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Johansson, K., Carabante, I. & Kumpiene, J. (2024). Immobilisation of arsenic in contaminated soil by electrokinetics in an outdoor experiment. Science of the Total Environment, 918, Article ID 170656.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immobilisation of arsenic in contaminated soil by electrokinetics in an outdoor experiment
2024 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 918, article id 170656Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although landfilling is environmentally and economically unsustainable, it is the dominant soil remediation method in EU member states. This paper describes part of a study on mixed contaminants that investigated the stabilisation of arsenic (As) in contaminated soil in an outdoor box experiment with electrokinetic treatment (EK). The experiment was conducted in two 1 m3 boxes, each containing a 20 cm bottom layer of sand, overlaid with 20 cm of peat. In EK, a pulsating, low-voltage current was applied with the intention of corroding the zerovalent iron (Fe) electrodes, migrating ionic Fe species, and forming secondary iron minerals, thereby immobilizing As. Porewater samples were collected over two seasons to determine whether the treatment decreased the concentration of dissolved As. Sequential extraction was performed on the soil samples to determine whether the fraction of Fe-bound As increased. Reed canary grass was planted in one of the boxes during the second season and analysed for As uptake. The results showed that the treatment decreased the porewater As concentration in sand by 50–54 %, while the concentration of Fe increased. The sequential extraction of sand showed that the fraction of As bound to poorly crystalline Fe oxides increased during this time. This treatment effect was less visible in the peat. Moreover, the exchangeable As fraction increased in both peat and sand, most likely because of the decrease in redox potential at the end of the experiment. The plants grown in treated soil accumulated less As than those grown in untreated soil, indicating that the phytoavailable As fraction decreased. This study showed that EK remediation can be a suitable in situ remediation technique, mostly in sand. Future research should focus on redox control to further optimise EK remediation and ensure long-term As stability in treated soils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
Keywords
Electrokinetic remediation, Iron(oxyhydr)oxides, Phalaris arundinacea, Reed canary grass, Stabilisation
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104319 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170656 (DOI)38320707 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85184522192 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 965945
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-02-20 (joosat);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2024-02-20 Created: 2024-02-20 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
Kumpiene, J., Engström, K., Pinedo Taquia, A., Carabante, I. & Bjuhr, J. (2023). Arsenic immobilisation in soil using electricity-induced spreading of iron in situ. Journal of Environmental Management, 325(Part A), Article ID 116467.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arsenic immobilisation in soil using electricity-induced spreading of iron in situ
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 325, no Part A, article id 116467Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An in situ method for spreading iron amendments to arsenic (As)-contaminated soil has been investigated in the laboratory and field. This study tested the distribution of Fe from corroding electrodes through soil using a low-voltage direct current in a laboratory setting and validated the method in the field for As immobilisation in contaminated soil. Laboratory tests revealed that the corrosion of Fe electrodes in soil occurred in a way similar to that during the Fe electrocoagulation in water, which decreased the As concentrations in flow-through water from 150 μg L−1 to undetectable levels. Method validation over one year in the field using electric current pulses with reversing polarity revealed a decrease in As concentration in groundwater by 72–97% in five of the six groundwater wells within the experimental area. This method of introducing Fe amendments to soil can reduce the need for soil excavation upon chemical immobilisation of contaminants in soil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Electrocoagulation, Field test, Soil remediation, Wood impregnation chemicals
National Category
Environmental Sciences Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93765 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116467 (DOI)000877509300001 ()36270123 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85140273960 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-07 (joosat);

Funder: Swedish Geological Institute (SGI); Boden municipality

Available from: 2022-11-07 Created: 2022-11-07 Last updated: 2022-11-17Bibliographically approved
Kumpiene, J. (2023). Circular Economy and Sustainability: Management and Policy (Volume 2) [Review]. Detrius, 23, XIV-XV
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circular Economy and Sustainability: Management and Policy (Volume 2)
2023 (English)In: Detrius, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 23, p. XIV-XVArticle, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cisa Publisher, 2023
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102389 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2023.18282 (DOI)001071900400006 ()
Note

