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Forsberg, K., Jirlén, J., Jacobson, I. & Röijezon, U. (2023). Concurrent Validity of Cervical Movement Tests Using VR Technology—Taking the Lab to the Clinic. Sensors, 23(24), Article ID 9864.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concurrent Validity of Cervical Movement Tests Using VR Technology—Taking the Lab to the Clinic
2023 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 24, article id 9864Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reduced cervical range of motion (ROM) and movement velocity are often seen in people with neck pain. Objective assessment of movement characteristics is important to identify dysfunction, to inform tailored interventions, and for the evaluation of the treatment effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of a newly developed VR technology for the assessment of cervical ROM and movement velocity. VR technology was compared against a gold-standard three-dimensional optical motion capture system. Consequently, 20 people, 13 without and 7 with neck pain, participated in this quantitative cross-sectional study. ROM was assessed according to right/left rotation, flexion, extension, right/left lateral flexion, and four diagonal directions. Velocity was assessed according to fast cervical rotation to the right and left. The correlations between VR and the optical system for cervical ROM and velocity were excellent, with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values > 0.95. The mean biases between VR and the optical system were ≤ 2.1° for the ROM variables, <12°/s for maximum velocity, and ≤3.0°/s for mean velocity. In conclusion, VR is a useful assessment device for ROM and velocity measurements with clinically acceptable biases. It is a feasible tool for the objective measurement of cervical kinematics in the clinic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
neck pain, cervical, virtual reality, VR, 3D motion capture, validity, agreement, correlation, range of motion, velocity
National Category
Physiotherapy
Research subject
Physiotherapy; Biomedical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103396 (URN)10.3390/s23249864 (DOI)38139710 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85180617871 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2021-02237
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-01-01 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Strandkvist, V., Lindberg, A., Larsson, A., Pauelsen, M., Stridsman, C., Nyberg, L., . . . Röijezon, U. (2023). Postural control among individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cross-sectional study of motor and sensory systems. PLOS ONE, 18(4), Article ID e0284800.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postural control among individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cross-sectional study of motor and sensory systems
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2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 4, article id e0284800Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered a heterogenic syndrome with systemic effects, including muscle dysfunction. There is evidence of postural control impairments among individuals with COPD, partly related to muscle weakness. However, research is scarce regarding the other underlying systems of postural control, such as the visual, somatosensory and vestibular system. The aim was to compare postural control, as well as the motor and sensory systems, between individuals with and without COPD.

Methods

Twenty-two participants with COPD (mean age 74.0 ±6.2 years) and 34 non-obstructive references (mean age 74.9 ±4.9 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Postural control was assessed with center of pressure trajectory of postural sway in quiet as well as a limits of stability test, calculating mediolateral and anteroposterior amplitudes for each test. Assessment of function in the motor system included maximum hand grip strength, as well as maximum strength in muscles around the hip, knee and ankle joints. Visual acuity, pressure sensibility, proprioception, vestibular screening, and reaction time were also included. Data was compared between groups, and significant differences in postural control were further analyzed with an orthogonal projection of latent structures regression model.

Results

There was a significantly increased sway amplitude in the mediolateral direction in quiet stance on soft surface with eyes open (p = 0.014) as well as a smaller anteroposterior amplitude in the limits of stability test (p = 0.019) in the COPD group. Regression models revealed that the mediolateral amplitude was related to visual acuity and the burden of tobacco smoking assessed as pack-years. Further, muscle strength associated with anteroposterior amplitude in limits of stability test in the COPD group, and with age and ankle dorsal flexion strength among the referents. Besides for lower ankle plantar flexion strength in the COPD group, there were however no significant differences in muscle strength.

