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Bagge, N., Nilimaa, J., Sarmiento, S., Puurula, A., Gonzalez-Libreros, J., Sas, G., . . . Coric, I. (2021). Full Scale Test of a PC Bridge to Calibrate Assessment Methods. In: H.H. (Bert) Snijder, Bart De Pauw, Sander van Alphen, Movares, Pierre Mengeot (Ed.), IABSE Congress Ghent 2021: Structural Engineering for Future Societal Needs. Paper presented at IABSE Congress 2021: Structural Engineering for Future Societal Needs, Ghent, Belgium, September 22-24, 2021 (pp. 965-973). International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full Scale Test of a PC Bridge to Calibrate Assessment Methods
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2021 (English)In: IABSE Congress Ghent 2021: Structural Engineering for Future Societal Needs / [ed] H.H. (Bert) Snijder, Bart De Pauw, Sander van Alphen, Movares, Pierre Mengeot, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2021, p. 965-973Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, experiences on the development of an assessment method for existing bridges are presented. The method is calibrated using the results of full-scale testing to failure of a prestressed bridge in Sweden. To evaluate the key parameters for the structural response, measured by deflections, strains in tendons and stirrups and crack openings, a sensitivity study based on the concept of fractional factorial design is incorporated to the assessment. Results showed that the most significant parameters are related to the tensile properties of the concrete (tensile strength and fracture energy) and the boundary conditions. A finite element (FE) model in which the results of the sensitivity analysis were applied, was able to predict accurately the load-carrying capacity of the bridge and its failure mode. Two additional existing prestressed concrete bridges, that will be used to improve further the method, are also described, and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE), 2021
Keywords
Assessment methods, calibration, boundary conditions, existing prestressed concrete bridges, tensile strength, fracture energy, full-scale testing, finite element modelling
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87372 (URN)10.2749/ghent.2021.0965 (DOI)2-s2.0-85119063548 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IABSE Congress 2021: Structural Engineering for Future Societal Needs, Ghent, Belgium, September 22-24, 2021
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Funder: BBT; LKAB; Swedish Universities of the Built Environment

Available from: 2021-10-04 Created: 2021-10-04 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Täljsten, B., Paulsson, B., Popescu, C., Bagge, N., Nilforoush, R., Emborg, M., . . . Elfgren, L. (2020). Assessment of prestressed concrete bridges - challenges. In: Jan Bień, Jan Biliszczuk, Paweł Hawryszków, Maciej Hildebrand, Marta Knawa-Hawryszków, Krzysztof Sadowski (Ed.), IABSE Symposium, Wroclaw 2020: Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering – History and Challenges. Paper presented at IABSE Symposium “Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering – History and Challenges”, 7-9 October, 2020, Wrocław, Poland (pp. 487-494). Zürich: International Association For Bridge And Structural Engineering (IABSE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of prestressed concrete bridges - challenges
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2020 (English)In: IABSE Symposium, Wroclaw 2020: Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering – History and Challenges / [ed] Jan Bień, Jan Biliszczuk, Paweł Hawryszków, Maciej Hildebrand, Marta Knawa-Hawryszków, Krzysztof Sadowski, Zürich: International Association For Bridge And Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2020, p. 487-494Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Prestressed concrete bridges are important parts of our infrastructure. They are susceptible to different kinds of deterioration processes. Examples of damages and deficiencies are cracking, corrosion, voids, bond loss, reduction of cover layer, delamination, fatigue and loss of stiffness and strength. This necessitates methods to continuously assess their condition in order to avoid problems that might lead to shorter service life or reduction of structural integrity. Many of the existing prestressed bridges in Europe are now approaching their design life length. However, with proper and continuous inspection, monitoring and assessment, we may plan proactive maintenance and the structural safety can be assured or – if necessary - increased. This will save both money and decrease the environmental impact of the structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zürich: International Association For Bridge And Structural Engineering (IABSE), 2020
Keywords
Prestressed Concrete Bridges, Challenges, Safety, Corrosion, Fatigue, Assessment, Monitoring, Repair, Strengthening
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81135 (URN)2-s2.0-85103445841 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IABSE Symposium “Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering – History and Challenges”, 7-9 October, 2020, Wrocław, Poland
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, BBT 2017-011, TRV 2018/28332, ID 6686
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-3-85748-169-7

