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Dittes, N., Sjödahl, M., Pettersson, A. & Lang, D. (2019). Automated Dielectric Thermoscopy Characterization of Water Contaminated Grease. Tribology Transactions, 62(5), 859-867
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Dielectric Thermoscopy Characterization of Water Contaminated Grease
2019 (English)In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 859-867Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Machine maintenance is important for improving machine uptime, reliability, and reducing costs. Grease is used in most rolling element bearings, and one common failure criterion is water contamination, so developing a sensor which can detect water content automatically without human input could be a useful endeavor. The temperature dependence on the dielectric properties of water-contaminated grease is investigated in this paper with computer logged instrumentation. This method has been termed Dielectric Thermoscopy (DT). Several off the shelf (two lithium, one lithium complex, and two calcium sulphonate complex) and one unadditivized lithium grease are tested with varying amounts of water contamination from 0% to approximately 5%. Another grease is tested with small increments of added water from 0% to 0.97% to test the resolution of the measurement. The purpose is to use the capacitance temperature slope (termed dielectric thermoscopy) to show correlations to the water content of the grease sample and investigate if any grease types will pose problems in the measurement. A small, custom made fringe field capacitance sensor with an integrated temperature sensor has been used for this characterization and data is logged automatically with laboratory equipment and a PC. A useable and positive correlation to water content and the DT measurement of roughly 0.5 pF per 10 °C and percentage of water is found, although it was found that some greases have different behavior than others.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75141 (URN)10.1080/10402004.2019.1629051 (DOI)000479625300001 ()2-s2.0-85073653107 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-22 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2019-11-04Bibliographically approved
Dittes, N., Pettersson, A., Marklund, P., Lang, D. & Lugt, P. M. (2018). Dielectric Thermoscopy Characterization of Water Contaminated Grease. Tribology Transactions, 74(3), 60-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dielectric Thermoscopy Characterization of Water Contaminated Grease
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2018 (English)In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 60-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The temperature dependence on the dielectric properties of water-contaminated grease is investigated in this article. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the dielectric properties that could be measured to differentiate varying levels of water contamination in calcium sulfonate complex (CaS-X) grease with three different test cells with the purpose of eventually developing a grease condition sensor. Measuring the change in dielectric constant over a small temperature change yielded useful estimations of water content and amount of grease where the added water content ranged from 0.22% to about 5.5%. Additionally, other parameters such as incomplete fill/coverage of the sensors were investigated as a prestudy. The results from this set of experiments show that the measurement has potential to be developed into a condition monitoring sensor in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65054 (URN)10.1080/10402004.2017.1333664 (DOI)000444573200001 ()2-s2.0-85045005667 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-04-16 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2019-09-14Bibliographically approved
Dittes, N., Pettersson, A., Sjödahl, M., Casselgren, J., Marklund, P. & Lugt, P. M. (2018). Optical Attenuation Characterization of Water Contaminated Lubricating Grease. Tribology Transactions, 61(4), 726-732
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical Attenuation Characterization of Water Contaminated Lubricating Grease
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2018 (English)In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 726-732Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water-contaminated grease samples are investigated with attenuation spectra in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions in this article. The purpose of this investigation was to identify a model with optical attenuation spectra such that the water content of grease samples could be characterized with a simple measurement setup using common methodology from the field of instrumental chemistry. The ratio between two chosen wavelengths of light appears to approximate the water content of grease samples with an acceptable coefficient of determination using a methodology to show what can potentially be done to develop condition monitoring tools. To illustrate the outlined method, a prestudy of grease aging and oxidation levels is also investigated to show that other variables do not significantly change the measurement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67205 (URN)10.1080/10402004.2017.1404175 (DOI)000438157400015 ()2-s2.0-85044094152 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-09 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2019-09-14Bibliographically approved
Dittes, N., Marklund, P. & Pettersson, A. (2015). Mixing Grease with Water (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at European Conference on Improvement in Bearing Technology : 23/02/2015 - 24/02/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mixing Grease with Water