Full text license: CC BY-NC-ND

Available from: 2023-11-10 Created: 2023-11-10 Last updated: 2023-11-10Bibliographically approved
Ren, Z., Bergmann, U., Uwayezu, J. N., Carabante, I., Kumpiene, J., Lejon, T. & Leiviskä, T. (2023). Combination of adsorption/desorption and photocatalytic reduction processes for PFOA removal from water by using an aminated biosorbent and a UV/sulfite system. Environmental Research, 228, Article ID 115930.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of adsorption/desorption and photocatalytic reduction processes for PFOA removal from water by using an aminated biosorbent and a UV/sulfite system
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 228, article id 115930Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are stable organic chemicals, which have been used globally since the 1940s and have caused PFAS contamination around the world. This study explores perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) enrichment and destruction by a combined method of sorption/desorption and photocatalytic reduction. A novel biosorbent (PG-PB) was developed from raw pine bark by grafting amine groups and quaternary ammonium groups onto the surface of bark particles. The results of PFOA adsorption at low concentration suggest that PG-PB has excellent removal efficiency (94.8%–99.1%, PG-PB dosage: 0.4 g/L) to PFOA in the concentration range of 10 μg/L to 2 mg/L. The PG-PB exhibited high adsorption efficiency regarding PFOA, being 456.0 mg/g at pH 3.3 and 258.0 mg/g at pH 7 with an initial concentration of 200 mg/L. The groundwater treatment reduced the total concentration of 28 PFAS from 18 000 ng/L to 9900 ng/L with 0.8 g/L of PG-PB. Desorption experiments examined 18 types of desorption solutions, and the results showed that 0.05% NaOH and a mixture of 0.05% NaOH + 20% methanol were efficient for PFOA desorption from the spent PG-PB. More than 70% (>70 mg/L in 50 mL) and 85% (>85 mg/L in 50 mL) of PFOA were recovered from the first and second desorption processes, respectively. Since high pH promotes PFOA degradation, the desorption eluents with NaOH were directly treated with a UV/sulfite system without further adjustment. The final PFOA degradation and defluorination efficiency in the desorption eluents with 0.05% NaOH + 20% methanol reached 100% and 83.1% after 24 h reaction. This study proved that the combination of adsorption/desorption and a UV/sulfite system for PFAS removal is a feasible solution for environmental remediation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Adsorption/desorption, Advanced reduction process, Biomass sorbent, Perfluorooctanoic acid, UV/Sulfite system
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97021 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2023.115930 (DOI)37076033 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152700599 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sustainable management of PFAS-contaminated materials
Funder
Interreg NordNorrbotten County Council
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-05-05 (hanlid);

Funder: Regional Council of Lapland; Troms og Finnmark County Municipality

Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Uwayezu, J. N., Zhongfei, R., Sonnenschein, S., Leiviskä, T., Lejon, T., van Hees, P., . . . Carabante, I. (2023). Combination of separation and degradation methods after PFAS soil washing. Science of the Total Environment, 907, Article ID 168137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of separation and degradation methods after PFAS soil washing
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 907, article id 168137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study evaluated a three-stage treatment to remediate PFAS-contaminated soil. The treatment consisted of soil washing, foam fractionation (FF), and electrochemical oxidation (EO). The possibility of replacing the third stage, i.e., EO, with an adsorption process was also assessed. The contamination in the studied soils was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with a concentration of 760 and 19 μg kg−1 in soil I and in soil II, accounting for 97 % and 70 % of all detected per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Before applying a pilot treatment of soil, soil washing was performed on a laboratory scale, to evaluate the effect of soil particle size, initial pH and a liquid-to-soil ratio (L/S) on the leachability of PFAS. A pilot washing system generated soil leachate that was subsequently treated using FF and EO (or adsorption) and then reused for soil washing. The results indicated that the leaching of PFAS occurred easier in 0.063–1 mm particles than in the soil particles having a size below 0.063 mm. Both alkaline conditions and a continual replacement of the leaching solution increased the leachability of PFAS. The analysis using one-way ANOVA showed no statistical difference in means of PFOS washed out in laboratory and pilot scales. This allowed estimating twenty washing cycles using 120 L water to reach 95 % PFOS removal in 60 kg soil. The aeration process removed 95–99 % PFOS in every washing cycle. The EO and adsorption processes achieved similar results removing up to 97 % PFOS in concentrated soil leachate. The current study demonstrated a multi-stage treatment as an effective and cost-efficient method to permanently clean up PFAS-contaminated soil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Soil washing, PFAS contaminated soil, foam fractionation, adsorption, electrochemical oxidation
National Category
Environmental Sciences Soil Science
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101112 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.168137 (DOI)
Funder
Interreg Nord, NYPS 20202462Norrbotten County CouncilSwedish Geotechnical Institute, Tuffo research and technology development program
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-13 (joosat);