Conclusions

Individuals with COPD had a decreased postural control and several factors were associated with the impairments. The findings imply that the burden of tobacco smoking and reduced visual acuity relate to increased postural sway in quiet stance, and that muscle weakness is related to decreased limits of stability, among individuals with COPD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
National Category
Physiotherapy
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75668 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0284800 (DOI)37098038 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153900736 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, (project number K2015-99X-22756-01-4)Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, (E139/16)Norrbotten County Council, (NLL-762571)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-05-10 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Funder: Promobilia Foundation (17030)

Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jafari, H., Gustafsson, T., Nyberg, L. & Röijezon, U. (2023). Predicting balance impairments in older adults: a wavelet-based center of pressure classification approach. Biomedical engineering online, 22, Article ID 83.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting balance impairments in older adults: a wavelet-based center of pressure classification approach
2023 (English)In: Biomedical engineering online, E-ISSN 1475-925X, Vol. 22, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Aging is associated with a decline in postural control and an increased risk of falls. The Center of Pressure (CoP) trajectory analysis is a commonly used method to assess balance. In this study, we proposed a new method to identify balance impairments in older adults by analyzing their CoP trajectory frequency components, sensory inputs, reaction time, motor functions, and Fall-related Concerns (FrC).

Methods: The study includes 45 older adults aged 75.2(±4.5)75.2(±4.5) years who were assessed for sensory and motor functions. FrC and postural control in a quiet stance with open and closed eyes on stable and unstable surfaces. A Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) was used to detect features in frequency scales, followed by the K-means algorithm to detect different clusters. The multinomial logistic model was used to identify and predict the association of each group with the sensorimotor tests and FrC.

Results: The study results showed that by DWT, three distinct groups of subjects could be revealed. Group 2 exhibited the broadest use of frequency scales, less decline in sensorimotor functions, and lowest FrC. The study also found that a decline in sensorimotor functions and fall-related concern may cause individuals to rely on either very low-frequency scales (group 1) or higher-frequency scales (group 3) and that those who use lower-frequency scales (group 1) can manage their balance more successfully than group 3.

Conclusions: Our study provides a new, cost-effective method for detecting balance impairments in older adults. This method can be used to identify people at risk and develop interventions and rehabilitation strategies to prevent falls in this population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Balance, Wavelet analysis, Clustering, Classification, Sensorimotor, Ageing
National Category
Physiotherapy
Research subject
Automatic Control; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97243 (URN)10.1186/s12938-023-01146-3 (DOI)001052826900001 ()37608334 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168702366 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2015-99X-22756-01-4
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-04 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-05-17 Created: 2023-05-17 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nyberg, L., Röijezon, U., Larsson, A., Jäger, J., Pauelsen, M., Vikman, I., . . . Strandkvist, V. (2023). Teknik ska minska fallolyckor bland äldre. Äldre i Centrum (1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teknik ska minska fallolyckor bland äldre
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2023 (Swedish)In: Äldre i Centrum, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stiftelsen Stockholms läns Äldrecentrum, 2023
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96288 (URN)
Note

Godkänd;2023;Nivå 0;2023-03-31 (hanlid);

Available from: 2023-03-31 Created: 2023-03-31 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Falk, J., Strandkvist, V., Pauelsen, M., Vikman, I., Nyberg, L. & Röijezon, U. (2022). Increased co-contraction reaction during a surface perturbation is associated with unsuccessful postural control among older adults. BMC Geriatrics, 22(1), Article ID 438.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased co-contraction reaction during a surface perturbation is associated with unsuccessful postural control among older adults
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2022 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 438Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: As a strategy to maintain postural control, the stiffening strategy (agonist-antagonist co-contractions) is often considered dysfunctional and associated with poor physical capacity. The aim was to investigate whether increased stiffening is associated with unsuccessful postural control during an unpredictable surface perturbation, and which sensory and motor variables that explain postural stiffening.

Methods: A sample of 34 older adults, 75.8 ± 3.8 years, was subjected to an unpredicted surface perturbation with the postural task to keep a feet-in-place strategy. The participants also completed a thorough sensory- and motor test protocol. During the surface perturbation, electromyography was measured from tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius to further calculate a co-contraction index during the feed-forward and feedback period. A binary logistic regression was done with the nominal variable, if the participant succeeded in the postural task or not, set as dependent variable and the co-contraction indexes set as independent variables. Further, the variables from the sensory and motor testing were set as independent variables in two separate Orthogonal Projections of Latent Structures (OPLS)-models, one with the feed-forward- and the other with the feedback co-contraction index as dependent variable.

Results: Higher levels of ankle joint stiffening during the feedback, but not the feed-forward period was associated with postural task failure. Feedback stiffening was explained by having slow non-postural reaction times, poor leg muscle strength and being female whereas feed-forward stiffening was not explained by sensory and motor variables.

