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Ögren, Y., Sepman, A., Fooladgar, E., Weiland, F. & Wiinikka, H. (2024). Development and evaluation of a vision driven sensor for estimating fuel feeding rates in combustion and gasification processes. Energy and AI, 15, Article ID 100316.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and evaluation of a vision driven sensor for estimating fuel feeding rates in combustion and gasification processes
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2024 (English)In: Energy and AI, ISSN 2666-5468, Vol. 15, article id 100316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A machine vision driven sensor for estimating the instantaneous feeding rate of pelletized fuels was developed and tested experimentally in combustion and gasification processes. The feeding rate was determined from images of the pellets sliding on a transfer chute into the reactor. From the images the apparent area and velocity of the pellets were extracted. Area was determined by a segmentation model created using a machine learning framework and velocities by image registration of two subsequent images. The measured weight of the pelletized fuel passed through the feeding system was in good agreement with the weight estimated by the sensor. The observed variations in the fuel feeding correlated with the variations in the gaseous species concentrations measured in the reactor core and in the exhaust. Since the developed sensor measures the ingoing fuel feeding rate prior to the reactor, its signal could therefore help improve process control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Fuel feeding, Process monitoring, Image processing, Neural network, Combustion, Gasification
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102652 (URN)10.1016/j.egyai.2023.100316 (DOI)
Funder
Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency, 50470-1VinnovaSwedish Research Council FormasEU, Horizon 2020, 818011
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-22 (joosat);

CC BY 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-11-22 Created: 2023-11-22 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Siddanathi, L. S., Westerberg, L.-G., Åkerstedt, H. O., Sepman, A. & Wiinikka, H. (2023). Computational Analysis Of Different Non-Transferred Plasma Torch Geometries. In: : . Paper presented at 50th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS 50), May 21-25 2023, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. , Article ID P-1.27.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational Analysis Of Different Non-Transferred Plasma Torch Geometries
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A non-transferred plasma torch is a device used to generate a steady thermal plasma jet. These electric-driven plasma burners have the potential to be upscaled and used as heat sources in the process industry instead of the large-scale fossil fuel burners used today. A non-transferred plasma torch comprises the combination of a cathode, anode, and working gas flowing between the electrodes in order to generate a plasma jet. To enable the upscaling it is important to understand the effects of different electrode shapes and sizes on the plasma jet formation and its properties. There are two available cathode shapes: flat cathodes and conical cathodes, and the two shapes of anodes are cylindrical and stepped anodes. Therefore, to understand their effects computational analysis is performed on 2D axisymmetric geometries. Steady-state computational analysis is done using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling assuming the plasma to be fully ionized. The results obtained for the different cases are as follows: 

1.    Cathode and anode shape study: The velocity and temperature of the plasma jet are analyzed, and the variation of arc formation is studied for all the cases.

2.    Anode diameter: The anode diameter influences the arc formation and to understand its effects a case study for different anode diameters is conducted. The results obtained explained that the increase in anode diameter reduces the current in the arc.

3.    Flow separation: One interesting observation made is flow separation at the tip of flat cathodes. The study explains the advantages or disadvantages of the observed flow separation. Further, if the flow separation is a disadvantage, methods to eliminate it are explained.

4.    Conclusion: Based on the heat losses and the plasma torch efficiency, the work concludes by presenting the best cathode and anode geometries that can be used.