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

CC BY 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-08-30 Created: 2023-08-30 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Uwayezu, J. N., Carabante, I., van Hees, P., Karlsson, P. & Kumpiene, J. (2023). Combining electrochemistry and ultraviolet radiation for the degradation of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances in contaminated groundwater and wastewater. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 54, Article ID 104028.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining electrochemistry and ultraviolet radiation for the degradation of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances in contaminated groundwater and wastewater
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Water Process Engineering, E-ISSN 2214-7144, Vol. 54, article id 104028Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochemical and ultraviolet-based methods are advanced oxidation processes emerging as viable water and wastewater treatment options. In this study, a combination of these two methods (EO-UV) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes and ultraviolet radiation at both 185 and 254 nm was assessed for the degradation of poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) were used as electrolytes. The method was investigated on model solutions containing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorosulfonic acid (PFOS). The method's effectiveness was assessed by comparing PFAS removal efficiencies and energy demands associated with the use of separate and combined treatments. The results showed that the highest removal of PFOA and PFOS was 96 % and 85 % respectively, which was achieved using EO-UV and persulfate electrolytes. Average removal efficiencies were 1.5–2 times higher in EO-UV than in EO and 4–6 times higher than in UV treatment. The degradation of PFAS under EO-UV and persulfate applied to PFAS-contaminated groundwater and wastewater reached 94 % PFOA and 88 % PFOS in groundwater and 51 % and 63 % in wastewater. The removal of the sum of eleven PFAS was 86 % and 66 % in groundwater and wastewater, respectively. The combination of EO, UV and persulfate was the most effective option for PFAS treatment at lower energy consumption.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Electrochemical oxidation, Persulfate, PFAS, Synergistic effect, Vacuum ultraviolet irradiation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99485 (URN)10.1016/j.jwpe.2023.104028 (DOI)2-s2.0-85164701296 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord, NYPS 20202462Norrbotten County CouncilSwedish Geotechnical Institute
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-10 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-08-31Bibliographically approved
Uwayezu, J. N., Carabante, I., van Hees, P., Karlsson, P. & Kumpiene, J. (2023). Validation of UV/persulfate as a PFAS treatment of industrial wastewater and environmental samples. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 53, Article ID 103614.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of UV/persulfate as a PFAS treatment of industrial wastewater and environmental samples
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Water Process Engineering, E-ISSN 2214-7144, Vol. 53, article id 103614Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The contamination of natural water and industrial wastewater with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) occurs globally. Thus, proper technologies are required to reduce PFAS in the environment and mitigate the adverse effects of these pollutants on human health and the environment. This study used a 23 full factorial design to evaluate the importance of operating factors including the level of persulfate (PS), the initial concentration of PFAS, and the time to the photochemical degradation of PFAS via ultraviolet irradiation at 185/254 nm assisted with persulfate (PS/UV method) in spiked solution. The method was then applied to break down PFAS in industrial wastewater, landfill leachate and groundwater samples using the highest factor levels applied in the 23 full factorial design. The results showed that the three investigated factors played an important role in the degradation of PFAS. The highest PFAS degradation was 57 % perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), 80 % perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 60 % perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) using 10 mg L−1 PFAS, 5 g L−1 PS for 4 h. The defluorination also increased in the presence of PS but decreased in the presence of potassium hydrogen phthalate, nitrates, and chlorides. The PS/UV method decreased the concentration of PFAS in wastewater samples by 20–25 % PFOS and 13–15 % perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). PFAS degradation in wastewater improved with increasing treatment time. Under the PS/UV treatment, the degradation of major PFAS in groundwater was 94 % 6–2 FTS, 75 % PFOA, 62 % PFOS and 61 % PFHxS. The removal of major compounds in landfill leachate reached up to 12 % PFHxA, 32 % PFPeA, 56 % PFOA and 43 % PFOS. Our study indicated matrix effects leading to decreased PFAS degradation in different contaminated waters. The level of PS should also be controlled to an optimal value because higher levels led to a decrease in treatment efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Full factorial design, Groundwater, Industrial wastewaters, Leachate, Persulfate, PFAS, Ultraviolet light
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96338 (URN)10.1016/j.jwpe.2023.103614 (DOI)000956244200001 ()2-s2.0-85150035277 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Interreg Nord, 20202462Norrbotten County CouncilSwedish Geotechnical Institute
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-12 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-04-12 Created: 2023-04-12 Last updated: 2023-08-31Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D., Vestin, J., Hansson, L. & Kumpiene, J. (2022). Long-term evaluation of geotechnical and environmental properties of ash-stabilised road. Journal of Environmental Management, 318, Article ID 115504.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term evaluation of geotechnical and environmental properties of ash-stabilised road
2022 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 318, article id 115504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2009, a low-volume gravel road in Sweden was stabilised using fly ash from a local paper mill. The objective was to examine whether fly ash could be used to enhance the stability of the road and how the nearby environment would be affected. The technical and environmental properties of the road have been monitored for two, six, and eleven years. Because the construction costs are higher for ash upgrading than for conventional upgrading, knowing for how long the improved properties will remain is relevant. Strength development was studied using a falling weight deflectometer and compressive strength tests. Environmental properties were studied by chemical analysis of road samples, soil, soil pore water, and vegetation. The results showed that the ash sections had higher stiffness than the reference sections. Leaching tests of road samples showed that the mobility of potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased with time. Trace element concentrations in soil samples, except barium, were below the Swedish guideline values for sensitive land use. Chromium, lead, and copper were as high or even higher along the reference section than along the ash section. After 11 years, the pH closest to the ash section was slightly enhanced. Concentrations of zinc and cadmium in the soil pore water were the lowest closest to the ash road, although the total concentrations in the soil were at their highest at the same distance. No toxic levels of trace elements were found in the vegetation close to the road, although a clear difference was observed between plants from the ash section and the reference section, using multivariate data analysis. The positive effects on the geotechnical road properties from ash stabilisation remained after 11 years. The environmental impacts on nearby soil and vegetation can be considered low and acceptable. This study demonstrates that the use of biofuel fly ash in infrastructure projects can contribute to the circular economy and effective use of resources because the demand for pristine materials will be reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Biofuel fly ash, Gravel road stabilisation, Bearing capacity, Leaching, Soil pore water, Vegetation
National Category
Energy Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91540 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115504 (DOI)000862249600002 ()35717696 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85132354004 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of TechnologySwedish Geotechnical Institute
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-06-17 (joosat);