Conclusions: When subjected to an unpredicted surface perturbation, individuals with higher feedback stiffening had poorer postural control outcome, which was explained by poorer physical capacity. The level of feed-forward stiffening prior the perturbation was not associated with postural control outcome nor the investigated sensory and motor variables. The intricate causal relationships between physical capacity, stiffening and postural task success remains subject for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Ageing, Balance, Co-contraction index, Electromyography, Falls, Sensorimotor, Stifening strategy, Surface perturbation
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90749 (URN)10.1186/s12877-022-03123-2 (DOI)000797549200001 ()35585517 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85130213572 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of TechnologySwedish Research Council, K2015-99X-22756-01-4
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-24 (joosat);

Available from: 2022-05-24 Created: 2022-05-24 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Strong, A., Arumugam, A., Tengman, E., Röijezon, U. & Häger, C. K. (2022). Properties of tests for knee joint threshold to detect passive motion following anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 17(1), Article ID 134.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Properties of tests for knee joint threshold to detect passive motion following anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, ISSN 1749-799X, E-ISSN 1749-799X, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 134Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) tests of the knee joint are commonly implemented among individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury to assess proprioceptive acuity. Their psychometric properties (PMPs), i.e. reliability, validity and responsiveness, are however unclear. This systematic review aimed to establish the PMPs of existing knee joint TTDPM tests among individuals with ACL injury.

Methods: The databases PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL and ProQuest were searched to identify studies that assessed the properties of knee joint TTDPM tests in individuals with ACL injury. The risk of bias for each included study was assessed at the outcome level for each test. Overall quality and levels of evidence for each property were rated according to established criteria. Meta-analyses with mean differences were conducted using random-effects models when adequate data were available.

Results: Fifty-one studies covering 108 TTDPM tests and 1632 individuals with unilateral ACL injury were included. A moderate-to-strong level of evidence indicated insufficient quality for all of the following: convergent validity, known-groups validity, discriminative validity, responsiveness between subgroups, and responsiveness to intervention. Subgroup meta-analyses for known-groups validity did however find that a starting angle of 15° resulted in significantly worse TTDPM for knees with ACL injury compared to those of asymptomatic persons (mean difference 0.28°; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.53; P = 0.03), albeit based on only three studies. Due to the lack of evidence, it was not possible to estimate the quality of reliability, measurement error, and criterion validity, nor responsiveness from a criterion and construct approach.

Conclusions: Among persons with ACL injury, existing tests of knee joint TTDPM lack either sufficient quality or evidence for their reliability, validity and responsiveness. Significantly worse thresholds for ACL-injured knees compared to those of asymptomatic controls from a 15° starting angle and trends towards significance for some validity measures nevertheless encourage the development of standardised tests. Further research investigating the influence of modifiable test components (e.g. starting angle and motion direction) on the PMPs of knee joint TTDPM tests following ACL injury is warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Proprioception, Kinesthesia, Reliability, Validity, Responsiveness
National Category
Orthopaedics
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89446 (URN)10.1186/s13018-022-03033-4 (DOI)000764709200007 ()35246192 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85125868799 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-00892Konung Gustaf V:s och Drottning Victorias FrimurarestiftelseRegion Västerbotten, ALF 7003575 VLL838421Region Västerbotten, VLL-358901Region Västerbotten, 7002795Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2019-0068
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-10 (hanlid);

