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Saback de Freitas Bello, V., Popescu, C., Täljsten, B. & Blanksvärd, T. (2023). Analysis of Digital Twins in the Construction Industry: Current Trends and Applications. In: Alper Ilki, Derya Çavunt, Yavuz Selim Çavunt (Ed.), Alper Ilki, Derya Çavunt, Yavuz Selim Çavunt (Ed.), Building for the Future: Durable, Sustainable, Resilient - Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2023 - Volume 2: . Paper presented at International Symposium of the International Federation for Structural Concrete, fib Symposium 2023, June 5-7, Istanbul, Turkey (pp. 1080-1088). Springer, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Digital Twins in the Construction Industry: Current Trends and Applications
2023 (English)In: Building for the Future: Durable, Sustainable, Resilient - Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2023 - Volume 2 / [ed] Alper Ilki, Derya Çavunt, Yavuz Selim Çavunt, Springer, 2023, Vol. 2, p. 1080-1088Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The construction industry has a significant impact in terms of financialand environmental resources but is vastly behind other sectors in terms of digitalization.The potential of this industry to be improved by new technology has beenreflected in huge trends in research for terms such as “digital twins”. However, thepurpose of such technologies and how they can be applied to specific needs andassets in the construction sector is not always clear. This paper proposes an analysisof the purpose, current and future states of digital twins in the constructionindustry, based on a reviewof the evolution of research in the topic and recentmarketapplications. Even though there is a discrepancy between research and levelof development of tangible applications, it is undeniable that the digital transformationwill reach the construction industry. The efforts should then be focusedon technology that can be translated to its assets, such as smart management, andwill generate tangible results that can survive outside the theoretical realm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, ISSN 2366-2557, E-ISSN 2366-2565 ; 350
Keywords
Digital Twins, Construction Industry, Construction Sector, Smart Infrastructure, BIM
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98099 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-32511-3_110 (DOI)2-s2.0-85164247551 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-32511-3 (ISBN)978-3-031-32510-6 (ISBN)
Conference
International Symposium of the International Federation for Structural Concrete, fib Symposium 2023, June 5-7, Istanbul, Turkey
Available from: 2023-06-09 Created: 2023-06-09 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Popescu, C. & Täljsten, B. (2023). In-Situ Load Testing of a SFRC Slab-on-Piles. In: Alper Ilki, Derya Çavunt, Yavuz Selim Çavunt (Ed.), Building for the Future: Durable, Sustainable, Resilient - Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2023 - Volume 2: . Paper presented at International Symposium of the International Federation for Structural Concrete, fib Symposium 2023, Istanbul, Turkey, June 5-7, 2023 (pp. 1289-1299). Springer, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-Situ Load Testing of a SFRC Slab-on-Piles
2023 (English)In: Building for the Future: Durable, Sustainable, Resilient - Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2023 - Volume 2 / [ed] Alper Ilki, Derya Çavunt, Yavuz Selim Çavunt, Springer, 2023, Vol. 2, p. 1289-1299Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Demonstrating the performance of a structural component can usually be done through calculations based on engineering models. However, the development in material science has made it possible to use new materials in the construction industry. One such example is the use of fibre-reinforced concrete defined as concrete containing short and discontinuous fibres dispersed throughout the concrete volume in order to improve the performance in service limit state. The lack of conventional reinforcement may affect the ductility and load capacity, and the calculations alone may not be sufficient to demonstrate the performance of these elements. Load-testing programs are therefore needed to be developed. The current paper reports and discuss the results of a full-scale test on a fibre-reinforced concrete multi-span slab-on-piles. The development of the test program including the loading setup to achieve the failure loads are presented. The performance of the slab is evaluated in terms of deflections and crack widths at certain loading intervals that corresponds with service limit state as well as ultimate limit state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, ISSN 2366-2557, E-ISSN 2366-2565 ; 350
Keywords
Full-scale Testing, Fibre-reinforced Concrete, Field Testing, Slab-on-piles, SFRC
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99608 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-32511-3_132 (DOI)2-s2.0-85164269142 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-32510-6 (ISBN)978-3-031-32511-3 (ISBN)
Conference
International Symposium of the International Federation for Structural Concrete, fib Symposium 2023, Istanbul, Turkey, June 5-7, 2023
Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Mirzazade, A., Popescu, C. & Täljsten, B. (2023). Prediction of Strain in Embedded Rebars for RC Member, Application of Hybrid Learning Approach. Infrastructures, 8(4), Article ID 71.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of Strain in Embedded Rebars for RC Member, Application of Hybrid Learning Approach
2023 (English)In: Infrastructures, E-ISSN 2412-3811, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to find strains in embedded reinforcement by monitoring surface deformations. Compared with analytical methods, application of the machine learning regression technique imparts a noteworthy reduction in modeling complexity caused by the tension stiffening effect. The present research aimed to achieve a hybrid learning approach for non-contact prediction of embedded strains based on surface deformations monitored by digital image correlation (DIC). However, due to the small training dataset collected by the installed strain gauges, the input dataset was enriched by a semi-empirical equation proposed in a previous study. Therefore, the present study discussed (i) instrumentation by strain gauge and DIC as well as data acquisition and post-processing of the data, accounting for strain gradients on the concrete surface and embedded reinforcement; (ii) input dataset generation for training machine learning regression models approaching hybrid learning; (iii) data regression to predict strains in embedded reinforcement based on monitored surface deformations; and (iv) the results, validation, and post-processing responses to make the method more robust. Finally, the developed model was evaluated through numerous statistical performance measures. The results showed that the proposed method can reasonably predict strain in embedded reinforcement, providing an innovative type of sensing application with highly improved performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
machine learning, hybrid learning, digital image correlation, neural network, Gaussian process regression, decision tree, ensemble model, strain gauge, reinforced concrete, strain
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96362 (URN)10.3390/infrastructures8040071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85153758455 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-01515
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-11 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-04-11 Created: 2023-04-11 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Mirzazade, A., Popescu, C., Gonzalez-Libreros, J., Blanksvärd, T., Täljsten, B. & Sas, G. (2023). Semi-autonomous inspection for concrete structures using digital models and a hybrid approach based on deep learning and photogrammetry. Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-autonomous inspection for concrete structures using digital models and a hybrid approach based on deep learning and photogrammetry
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, ISSN 2190-5452Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Bridge inspections are relied heavily on visual inspection, and usually conducted within limited time windows, typically at night, to minimize their impact on traffic. This makes it difficult to inspect every meter of the structure, especially for large-scale bridges with hard-to-access areas, which creates a risk of missing serious defects or even safety hazards. This paper presents a new technique for the semi-automated damage detection in tunnel linings and bridges using a hybrid approach based on photogrammetry and deep learning. The first approach involves using photogrammetry to reconstruct a 3D model. It is shown that a model with sub-centimeter accuracy can be obtained after noise removal. However, noise removal also reduces the point cloud density, making the 3D point cloud unsuitable for quantification of small-scale damages such as fine cracks. Therefore, the captured images are also analyzed using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) models to enable crack detection and segmentation. For this aim, in the second approach, the 3D model is generated by the output of CNN models to enable crack localization and quantification on 3D digital model. These two approaches were evaluated in separate case studies, showing that the proposed technique could be a valuable tool to assist human inspectors in detecting, localizing, and quantifying defects on concrete structures.