Keywords
magnetohydrodynamics, geometries, non-transferred plasma torch, arc formation, flow separation
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98571 (URN)
Conference
50th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS 50), May 21-25 2023, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 49609-1
Available from: 2023-06-19 Created: 2023-06-19 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Thorin, E., Sepman, A., Ögren, Y., Ma, C., Carlborg, M., Wennebro, J., . . . Schmidt, F. M. (2023). Quantitative real-time in situ measurement of gaseous K, KOH and KCl in a 140 kW entrained-flow biomass gasifier. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 39, 1337-1345
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative real-time in situ measurement of gaseous K, KOH and KCl in a 140 kW entrained-flow biomass gasifier
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, ISSN 1540-7489, E-ISSN 1873-2704, Vol. 39, p. 1337-1345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photofragmentation tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (PF-TDLAS) was used to simultaneously measure the concentrations of gas phase atomic potassium (K), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and potassium chloride (KCl) in the reactor core of a 140 kWth atmospheric entrained-flow gasifier (EFG). In two gasification experiments at air-to-fuel equivalence ratio of 0.5, the EFG was first run on forest residues (FR) and then on an 80/20 mixture of FR and wheat straw (FR/WS). Combustion at air-to-fuel equivalence ratio of 1.3 was investigated for comparison. A high K(g) absorbance was observed in gasification, requiring the photofragmentation signals from KOH(g) and KCl(g) to be recorded at a fixed detuning of 7.3 cm−1 from the center of the K(g) absorption profile. In combustion, the fragments recombined instantly after the UV pulse within around 10 µs, whereas in gasification, the K(g) fragment concentration first increased further for 30 µs after the UV pulse, before slowly decaying for up to hundreds of µs. According to 0D reaction kinetics simulations, this could be explained by a difference in recombination kinetics, which is dominated by oxygen reactions in combustion and by hydrogen reactions in gasification. The K species concentrations in the EFG were stable on average, but periodic short-term variations due to fuel feeding were observed, as well as a gradual increase in KOH(g) over the day as the reactor approached global equilibrium. A comparison of the average K species concentrations towards the end of each experiment showed a higher total K in the gas phase for FR/WS, with higher K(g) and KCl(g), but lower KOH(g), compared to the FR fuel. The measured values were in reasonable agreement with predictions by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Biomass, Entrained-flow gasification, Potassium (K), Photofragmentation, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93456 (URN)10.1016/j.proci.2022.07.180 (DOI)001019037700001 ()2-s2.0-85139508080 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4EnergyThe Kempe Foundations, JCK-1316Swedish Energy Agency, 50470-1, 36160-1EU, Horizon 2020, 637020 - Mobile Flip
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-07-20 (sofila)

Available from: 2022-10-05 Created: 2022-10-05 Last updated: 2023-07-20Bibliographically approved
Udayakumar, M., Tóth, P., Wiinikka, H., Malhotra, J. S., Likozar, B., Gyergyek, S., . . . Németh, Z. (2022). Hierarchical porous carbon foam electrodes fabricated from waste polyurethane elastomer template for electric double-layer capacitors. Scientific Reports, 12, Article ID 11786.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hierarchical porous carbon foam electrodes fabricated from waste polyurethane elastomer template for electric double-layer capacitors
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2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, article id 11786Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastic waste has become a major global environmental concern. The utilization of solid waste-derived porous carbon for energy storage has received widespread attention in recent times. Herein, we report the comparison of electrochemical performance of porous carbon foams (CFs) produced from waste polyurethane (PU) elastomer templates via two different activation pathways. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) fabricated from the carbon foam exhibited a gravimetric capacitance of 74.4 F/g at 0.1 A/g. High packing density due to the presence of carbon spheres in the hierarchical structure offered excellent volumetric capacitance of 134.7 F/cm3 at 0.1 A/g. Besides, the CF-based EDLCs exhibited Coulombic efficiency close to 100% and showed stable cyclic performance for 5000 charge–discharge cycles with good capacitance retention of 97.7% at 3 A/g. Low equivalent series resistance (1.05 Ω) and charge transfer resistance (0.23 Ω) due to the extensive presence of hydroxyl functional groups contributed to attaining high power (48.89 kW/kg). Based on the preferred properties such as high specific surface area, hierarchical pore structure, surface functionalities, low metallic impurities, high conductivity and desirable capacitive behaviour, the CF prepared from waste PU elastomers have shown potential to be adopted as electrodes in EDLCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Energy Engineering Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92204 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-16006-8 (DOI)000824910300016 ()35821518 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133938642 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), GINOP-2.3.4-15-2016-00004
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-07-19 (sofila);