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to convey a simple and effective method to mix water with grease and verify the homogeneity of the mixture using Karl-Fischer (KF) titration as the analysis tool. This is required to better develop a future water in grease sensor for on-line condition monitoring. This paper will also attempt to investigate how well KF titration functions as a tool for measuring water content in grease. Additional investigations include how the water content varies with time in grease samples open to atmosphere at different temperature. This research verifies a simple grease mixing method and investigates the water transport in water contaminated grease samples.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31686 (URN)5f1feead-f874-458f-8eb1-b2172ad2a1d1 (Local ID)5f1feead-f874-458f-8eb1-b2172ad2a1d1 (Archive number)5f1feead-f874-458f-8eb1-b2172ad2a1d1 (OAI)
Conference
European Conference on Improvement in Bearing Technology : 23/02/2015 - 24/02/2015
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20160406 (nicdit)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-09-14Bibliographically approved
Strand, H., Johansson, S., Andersson, P. & Pettersson, A. (2009). Experimental wear evaluation of starved oil-lubricated heavily loaded, oscillating journal bearings. In: Proceedings of World Tribology Congress 2009, Sunday 6th to Friday 11th, September, 2009, Kyoto, Japan: . Paper presented at World Tribology Congress, Kyoto, 6-11 September 2009. Tokyo: Japanese Society of Tribologists
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental wear evaluation of starved oil-lubricated heavily loaded, oscillating journal bearings
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of World Tribology Congress 2009, Sunday 6th to Friday 11th, September, 2009, Kyoto, Japan, Tokyo: Japanese Society of Tribologists , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wear of starved oil-lubricated heavily loaded, oscillating journal bearings, which operates at low sliding speed and under dynamic load, was studied. These bearings were normally intermittently lubricated by grease or oil. No distinct difference in wear rate could be discerned between the CuSn12 reference and CuSn8Ni15 sample bushings. Since the oil flow and pressure were low, most of the oil escaped from the contact, resulting in metal-to-metal contact between pin and bushing, and yielding initial adhesive wear that quickly evolved into abrasive wear. Due to the relative high surface roughness and hardness of the pin, the system did not perform well as bearing. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the World Tribology Congress (Kyoto, Japan 9/6-11/209).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo: Japanese Society of Tribologists, 2009
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61495 (URN)2-s2.0-77952635853 (Scopus ID)9784990013998 (ISBN)
Conference
World Tribology Congress, Kyoto, 6-11 September 2009
Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, A. & Mäki, R. (2009). Transmission fluids for heavy-duty vehicles. Tribologia, 28(1-2), 6-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transmission fluids for heavy-duty vehicles
2009 (English)In: Tribologia, ISSN 0780-2285, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to further improve the performance and efficiency of automatic power-shift transmissions for heavyduty applications such as trucks and construction equipment, transmission fluid development is an important activity. There are several different approaches on how to design and lubricate power-shift transmissions. With the correct selection of lubricant extended drain in combination with increased efficiency will result in a reduction of life-cycle cost, and at the same time reduce the environmental impact of the vehicles. In this paper different transmission fluids, with a focus on ATFs, are presented together with some of their respective advantages and disadvantages. Fluid performance in several different areas such as shear stability, frictional performance and gear protection are presented. Also, industry trends in the ATF market regarding standards and product diversification are discussed from a global OEMs point of view, including information on Volvo's approach to transmission oil specifications.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61496 (URN)2-s2.0-70450194393 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, A., Kassfeldt, E. & Minami, I. (2008). Additives for environmentally adapted lubricants: tribo film formation (ed.). Paper presented at . Tribology Online, 3(3), 168-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additives for environmentally adapted lubricants: tribo film formation
2008 (English)In: Tribology Online, ISSN 1881-2198, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Five different anti-wear additives, suitable to formulate environmentally adapted hydraulic fluids, were tested. The used base fluid was a saturated, environmentally adapted synthetic complex ester. The tested materials were steel-steel and bronze-steel. A modified Falex pin and a vee-block tester were used for the tribotests. XPS was used to characterize the surfaces. It was found that the new types of more polar additives work better than the traditional ones, though they can give selective transfer of cupper to the steel pin. To use this type of additives in fully formulated products more investigations have to be performed.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4388 (URN)25404790-541c-11dd-ad06-000ea68e967b (Local ID)25404790-541c-11dd-ad06-000ea68e967b (Archive number)25404790-541c-11dd-ad06-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2008; 20080717 (elka)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, A., Kassfeldt, E. & Minami, I. (2008). Additives för environmentally adapted lubricants: friction and wear protection (ed.). Paper presented at . Tribology Online, 3(3), 163-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additives för environmentally adapted lubricants: friction and wear protection