Available from: 2020-10-14 Created: 2020-10-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Bagge, N. (2020). Demonstration and examination of a procedure for successively improved structural assessment of concrete bridges. Structural Concrete, 21(4), 1321-1344
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration and examination of a procedure for successively improved structural assessment of concrete bridges
2020 (English)In: Structural Concrete, ISSN 1464-4177, E-ISSN 1751-7648, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1321-1344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessing the load‐carrying capacity of existing bridges is an important infrastructure management task. In order to support the structural assessment of concrete bridges better, a procedure has been proposed, based on successively improving the bridge analysis. A multilevel strategy for structural analysis has been combined with concepts for verification of the desired safety margin, thus providing tools for engineers to model the structural behavior of bridges more accurately when necessary. This paper describes the procedure as applied to a prestressed concrete girder bridge, with use of experiences from the previous failure tests and associated evaluations of the bridge. Initial structural assessment indicated the critical failure mode to be due to shear in one of the girders; however, the enhanced analysis showed a complex failure involving both the girder and the bridge deck slab. Improving the structural analysis using nonlinear FE analysis for the loading initially identified as critical, increased the permitted axle loads on the bridge to 12 to 14 times those given by traditional and standardized assessment methods, depending on the concept used for safety verification. The model uncertainty was crucial for the verification of the structural safety and has to be properly taken into account. However, there are few recommendations, with regard to model uncertainties, on the application of nonlinear FE analysis, and detailed guidelines should be used for the modeling procedure in order to reduce analyst‐dependent variability in the results. The presented study demonstrates the applicability and the advantages of using the proposed procedure for successively improved analysis for bridge assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
bridges, codes, multilevel assessment, nonlinear finite element analysis, prestressed concrete, probabilistic analysis, shear capacity, structural safety
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76752 (URN)10.1002/suco.201900265 (DOI)000492198700001 ()2-s2.0-85074613291 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-10-05 (alebob)

Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2020-10-05Bibliographically approved
Shu, J., Bagge, N. & Nilimaa, J. (2020). Field Destructive Testing of a Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Slab. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 25(9), Article ID 04020067.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field Destructive Testing of a Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Slab
2020 (English)In: Journal of Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1084-0702, E-ISSN 1943-5592, Vol. 25, no 9, article id 04020067Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many bridge deck slabs in Europe are rated insufficient load-carrying capacity in shear and punching according to the Eurocodes. In the past, assessment models have mainly been developed from laboratory studies that simplified real-world conditions. Large-scale or full-scale field experiments are needed to validate more recent improved models. The goal of this study is to calibrate improved models using data obtained from a full-scale bridge deck slab shear test; the objective is to exploit and share our findings and to make recommendations for the planning, design, and implementation of such a complex experiment. Full-scale destructive tests of a 55-year-old reinforced concrete bridge deck slab on prestressed concrete girders were conducted to calibrate a model used to assess existing bridges. Concrete properties were also tested to evaluate the condition of the bridge. Results show that both the load-carrying capacity of the bridge deck slab and the strength of the concrete were much greater than were assumed in design. Finite-element analysis of the parameters governing loading positions and prestress in the girders showed that arch action and boundary condition simplification had important effects on shear distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2020
Keywords
Field destructive test, RC bridge deck slab, Full-scale bridge, Shear and punching
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80300 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001604 (DOI)000590222200009 ()2-s2.0-85088497136 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-08-17 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-08-04 Created: 2020-08-04 Last updated: 2020-12-03Bibliographically approved
Nilforoush, R., Nilimaa, J., Bagge, N., Puurula, A., Ohlsson, U., Nilsson, M., . . . Elfgren, L. (2020). Fracture energy of concrete for bridge assessment. In: Jan Bien; Jan Biliszczuk; Pawel Hawryszkow; Maciej Hildebrand; Marta Knawa-Hawryszkow; Krzysztof Sadowski (Ed.), 1st IABSE Online Symposium 2020: Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering - History and Challenges. Paper presented at 1st IABSE Online Symposium 2020, Wroclaw, Poland (Online), October 7-9, 2020 (pp. 692-699). International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fracture energy of concrete for bridge assessment
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2020 (English)In: 1st IABSE Online Symposium 2020: Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering - History and Challenges / [ed] Jan Bien; Jan Biliszczuk; Pawel Hawryszkow; Maciej Hildebrand; Marta Knawa-Hawryszkow; Krzysztof Sadowski, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2020, p. 692-699Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In numerical assessments of concrete bridges, the value of the concrete fracture energy GF plays an important role. However, mostly the fracture energy is only estimated based on the concrete compressive strength using empirical formulae. In order to study methods to determine the concrete fracture energy for existing bridges, tests were carried out on 55-year-old concrete from a bridge tested to failure in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Uniaxial tensile tests are performed on notched cylindrical concrete cores drilled out from this and other bridges. In the paper, different methods to determine the concrete fracture energy are discussed and recommendations are given for assessment procedures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE), 2020
Keywords
Assessment of structures, Brittleness, Concrete modelling, Fracture energy, Three-point-bending test, Uniaxial tensile test
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-85850 (URN)2-s2.0-85103462867 (Scopus ID)
Conference
1st IABSE Online Symposium 2020, Wroclaw, Poland (Online), October 7-9, 2020
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationLuleå University of Technology
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-385748169-7