Funder: Slovenian Research Agency (grant no. P2-0089); University of Miskolc; the Hungarian State; the European Union

Available from: 2022-07-19 Created: 2022-07-19 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Sepman, A., Thorin, E., Ögren, Y., Ma, C., Carlborg, M., Wennebro, J., . . . Schmidt, F. M. (2022). Laser-based detection of methane and soot during entrained-flow biomass gasification. Combustion and Flame, 237, Article ID 111886.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser-based detection of methane and soot during entrained-flow biomass gasification
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2022 (English)In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 237, article id 111886Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Methane is one of the main gas species produced during biomass gasification and may be a desired or undesired product. Syngas CH4 concentrations are typically >5 vol-% (when desired) and 1–3 vol-% even when efforts are made to minimize it, while thermochemical equilibrium calculations (TEC) predict complete CH4 decomposition. How CH4 is generated and sustained in the reactor core is not well understood. To investigate this, accurate quantification of the CH4 concentration during the process is a necessary first step. We present results from rapid in situ measurements of CH4, soot volume fraction, H2O and gas temperature in the reactor core of an atmospheric entrained-flow biomass gasifier, obtained using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the near-infrared (1.4 µm) and mid-infrared (3.1 µm) region. An 80/20 wt% mixture of forest residues and wheat straw was converted using oxygen-enriched air (O2>21 vol%) as oxidizer, while the global air-fuel equivalence ratio (AFR) was set to values between 0.3 and 0.7. Combustion at AFR 1.3 was performed as a reference. The results show that the CH4 concentration increased from 1 to 3 vol-% with decreasing AFR, and strongly correlated with soot production. In general, the TDLAS measurements are in good agreement with extractive diagnostics at the reactor outlet and TEC under fuel-lean conditions, but deviate significantly for lower AFR. Detailed 0D chemical reaction kinetics simulations suggest that the CH4 produced in the upper part of the reactor at temperatures >1700 K was fully decomposed, while the CH4 in the final syngas originated from the pyrolysis of fuel particles at temperatures below 1400 K in the lower section of the reactor core. It is shown that the process efficiency was significantly reduced due to the C and H atoms bound in methane and soot.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Entrained-flow reactor, Gasification, Biomass, Methane, Soot, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88296 (URN)10.1016/j.combustflame.2021.111886 (DOI)000735780800001 ()2-s2.0-85120458898 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency, 50470-1EU, Horizon 2020, 637020
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-01-01 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-12-13 Created: 2021-12-13 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
Wiinikka, H., Hage, F. S., Ramasse, Q. M. & Toth, P. (2021). Spatial distribution of metallic heteroatoms in soot nanostructure mapped by aberration-corrected STEM-EELS. Carbon, 173, 953-967
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial distribution of metallic heteroatoms in soot nanostructure mapped by aberration-corrected STEM-EELS
2021 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 173, p. 953-967Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soot from the thermochemical conversion of solid and liquid fuels can be infused with metallic heteroatoms originating from the fuel – these heteroatoms alter the nanostructure and the reactivity of the soot. Here, we investigate the spatial distribution of metallic heteroatoms in soot generated by biomass gasification, using aberration-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (STEM-EELS). The technique allowed for the mapping of heteroatom distribution in soot at the nanoscale, and thereby for the direct correlation of heteroatom concentration with the graphitic nanostructure. Spherical soot particles were coated with a thin layer of silicon, possibly in the form of quartz that may be linked to minor distortions of the nanostructure of the graphitic shell of the particles. Further results on non-spherical soot and inorganic-carbon fused aggregates suggest that the chemistry of formation was affected by the presence of gaseous ash-forming elements, especially calcium, with carbon-oxygen functional groups forming as intermediates in the graphite-inorganic reaction; i.e., prior to the formation of the thermodynamically stable carbonate bonds. The analytical approach demonstrated here can potentially help select fuel additives or aid in the design of fuel blends that minimize the formation of similar, hybrid carbon nanoparticles in combustion or gasification systems. © 2020 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Carbon, Dust, Electron energy levels, Electron scattering, Energy dissipation, Fuel additives, Gasification, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Nanostructures, Reaction intermediates, Scanning electron microscopy, Soot, Spatial distribution, Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopies, Aberration-corrected STEM, Ash-forming elements, Biomass Gasification, Carbon Nano-Particles, Oxygen functional groups, Thermochemical Conversion, Thermodynamically stable, Electron energy loss spectroscopy
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82260 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2020.12.004 (DOI)000613126400008 ()2-s2.0-85097567163 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-01-11 (johcin);