Keywords
Bridge inspection, Computer vision, Photogrammetry, Damage detection, Damage segmentation, UAV
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95443 (URN)10.1007/s13349-023-00680-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85146975670 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-01515EU, Horizon 2020, 101012456 IN2TRACK3
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-10-20
Bell, B., Bien, J., Cremona, C., Feltrin, G., Jensen, J. S., Kiviluoma, R., . . . Elfgren, L. (2023). Sustainable Bridges – Past and Future. Reflections on a European Project 2003 – 2007. In: IABSE Congress 2023 New Delhi, Engineering for Sustainable Development: . Paper presented at IABSE Congress 2023, Engineering for Sustainable Development, New Delhi, India, September 20-22, 2023 (pp. 690-698). International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Bridges – Past and Future. Reflections on a European Project 2003 – 2007
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2023 (English)In: IABSE Congress 2023 New Delhi, Engineering for Sustainable Development, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2023, p. 690-698Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Twenty years ago, in 2003, a European project was started to increase the sustainability of existing railway bridges. This paper summarises what was achieved and looks ahead. Nine Working Packages were organized: (1) Background material; (2) Guidance by stakeholders; (3) Condition Assessment and Inspection Guidelines; (4) Loads, Capacity and Resistance Guidelines; (5) Monitoring Guidelines; (6) Repair and Strengthening Guidelines; (7) Demonstration with Field testing of Bridges; (8) Demonstration on Monitoring on Bridges; and (9) Training and Dissemination.