Funder: Umeå School of Sport Science; Umeå University

Available from: 2022-03-04 Created: 2022-03-04 Last updated: 2022-04-07Bibliographically approved
Röijezon, U., Jull, G., Blandford, C., Daniels, A., Michaelson, P., Karvelis, P. & Treleaven, J. (2022). Proprioceptive Disturbance in Chronic Neck Pain: Discriminate Validity and Reliability of Performance of the Clinical Cervical Movement Sense Test. Frontiers in Pain Research, 3, Article ID 908414.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proprioceptive Disturbance in Chronic Neck Pain: Discriminate Validity and Reliability of Performance of the Clinical Cervical Movement Sense Test
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Pain Research, E-ISSN 2673-561X, Vol. 3, article id 908414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chronic neck pain is associated with sensorimotor dysfunctions, which may develop symptoms, affect daily activities, and prevent recovery. Feasible, reliable, and valid objective methods for the assessment of sensorimotor functions are important to identify movement impairments and guide interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity of a clinical cervical movement sense test, using a laser pointer and an automatic video-based scoring system. Individuals with chronic neck pain of idiopathic onset (INP), traumatic onset (TNP), and healthy controls (CON) were tested. Associations between movement sense and neck disability were examined and the repeatability of the test was investigated. A total of 106 participants (26 INP, 28 TNP, and 52 CON) were included in a cross-sectional study. Acuity, Speed, Time, and NormAcuity (i.e., normalized acuity by dividing acuity with movement time) were used as outcome measures. ANOVAs were used for group comparisons and Pearson correlations for associations between movement sense variables and neck disability index (NDI). Notably, 60 of the participants (30 CON, 17 INP, and 13 TNP) performed the test on a second occasion to explore test-retest reliability. Results revealed a reduced NormAcuity for both INP and TNP compared with CON (p < 0.05). The neck pain groups had similar Acuity but longer Time compared with CON. Among TNP, there was a fair positive correlation between Acuity and NDI, while there was a negative correlation between Acuity and NDI among INP. Reliability measures showed good to excellent ICC values between tests, but standard error of measurements (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores were high. The results showed that NormAcuity is a valuable measure to identify disturbed cervical movement sense among INP and TNP. While Acuity was similar between the groups, different strategies, such as longer Time, to perform the task among neck patient groups were used. Few differences were identified between the neck pain groups, but altered strategies may exist. Reliability was acceptable, and the test is feasible to perform in the clinic. However, the technical complexity of the automated image analysis is a concern. Future developments will provide more feasible solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
cervical spine, image analysis, laser pointer, neck pain, proprioception, sensorimotor, tracking task, video recording
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92092 (URN)10.3389/fpain.2022.908414 (DOI)35875476 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85161317778 (Scopus ID)
Note

Godkänd;2022;Nivå 0;2022-07-07 (joosat);

Available from: 2022-07-07 Created: 2022-07-07 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Rissen, D., Fjellman Wiklund, A., Liv, P. & Röijezon, U. (2022). Psychosocial work environment, stress symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among professional Swedish big band musicians. In: : . Paper presented at Musicians' and Performing Artists' health and performance Integrating body and mind (MHPC22), Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychosocial work environment, stress symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among professional Swedish big band musicians
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: The psychosocial work environment among musicians can be demanding due to factors such as high job demands, low control, and lack of social support. At the same time, musical performance is physically demanding, and musculoskeletal pain is common. However, few studies have investigated health situation among jazz musicians. 

Research questions: How do Swedish big band musicians perceive the psychosocial work environment? What are the levels of stress symptoms? Are there any differences in these variables between those with or without playing related musculoskeletal pain? 

Methods: Three professional big bands in Sweden participated in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. Thirty-two of 35 musicians (mean age 45.4years (SD 10.1); 30 male) participated. A questionnaire including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, additional questions about playing related musculoskeletal pain (PRMD), Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and The Copenhagen-Psychosocial-Questionnaire, was used. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare musicians with or without PRMD. P-value was set at <.05. 

Results: Level of demands at work (median: 11.5, IQR: 2) was lower than control (median: 18.0, IQR:3). Job strain (i.e. demands/control) had a median value of 0.65 (IQR: 0.14). Level of social support was 19.5 (IQR: 4). Emotional- (median: 7.0, IQR 2), cognitive- (median: 6.0, IQR: 3) and somatic- (median: 6.0, IQR: 3) stress symptoms were approximately at the same levels. Eight of 32 musicians had PRMD during the last 7 days. The groups did not differ significantly in any of the studied variables. 

Summary of content: The psychosocial work environment of these jazz musicians seems to be favorable since the perceived control is higher than the demands. Compared with professional symphony orchestra musicians, the stress symptoms are similar to (1), who used percent scores. No significant differences were foundation between musicians with or without PRMD. 

Significance: The psychosocial work environment may differ between different groups of musicians. More research is warranted to explore these potential differences, with a special focus on groups less investigated.  