Finansiär: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

Available from: 2021-01-11 Created: 2021-01-11 Last updated: 2021-03-22Bibliographically approved
Gebart, R., Bengtsson, P.-E., Schmidt, F., Wiinikka, H., Broström, M., Backman, R., . . . Weiland, F. (2020). SFC – Annual Summary from Bio4Gasification (B4G).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SFC – Annual Summary from Bio4Gasification (B4G)
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2020 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Publisher
p. 39
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78234 (URN)
Available from: 2020-03-27 Created: 2020-03-27 Last updated: 2020-10-02Bibliographically approved
Sefidari, H., Ma, C., Fredriksson, C., Lindblom, B., Wiinikka, H., Nordin, L., . . . Öhman, M. (2020). The effect of co-firing coal and woody biomass upon the slagging/deposition tendency in iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants. Fuel processing technology, 199, Article ID 106254.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of co-firing coal and woody biomass upon the slagging/deposition tendency in iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants
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2020 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 199, article id 106254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Woody biomass is being considered a potential co-firing fuel to reduce coal consumption in iron-ore pelletizing rotary kilns. An important consideration is the slagging inside the kiln caused by ash deposition that can lead to process disturbances or shutdowns. In terms of ash chemistry, co-firing woody biomass implies the addition of mainly Ca and K to the Si- and Al-dominated coal-ash (characteristic of high-rank coals) and Fe from the iron-ore that are both inherent to the process. An alkali-laden gaseous atmosphere is also present due to the accumulation of alkali via the recirculation of flue gas in the system. The slagging propensity of blending woody biomass with coal in the grate-kiln process was studied based on the viscosity of the molten phases predicted by global thermochemical equilibrium modeling. This was carried out for variations in temperature, gaseous KOH atmosphere, and fuel blending levels. Results were evaluated and compared using a qualitative slagging indicator previously proposed by the authors where an inverse relationship between deposition tendency and the viscosity of the molten fraction of the ash was established. The results were also compared with a set of co-firing experiments performed in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) experimental combustion furnace. In general, the co-firing of woody biomass would likely increase the slagging tendency via the increased formation of low-viscosity melts. The fluxing behavior of biomass-ash potentially reduces the viscosity of the Fe-rich aluminosilicate melt and intensifies deposition. However, the results also revealed that there are certain conditions where deposition tendency may decrease via the formation of high-melting-point alkali-containing solid phases (e.g., leucite).© 2019 Elsevier

