2016). Configuration Service in Cloud based Automation Systems. In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference): . Paper presented at 42nd Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2016, Florence, Italy, 24-27 October 2016 (pp. 5238-5245). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, Article ID 7793489.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuration Service in Cloud based Automation Systems
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2016 (English)In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 5238-5245, article id 7793489Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current challenges in production automation requires the involvement of new technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Systems of Systems and local automation clouds. The objective of this paper is to address one of the challenges involved in establishing and managing a cloud based automation system. Three key capabilities have been identified as required to create the expected benefits of local automation clouds; 1) capturing of plant design 2) capturing and distributing configuration and deployment information 3) coordinating information exchange.

This paper addresses the capturing and distribution of configuration and deployment information. For this purpose a system service is proposed, the ConfigurationStore, following the principles of the Arrowhead Framework. The service is accompanied by a deployment methodology and a bootstrapping procedure. These are discussed for several types of automation technology, e.g. controllers, sensors, actuators. A qualitative evaluation of the proposed approach is made for four use cases; Building automation, Manufacturing automation, Process automation and IoT devices. Concluding the usability for large-scale deployment and configuration of Industrial Internet of Things.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Embedded Systems
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59691 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2016.7793489 (DOI)000399031205084 ()2-s2.0-85010069971 (Scopus ID)
Conference
42nd Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2016, Florence, Italy, 24-27 October 2016
Projects
Arrowhead
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Delsing, J., van Deventer, J., Derhamy, H., Eliasson, J. & Varga, P. (2016). Enabling IoT automation using local clouds. In: Proceedings IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things: . Paper presented at 3rd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), Reston, VA, 12-14 December 2016 (pp. 501-507). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, Article ID 7845474.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling IoT automation using local clouds
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2016, p. 501-507, article id 7845474Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Various forms of cloud computing principles and technologies are becoming important recently. This paper ad- dresses cloud computing for automation and control applications. It’s argued that the open Internet cloud idea has such limitations that its not appropriate for automation.

Since automation is physically and geographically local, it is inevitable to introduce the concept of local automation clouds. It’s here proposed that local automation clouds should be self contained an be able to execute the intended automation func- tionalities without any external resources. Thus providing a fence at the rim of the local cloud preventing any inbound or outbound communication. Such a local cloud provides possibilities to address key requirements of both todays and future automation solutions. Adding mechanisms for secure inter-cloud administra- tion and data tranfere enables local automation cloud to meet IoT automation system requirements as: 1) Interoperability of a wide range of IoT and legacy devices 2) Automation requirement on latency guarantee/prediction for communication and control computations. 3) Scalability of automation systems enabling very large integrated automation systems 4) Security and related safety of automation systems 5) Ease of application engineering 6) Multi stakeholder integration and operations agility.

How these requirements can be met in such a local automation cloud is discussed with references to proposed solutions. The local automation cloud concept is further verified for a compartment climate control application. The control application included an IoT controller, four IoT sensors and actuators, and a physical layer communication gateway. The gateway acted as host for local cloud core functionalities. The climate control application has successfully been implemented using the open source Arrowhead Framework and its supports for design and implementation of self contained local automation clouds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2016
Keywords
Local automation clouds, IoT, SoS
National Category
Engineering and Technology Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61071 (URN)10.1109/WF-IoT.2016.7845474 (DOI)000399698600086 ()2-s2.0-85015159190 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4130-5 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), Reston, VA, 12-14 December 2016
Projects
Arrowhead
Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9586-0991

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