2008 (English)In: Tribology Online, ISSN 1881-2198, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Five different anti-wear additives, suitable for the formulation of environmentally adapted hydraulic fluids were tested, both commercially available and newly developed. The used base fluid was a high performance saturated complex ester. The formulated fluids' performance was evaluated through the use of an assembled pin & vee block in a modified Falex wear tester according to wear and frictional behaviour. The combinations of tested materials were steel-steel and bronze-steel tribopairs. The friction, wear scar volume and visual appearance both inside and outside the wear scar were studied. Some of the tested combinations gave unwanted performance, such as high friction, large wear and etching damages, whereas others gave good performance. It was found that the new additives showed promising results for formulation of environmentally adapted lubricants based on saturated complex esters. Further investigations will look closer at the chemical composition of the formed tribofilms with the use of surface sensitive analysis technology.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15053 (URN)e8417630-541a-11dd-ad06-000ea68e967b (Local ID)e8417630-541a-11dd-ad06-000ea68e967b (Archive number)e8417630-541a-11dd-ad06-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2008; 20080717 (elka)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Mäki, R. & Pettersson, A. (2008). Automatic transmission fluids for heavy-duty applications. In: : . Paper presented at 16th International Colloquium Tribology - Lubricants, Materials and Lubrication Engineering, Osifildern, Germany, 15-17 January 2008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic transmission fluids for heavy-duty applications
2008 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Different transmission fluids, with a focus on ATF, were presented together with some of their respective advantages and disadvantages. Fluid performance in several different areas, such as shear stability, frictional performance and gear protection were described. Industry trends in the ATF market regarding standards and product diversification were discussed from a global OEM point of view, including information on Volvo’s approach to transmission oil specifications. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 16th International Colloquium Tribology Lubricants, Materials and Lubrication Engineering (Stuttgart/Ostfildern, Germany 1/15-17/2008).

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62181 (URN)2-s2.0-56249099418 (Scopus ID)3924813736 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Colloquium Tribology - Lubricants, Materials and Lubrication Engineering, Osifildern, Germany, 15-17 January 2008
Available from: 2017-02-27 Created: 2017-02-27 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, A. (2007). High-performance base fluids for environmentally adapted lubricants (ed.). Tribology International, 40(4), 638-645
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-performance base fluids for environmentally adapted lubricants
2007 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Future lubricants have to be more environmentally adapted, have a higher level of performance, and lower total life cycle cost (LCC) than presently used lubricants. To be able to formulate those lubricants, the properties of the base fluids have to be well known. Base fluid properties that influence the formulated lubricant performance could be divided into three different groups. These groups are: physical, chemical, and film formation properties. In this study, properties from all of these groups are investigated to improve the understanding on thier influence on base fluid overall performance. There are more or less environmentally adapted base fluids available for formulation of lubricants. They could be divided into different groups, mineral, semi-synthetic, and synthetic fluids. Synthetic fluids could be of different types: polyalpha olefins (PAO), synthetic ester, polyglycols, and others. The most interesting group for formulation of environmentally adapted lubricants are the synthetic esters. In this study, the properties for a large number of environmentally adapted ester base fluids are studied in detail. The tested properties relate to the macroscopic/molecular behavior and include: viscosity-temperature-pressure effects, η(p,T) , thermal conductivity, λ(p,T), and heat capacity per unit volume, pcp(p,T) . The film formation capability in elasto-hydrodynamic contacts is also studied. Different connections between the molecular structure and the performance of the fluids are discussed. As an example, it is found that a large number of carboxylate groups in the ester molecule improve the thermal properties, and thereby a thicker lubricating film could be maintained in highly loaded, high-slip contacts.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13211 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2005.11.016 (DOI)000243576700012 ()2-s2.0-33845193416 (Scopus ID)c6640540-8d52-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (Local ID)c6640540-8d52-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (Archive number)c6640540-8d52-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2007; Bibliografisk uppgift: NORDTRIB 2004; 20061216 (ysko)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3995-8331

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