Some of the main results (from 4 Guidelines and 47 Background documents) are highlighted and some experiences, conclusions and thoughts about the future are given. Hidden strengths and weaknesses are discussed, analyses and codes for assessment can be improved, new monitoring and strengthening methods are available and life length can be prolonged. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2023
Keywords
Bridges, Management, Assessment, Modelling, Monitoring, Testing, Codes, Loadcarrying capacity, Strengthening, Life-length
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103317 (URN)2-s2.0-85182605033 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IABSE Congress 2023, Engineering for Sustainable Development, New Delhi, India, September 20-22, 2023
Projects
Sustainable Bridges
Note

ISBN for host publication: 978-3-85748-200-7

Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2024-02-07
Saback de Freitas Bello, V., Popescu, C., Blanksvärd, T. & Täljsten, B. (2022). Asset Management of Existing Concrete Bridges Using Digital Twins and BIM: a State-of-the-Art Literature Review. Nordic Concrete Research, 66(1), 91-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asset Management of Existing Concrete Bridges Using Digital Twins and BIM: a State-of-the-Art Literature Review
2022 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 91-111Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The need to optimize investments in bridge maintenance has created a demand for improved bridge management systems (BMS). Outdated practices in bridge inspection and constant advances in information technology have also contributed to this demand. The use of Digital Twins (DT), although well established in other industries, is still incipient for asset management and structural analysis of bridges. There is a great deal of research on Building Information Modelling (BIM) for bridge inspection, but its post-construction potential is still under-explored. This study presents a state-of-the-art review of the literature on asset management for bridges using digital models such as BIM and digital twins. The review was conducting using a systematic approach. Despite the rapid increase in research on DT and the amount of existing research on BIM, several gaps remain to be addressed, such as the lack of consensus about the definition of digital twins, which has led to wrongful categorisation of digital models as DT. The complex data flow and software compatibility required to develop a functional DT have hindered the exploitation of their full potential so far. The integration of BIM post-construction to BMS and existing automation technologies can also significantly improve current practices of bridge management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2022
Keywords
digital twins, bridges, bridge maintenance, bridge management systems, BIM, review
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92217 (URN)10.2478/ncr-2021-0020 (DOI)000825200600007 ()
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-07-21 (sofila)

Available from: 2022-07-22 Created: 2022-07-22 Last updated: 2022-09-21Bibliographically approved
Täljsten, B. & Popescu, C. (2022). Corrosion-free concrete structures by the use of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers). In: Johan Silfwerbrand (Ed.), 24th NCR Symposium Proceedings: . Paper presented at XXIV Nordic Concrete Research Symposium 2022, Stockholm, Sweden, August 16-19, 2022. Nordic Concrete Federation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrosion-free concrete structures by the use of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers)
2022 (English)In: 24th NCR Symposium Proceedings / [ed] Johan Silfwerbrand, Nordic Concrete Federation , 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fibre reinforced polymers may be suggested as a solution to one of the major durability problems with reinforced concrete; the corrosion of the internal steel reinforcement. The durability of fibre reinforced polymers, FRP, e.g. towards chlorides, has the potential of saving extensive maintenance costs and avoiding resulting inconveniences for the public. This paper presents a pilot study with the use of glass fibre reinforced polymers, GFRP, as internal reinforcement for concrete structures. In the comparison between major international design guidelines, similar design procedures for ultimate limit state, ULS, but different design procedures for serviceability limit state, SLS, are used. Four T-beams, of which two were reinforced with GFRP rebars and the other two with steel rebars, were tested to failure in 4-point bending. Optical strain measuring equipment was used for the measurement of crack propagation. A comparison between predictions of failure loads, deflections and crack widths based on the design guidelines and the experimental results has been performed. For both GFRP reinforced beams different from predicted failure modes occurred, but at loads almost at the predicted level or higher. Extensive deflections and crack propagation gave clear warnings before failure. The behavior of the GFRP reinforced beams in SLS was reliable predicted by the design guidelines for FRP with the same accuracy as for the reinforced concrete beams. The SLS predictions of crack widths and deflections showed increasing overestimation for increasing reinforcement ratios. SLS criteria have shown to be governing in the design for the GFRP reinforced members.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Concrete Federation, 2022
Keywords
Concrete, FRP, Design, Testing, Corrosion
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94443 (URN)
Conference
XXIV Nordic Concrete Research Symposium 2022, Stockholm, Sweden, August 16-19, 2022
Note

Funder: DTU

Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2022-12-01Bibliographically approved
Saback, V., Mirzazade, A., Gonzalez, J., Blanksvärd, T., Popescu, C., Täljsten, B., . . . Petersson, M. (2022). Crack monitoring by fibre optics and image correlation: a pilot study. In: IABSE Symposium Prague, 2022: Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures, Report: . Paper presented at IABSE Symposium Prague 2022 - Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures (CEOS), Prague, Czech Republic, May 25-27, 2022 (pp. 437-444). International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Article ID O-048.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crack monitoring by fibre optics and image correlation: a pilot study
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2022 (English)In: IABSE Symposium Prague, 2022: Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures, Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2022, p. 437-444, article id O-048Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As reinforced concrete structures reach the end of their design lives, technology for improving accuracy and efficiency of inspections and structural health monitoring rapidly progresses. Concrete cracking and reinforcement strains are two relevant parameters in assessing damage and safety ofthese structures. The use of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) systems and distributed Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) to evaluate these parameters are two of the technologies that have been gaining momentum due to their advantages over other approaches. This study presents an experimental investigation of crack propagation of a reinforced concrete beam specimen through FOS and DIC.The FOS were positioned inside a groove carved in the rebar and in the concrete immediately outside the bar for comparison. The results showed a significant difference between both positions, with more reliable data coming from inside the bar. The addition of the DIC crack propagation images to the FOS analysis complemented the results, and good visual correlation was identified between both methods. This study is part of a broader research program, which aims at applying DIC and FOS for structural health monitoring of a real scale bridge structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2022
Keywords
reinforced concrete, Fibre Optic Sensors, Digital Image Correlation, crack propagation
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90818 (URN)2-s2.0-85133555444 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IABSE Symposium Prague 2022 - Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures (CEOS), Prague, Czech Republic, May 25-27, 2022
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy AgencySvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Funder: Skanska Sweden;