Keywords
Jazz musicians, psychosocial work environment, Stress symptoms, playing- related musculoskeletal pain
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92943 (URN)
Conference
Musicians' and Performing Artists' health and performance Integrating body and mind (MHPC22), Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 2022
Available from: 2022-09-11 Created: 2022-09-11 Last updated: 2023-01-23Bibliographically approved
Sutton, P., Lund Ohlsson, M. & Röijezon, U. (2022). Reduced shoulder proprioception due to fatigue after repeated handball throws and evaluation of test–retest reliability of a clinical shoulder joint position test. Shoulder & Elbow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced shoulder proprioception due to fatigue after repeated handball throws and evaluation of test–retest reliability of a clinical shoulder joint position test
2022 (English)In: Shoulder & Elbow, ISSN 1758-5732Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: Proprioception is vital for motor control and can be disturbed, for example, due to fatigue or injury. Clinical feasible, reliable and valid tests of shoulder proprioception are warranted. The aim was to investigate the effects of local fatigue on shoulder proprioception and the reliability of a feasible joint position sense test using an experimental repeated measures design.

Method: Forty participants repeated a shoulder joint position sense test to assess test–retest reliability. The test was then utilized on a subgroup of handball players who were subjected to five bouts of a repeated throwing task with the dominant hand. The effect of local fatigue was investigated by comparing the fatigued with the non-fatigued shoulder.

Results: There was a significant interaction for the arm × bout (p = 0.028, ηp2 = 0.20) and a significant effect for the arm (p = 0.034, ηp2 = 0.35) with a significant decrease in joint position sense for the throwing arm compared to the non-throwing arm. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78 (95% CI = [0.57; 0.89]). The standard error of measurement between trials was 0.70° (range: 0.57°–0.90°).

Discussion: The results indicate that repeated throwing to fatigue disturbs shoulder joint position sense. Assessment with the modified test showed acceptable reliability and can be a valuable assessment tool in the clinic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2022
Keywords
Assessment, fatigue, joint position sense, proprioception, reliability, shoulder
National Category
Physiotherapy
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94189 (URN)10.1177/17585732221139795 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142246439 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2022-11-21 Last updated: 2022-12-06
Röijezon, U., Jull, G., Djupsjöbacka, M., Salomoni, S. & Hodges, P. (2021). Deep and superficial cervical muscles respond differently to unstable motor skill tasks. Human Movement Science, 80, Article ID 102893.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep and superficial cervical muscles respond differently to unstable motor skill tasks
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2021 (English)In: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 80, article id 102893Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomechanical modelling and physiological studies suggest that various spinal muscle layers differ in their contribution to spine movement and stiffness. This study aimed to investigate the activation of deep and superficial muscles in stable and unstable task conditions. Nine healthy participants performed a task of controlling a metal ball on a plate fixed to the head in seated position. In unstable tasks, visual feedback was provided by mirrors to move the ball to the centre of the plate by small head movements and maintain the position for 3 s. Task difficulty was adjusted in a stepwise progression of difficulty using five surfaces with materials of decreasing resistance. In the stable condition, the ball was fixed to the plate's centre. EMG was recorded with surface (sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalenes, upper trapezius) and fine-wire electrodes (rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus inferior, multifidus, semispinalis cervicis, splenius capitis). The outcome variable was root mean square (RMS) EMG during the part of the task when the ball was maintained in the centre position. Results revealed greater cervical muscle activity in the unstable than stable conditions (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.746). Control of deep and superficial cervical muscles differed (p = 0.003, ηp2 = 0.354). Deep cervical muscle activity was greater with unstable tasks, but did not differ with task difficulty. In contrast, superficial cervical muscle activity increased in a stepwise manner with increasing challenge. These results support the notion that the central nervous system uses different strategies for control of deep versus superficial muscle layers of the cervical spine in association with instability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Electromyography, Motor task, Neck muscles, Postural control, Unstable system
National Category
Physiotherapy
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87862 (URN)10.1016/j.humov.2021.102893 (DOI)000719774500003 ()34763288 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85118823250 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-11-11 (beamah);

Funder: Swedish Insurance Society; National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1091302 & APP1102905)

Available from: 2021-11-11 Created: 2021-11-11 Last updated: 2022-06-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3901-0364

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