Funder: Energiforsk; Skogforsk

Available from: 2022-06-17 Created: 2022-06-17 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Niero, L., Norgren, R., Kumpiene, J. & Jonsson, A. (2022). The effect of pH, temperature, and inoculum on the fermentation of pulp and paper biosludge: increasing the nutrient availability for rearing of black soldier fly larvae. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of pH, temperature, and inoculum on the fermentation of pulp and paper biosludge: increasing the nutrient availability for rearing of black soldier fly larvae
2022 (English)In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Pulp and paper production is one of the largest global industries producing annually 400 million metric tons of pulp and paper products and 6 million tons of pulp and paper biosludge (PPBS). From a resource efficiency and sustainability perspective, there is a need for improving PPBS management. This study assessed fermentation of PPBS as pretreatment to improve PPBS feasibility as feed for black soldier fly larvae. The impact of temperature, pH, and inoculum on the concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) was assessed. An initial pH of 10 and the addition of inoculum from an anaerobic digester substantially increased the concentration of sCOD. The obtained concentration of VFA was low compared to the VFA concentration needed to improve the growth of Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL). The PPBS is recalcitrant to fermentation because of the high content of lignocellulose. Fermentation as done in this study does not convert PPBS to a feasible feed for black soldier fly larvae; thus, further research on improved fermentation is needed. However, fermentation at alkaline pH and addition of inoculum do increase the final pH of PPBS which improves its feasibility as feed for BSFL. Future studies should explore pH > 10 and temperatures > 55 °C to increase sCOD and improving generation of VFA by removal of inhibiting substances, testing other types of inoculum (rumen microorganisms) and co-fermentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Fermentation, Lignocellulose, Nutrient availability, Recycling, Sludge, Volatile fatty acids
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89146 (URN)10.1007/s13399-022-02326-2 (DOI)000745578600001 ()2-s2.0-85123498794 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funder: Ragn-Sells AB

Available from: 2022-02-17 Created: 2022-02-17 Last updated: 2022-07-04
Travar, I., Uwayezu, J. N., Kumpiene, J. & Yeung, L. W. .. (2021). Challenges in the PFAS Remediation of Soil and Landfill Leachate: A Review. Advances in Environmental and Engineering Research, 2(2), Article ID 006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges in the PFAS Remediation of Soil and Landfill Leachate: A Review
2021 (English)In: Advances in Environmental and Engineering Research, ISSN 2766-6190, Vol. 2, no 2, article id 006Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has resulted in the contamination of different environmental matrices. In EU countries, the sites contaminated with PFAS are usually remediated by excavating the soil and disposing of it in a landfill, as no in-situ or on-site techniques capable of treating large quantities of soil cost-effectively have been developed. Landfilling of PFAS-contaminated soil is one of the sources of PFAS in landfill leachate. In this paper, the physical and chemical treatment methods to remove PFAS from soils and landfill leachates are described. Among the challenges that may limit the remediation of contaminated sites, we highlight the lack of strict regulation of PFAS in soils, the cost, the ineffectiveness of some methods for the remediation of certain PFAS compounds, and the limitation of the environmental matrices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lidsen publishing, 2021
Keywords
Contaminated soil, landfill, leachate, treatment techniques, sorption, stabilization
National Category
Environmental Sciences Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-100650 (URN)10.21926/aeer.2102006 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Note

Godkänd;2023;Nivå 0;2023-11-14 (hanlid);

Funder: Ragn-Sells Treatment & Detox AB (20160019)

Available from: 2023-08-18 Created: 2023-08-18 Last updated: 2023-11-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1442-1573

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