ISBN for host publication: 978-3-85748-181-9

Available from: 2022-05-31 Created: 2022-05-31 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Saback de Freitas Bello, V., Popescu, C., Blanksvärd, T. & Täljsten, B. (2022). Framework for Bridge Management Systems (BMS) Using Digital Twins. In: Carlo Pellegrino; Flora Faleschini; Mariano Angelo Zanini; José C. Matos; Joan R. Casas; Alfred Strauss (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the European Association on Quality Control of Bridges and Structures: . Paper presented at 1st Conference of the European Association on Quality Control of Bridges and Structures (EUROSTRUCT 2021) August 29 - September 1 2021, Padova, Italy (pp. 687-694). Springer, 200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framework for Bridge Management Systems (BMS) Using Digital Twins
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the European Association on Quality Control of Bridges and Structures / [ed] Carlo Pellegrino; Flora Faleschini; Mariano Angelo Zanini; José C. Matos; Joan R. Casas; Alfred Strauss, Springer, 2022, Vol. 200, p. 687-694Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Bridge structures have significantly long life spans; many medieval and historic bridges remain in operation in the world. The concept of bridge management contains the activities related to managing bridge inspections and condition assessment, which can be gathered into a Bridge Management System (BMS). Deterioration and failures have increased over the years in the already aging bridges; therefore, the importance of BMS to ensure safety of bridge operation and maximize investments in bridge maintenance has also increased. Digital Twin (DT) technology can be applied in the construction industry to achieve smart management through the entire life cycle of structures. Unlike the aerospace and manufacturing industries, the maturity of development of DT models in the construction industry still lags behind. In this study, a literature review was initially performed to gather knowledge on the origins of the digital twin concept and current best practice focused on bridge structures. A systematic approach for the literature review is presented in the methodology. Lastly, a framework for facility management of bridge structures using digital twins is proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Series
Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering (LNCE), ISSN 2366-2557, E-ISSN 2366-2565 ; 200
Keywords
Bridges, Digital twins, Bridge management systems, BMS, Facility management
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88734 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-91877-4_78 (DOI)2-s2.0-85121920211 (Scopus ID)
Conference
1st Conference of the European Association on Quality Control of Bridges and Structures (EUROSTRUCT 2021) August 29 - September 1 2021, Padova, Italy
Available from: 2022-01-21 Created: 2022-01-21 Last updated: 2022-09-21Bibliographically approved
Popescu, C., Täljsten, B., Blanksvärd, T. & Elfgren, L. (2022). Remote bridge inspection using optical methods. In: Johan Silfwerbrand (Ed.), 24th NCR Symposium Proceedings: . Paper presented at XXIV Nordic Concrete Research Symposium 2022, Stockholm, Sweden, August 16-19, 2022. Nordic Concrete Federation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote bridge inspection using optical methods
2022 (English)In: 24th NCR Symposium Proceedings / [ed] Johan Silfwerbrand, Nordic Concrete Federation , 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Routine bridge inspections usually consist of visual observations. These inspections are timeconsuming and subjective. There is a need to identify new inspection techniques for infrastructure that reduce traffic disturbance, and improve the efficiency and reliability of the acquired data. This study compared the performance of three different imaging technologies for the threedimensional (3D) geometric modelling of existing structures: terrestrial laser scanning, closerange photogrammetry, and infrared scanning. Each technology was used to assess six existing concrete railway bridges. The results suggest that all methods investigated can be used to create 3D models, however, with different level of completeness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Concrete Federation, 2022
Keywords
Bridge Inspection, Optical Methods, Remote Sensing, Maintenance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94446 (URN)
Conference
XXIV Nordic Concrete Research Symposium 2022, Stockholm, Sweden, August 16-19, 2022
Projects
In2Track: Research into enhanced tracks, switches and structures
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSwedish Research Council Formas, 2019-01515
Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2022-12-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7799-5809

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