Available from: 2021-06-22 Created: 2021-06-22 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nilimaa, J., Nilforoush, R., Bagge, N. & Elfgren, L. (2020). Testing to Failure of a 55-year-old Prestressed Concrete Bridge in Kiruna: Bending, Shear and Punching of Girders and Slab. Fracture Properties of Materials. Test Results, Modelling and Assessment. Final Report BBT 2017-030. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing to Failure of a 55-year-old Prestressed Concrete Bridge in Kiruna: Bending, Shear and Punching of Girders and Slab. Fracture Properties of Materials. Test Results, Modelling and Assessment. Final Report BBT 2017-030
2020 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Results are presented from the testing to failure of a 55-year-old prestressed concrete bridge with five continuous spans and a total length of 121.5 m. The bridge was situated in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Results are given from load, deflection and strain measurements during bending-shear tests of the girders and from a punching test of the slab. The testing was carried out in June 2014.

Extensive assessment and modelling of the bridge with finite element methods have taken place and is summarized. The strength of the bridge was much higher than what could be found with ordinary code methods. The advanced non-linear models were, after calibration, able to predict the behaviour in a good way.

In numerical assessments of concrete bridges, the value of the concrete tensile strength fct and the fracture energy GF plays an important role. However, mostly these properties are only estimated based on the concrete compressive strength using empirical formulae. In order to study methods to determine the concrete tensile strength and fracture energy for existing bridges, tests were carried out in 2019 on notched cylindrical concrete cores drilled out from the Kiruna Bridge. Different methods to determine the concrete fracture energy are discussed and recommendations are given for assessment procedures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2020. p. 77
Series
Research report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1528
Keywords
Bridges, Assessment, Full-Scale Test to Failure, Fracture Energy, Bending, Shear, Punching, Prestressed Concrete, Modelling, Measurements of Loads, Deflections and Strains
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81122 (URN)978-91-7790-693-3 (ISBN)978-91-7790-694-0 (ISBN)
Projects
BBT 2017-030
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, BBT 2017-030
Note

There are also Appendices A-F of 109 pp

Available from: 2020-10-13 Created: 2020-10-13 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Bagge, N., Plos, M. & Popescu, C. (2019). A multi-level strategy for successively improved structural analysis of existing concrete bridges: examination using a prestressed concrete bridge tested to failure. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 15(1), 27-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multi-level strategy for successively improved structural analysis of existing concrete bridges: examination using a prestressed concrete bridge tested to failure
2019 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 27-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a multi-level strategy with increased complexity through four levels of structural analysis of concrete bridges. The concept was developed to provide a procedure that supports enhanced assessments with better understanding of the structure and more precise predictions of the load-carrying capacity. In order to demonstrate and examine the multi-level strategy, a continuous multi-span prestressed concrete girder bridge, tested until shear failure, was investigated. Calculations of the load-carrying capacity at the initial level of the multi-level strategy consistently resulted in underestimated capacities, with the predicted load ranging from 25% to 78% of the tested failure load, depending on the local resistance model applied. The initial assessment was also associated with issues of localising the shear failure accurately and, consequently, refined structural analysis at an enhanced level was recommended. Enhanced assessment using nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis precisely reproduced the behaviour observed in the experimental test, capturing the actual failure mechanism and the load-carrying capacity with less than 4% deviation to the test. Thus, the enhanced level of assessment, using the proposed multi-level strategy, can be considered to be accurate, but the study also shows the importance of using guidelines for nonlinear FE analysis and bridge-specific information. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71356 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2018.1476562 (DOI)000455942800003 ()2-s2.0-85054830749 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-12 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Sabau, C., Popescu, C., Bagge, N., Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T. & Täljsten, B. (2019). Local and global behavior of walls with cut-out openings in multi-story reinforced concrete buildings. Engineering structures, 187, 57-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local and global behavior of walls with cut-out openings in multi-story reinforced concrete buildings
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2019 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 187, p. 57-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the finite element analysis (FEA) results of a multi-story reinforced concrete (RC) building having precast and cast-in-place load bearing walls. Door-type cut-out openings (height: 2.1 m, width: 0.9–4.4 m) were created at the first and second story of the building. Results from experimental tests on axially loaded RC panels were used to verify the modeling approach. The influence of cut-out openings on the response of individual RC panels, failure modes, and load redistribution to adjacent members was analyzed. Moreover, the wall bearing capacities obtained from FEA were compared with the values calculated from design equations. The results revealed that the robustness of multi-story buildings having RC load bearing wall systems decrease considerably with the creation of cut-out openings. However, owing to the initial robustness of the buildings, large cut-outopenings could be created under normal service conditions without strengthening of the building structure. Furthermore, design equations provided very conservative predictions of the ultimate capacity characterizing the solid walls and walls with small openings, whereas similar FEA and analytically predicted capacities were obtained for walls with large openings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
FEM, reinforced concrete, building assessment, wall, openings
National Category
Building Technologies Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70883 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.02.046 (DOI)000462689900006 ()2-s2.0-85062088838 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-03-07 (inah)

Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Huang, Z., Tu, Y., Meng, S., Bagge, N., Nilimaa, J. & Blanksvärd, T. (2019). Validation of a numerical method for predicting shear deformation of reinforced concrete beams. Engineering structures, 197, Article ID 109367.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of a numerical method for predicting shear deformation of reinforced concrete beams
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2019 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 197, article id 109367Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to validate a 2D nonlinear finite element (FE) model for estimating the post-cracking shear deformation of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The proposed FE model treated the cracked concrete as an orthotropic material in the framework of the fixed-crack approach. The experimental data for both the overall response (including the total and shear-induced deflection) and the detailed response (including the mean shear strain, mean vertical strain and principal compressive strain angle) of five I-section RC beams, monitored by the main authors of this paper with the Digital Image Correlation technique, were used to verify the proposed model. In addition, 27 further test beams evaluated in independent research programs were collected to assemble a database. The proposed FE model was further verified against the database. Two additional FE models (the rotating-crack model developed in this work and Response-2000 developed by Bentz (2000)) were also evaluated by simulating the detailed responses of the beams in the database. The results obtained validate the proposed FE model for predicting the post-cracking shear deformation of RC beams and indicate that the proposed FE model is more suitable for simulating the shear behaviour of RC beams than the rotating-crack model or Response-2000.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Reinforced concrete beams, Shear deformation, Nonlinear finite element model, Model verification, Digital image correlation
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75389 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109367 (DOI)000503100200005 ()2-s2.0-85068420177 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-14 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Nilimaa, J., Sabau, C., Bagge, N., Puurula, A., Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., . . . Elfgren, L. (2018). Assessment and Loading to Failure of Three Swedish RC Bridges. In: Eva Lantsoght and Pinar Okumus (Ed.), Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Behavior through Load Testing: International Perspectives (pp. 8.1-8.18). Faarmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 323, Article ID SP-323-8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment and Loading to Failure of Three Swedish RC Bridges
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2018 (English)In: Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Behavior through Load Testing: International Perspectives / [ed] Eva Lantsoght and Pinar Okumus, Faarmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 2018, Vol. 323, p. 8.1-8.18, article id SP-323-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current codes often underestimate the capacity of existing bridges. The purpose of the tests presented here has been to assess the real behaviour and capacity of three types of bridges in order to be able to utilize them in a more efficient way.

The three studied bridges are: (1) Lautajokk – A one-span trough bridge tested in fatigue to check the shear capacity of the section between the slab and the girders; (2) Övik – A two span trough bridge strengthened with Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR) of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) tested in bending, shear and torsion; and (3) Kiruna – A five-span prestressed three girder bridge tested to shear-bending failures in the girders and in the slab.

The failure capacities were considerably higher than what the code methods indicated. With calibrated and stepwise refined finite element models, it was possible to capture the real behaviour of the bridges. The experiences and methods may be useful in assessment and better use of other bridges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Faarmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 2018
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69992 (URN)978-1-64195-007-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8889-4237

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