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Iron-ore pelletizing, Coal-ash, Biomass-ash, Pellet dust, Deposition (slagging), Thermochemical equilibrium calculations, Viscosity estimations
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76783 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.106254 (DOI)000513295200001 ()2-s2.0-85074608707 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-12-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sefidari, H., Lindblom, B., Nordin, L.-O. & Wiinikka, H. (2020). The Feasibility of Replacing Coal with Biomass in Iron-Ore Pelletizing Plants with Respect to Melt-Induced Slagging. Energies, 13(20), Article ID 5386.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Feasibility of Replacing Coal with Biomass in Iron-Ore Pelletizing Plants with Respect to Melt-Induced Slagging
2020 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 20, article id 5386Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Combustion-generated fly ash particles in combination with the particles arising from the disintegration of iron-ore pellets, could give rise to the build-up of deposits on the refractory linings of the induration facility. Due to climate change and other environmental issues, there is a desire to cut down on use of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the feasibility of replacing coal with less carbon-intensive alternatives such as upgraded biomass, e.g., biochar and pyrolysis bio-oil. While the combustion of biomass can be carbon-neutral, the effects of biomass ash upon slagging during the iron-ore pelletizing process in a grate-kiln setup is unknown. In the present study, the effect of the interaction between the pellet dust and biomass-ash upon melt formation and the viscosity of the resulting melt, which can collectively affect melt-induced slagging, was theoretically assessed. The slagging potential of 15 different biomass fuels, suitable for the pelletizing process, was quantified and compared with one another and a reference high-rank coal using a thermodynamically derived slagging index. The replacement of coal with biomass in the pelletizing process is a cumbersome and challenging task which requires extensive and costly field measurements. Therefore, given the wide-ranging nature of the biomasses investigated in this study, a prescreening theoretical approach, such as the one employed in the present work, could narrow down the list, facilitate the choice of fuel/s, and help reduce the costs of the subsequent experimental investigations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
iron-ore pelletizing, pellet dust, slagging/deposition, fuel-ash, thermochemical equilibrium calculations
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81244 (URN)10.3390/en13205386 (DOI)000585270300001 ()2-s2.0-85093113967 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-11-04 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-10-27 Created: 2020-10-27 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Sefidari, H., Wiinikka, H., Lindblom, B., Nordin, L. O., Wu, G., Yazhenskikh, E., . . . Öhman, M. (2019). Comparison of high-rank coals with respect to slagging/deposition tendency at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants: A pilot-scale experimental study accompanied by thermochemical equilibrium modeling and viscosity estimations. Fuel processing technology, 193, 244-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of high-rank coals with respect to slagging/deposition tendency at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants: A pilot-scale experimental study accompanied by thermochemical equilibrium modeling and viscosity estimations
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2019 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 193, p. 244-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iron-ore pelletizing plants use high-rank coals to supply the heat necessary to process ores. Ash material from coal, in combination with iron-ore dust originating from the disintegration of the pellets, can cause deposition/slagging which often leads to severe production losses and damage. Deposition/slagging is most prominent in the hot areas of the grate-kiln setup and is more severe at the inlet of the rotary-kiln, i.e., the transfer-chute. Following on from our previous work, high-rank bituminous coals with potential for use in the pelletizing process were combusted in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) pulverized-coal fired experimental combustion furnace (ECF). The fly-ash particles and short-term deposits were characterized to shed light on the observed difference in slagging/deposition tendencies of the coals. Global thermodynamic equilibrium modeling, in combination with viscosity estimates, was used to interpret the experimental findings and investigate the effect of the coal-ash composition upon deposition/slagging. This approach was carried out with and without the presence of Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust under oxidizing conditions within the temperature range at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing rotary-kilns. Based on the findings, a Qualitative Slagging Indicator (QSI) was proposed that can help pre-screen new solid fuels for potential slagging issues. The proposed QSI highlights the following: (1) an inverse relationship between viscosity and slagging/deposition tendency of the coals was observed (2) as viscosity decreases (either with increasing temperature or due to the change in the coal-ash composition), stronger deposits will form that will complicate the mechanical removal of the deposited layer. It was therefore inferred that low viscosity molten phases facilitate deposition/slagging, which is exacerbated by the presence of fluxing agents (e.g., CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O, and Fe2O3) in the deposits. The low viscosity coal-ash-induced molten phases are also more likely to interact with the Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust that results in further decreases in viscosity, thereby intensifying depositions. The results from this work complement the on-going research by our group to elucidate and alleviate ash-related problems in industrial grate kilns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Iron-ore pelletizing, Coal-ash, Pellet-dust, Deposition (slagging), Thermochemical equilibrium calculations, Viscosity estimations
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74064 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.05.026 (DOI)000473842100026 ()2-s2.0-85066109318 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-10 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9395-9928

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