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Publications (10 of 45) Show all publications
Altuntov, F. K., Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Engberg, H. & Niia, I. (2023). An initial review of conceptual alternative layouts for production areas in Kiirunavaara mine. In: Underground Operators Conference 2023: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at Underground Operators Conference 2023, Premier Underground Mining Conference, Brisbane, Australia, March 27-29, 2023 (pp. 200-208). The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An initial review of conceptual alternative layouts for production areas in Kiirunavaara mine
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2023 (English)In: Underground Operators Conference 2023: Conference Proceedings, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2023, p. 200-208Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2023
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98924 (URN)
Conference
Underground Operators Conference 2023, Premier Underground Mining Conference, Brisbane, Australia, March 27-29, 2023
Note

Funder: LKAB, Sweden

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-922395-13-9

Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Halim, A., Hooli, J. & Greberg, J. (2023). Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) in Underground Mines - The SIMS and NEXGEN SIMS projects: [Batterimaskiner i underjordsgruvorna – SIMS och NEXGEN SIMS projekten]. In: : . Paper presented at Bergdagarna 2023, Stockholm, Sweden, March 21-22, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) in Underground Mines - The SIMS and NEXGEN SIMS projects: [Batterimaskiner i underjordsgruvorna – SIMS och NEXGEN SIMS projekten]
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Att ersätta dieselmaskiner med elfordon i underjordsgruvor har identifierats av gruvindustrin som ett kritiskt steg för att förbättra arbetsmiljön genom att minska dieselavgaser, samtidigt som man sänker elkostnaden för gruvventilation genom att minska behovet och minska utsläppen av växthusgaser. Alla dessa är viktiga krav för att uppnå en hållbar framtida gruvbrytning under jord, inklusive ett mål om noll koldioxidutsläpp och en mycket låg koncentration av atmosfäriska föroreningar på arbetsplatser.Av alla typer av elfordon är batterimaskiner (Battery Electric Vehicles – BEVs på engelska) den mest lämpliga för underjordiska gruvdrift på grund av sin flexibilitet. Med den senaste utvecklingen inom batteriteknologi har tillförlitliga BEVs tillverkats sedan 2016. En undersökning måste dock göras för att säkerställa att de introduceras smidigt i den operativa verksamheten. Därför har Europeiska unionen (EU) finansierat två projekt, nämligen SIMS och NEXGEN SIMS där flera BEVs ska utvärderas vid flera gruvor inom EU. Den här artikeln beskriver några resultat av dessa försök som bland annat inkluderar förbättring av arbetsmiljön, förbrukningen av elkraft samt hur tekniken uppfattas av operativ personal och ledning. Studien omfattar resultat från intervjuer av verksamheter utanför EU-projektet.

Abstract [en]

Replacing diesel machines with electric vehicles in underground mines has been widely acknowledged by the mining industry as a critical step to improve working conditions by reducing diesel exhaust contaminants, whilst also lowering mine ventilation electrical power cost by reducing mine airflow requirement and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. All of these are major requirements to achieve sustainable future underground mining practices, including a target of zero carbon emissions and a very low concentration of atmospheric contaminants in workplaces.Among all types of electric vehicles, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) is the most suitable for underground mining application due to its flexibility. With the recent developments in battery technology, reliable BEVs have been manufactured since 2016. However, an investigation must be carried out to ensure their smooth introduction. Therefore, the European Union (EU) has funded two projects namely SIMS and NEXGEN SIMS where several BEVs were trialled at several EU mines. This paper outlines some results of these trials which include, among others, improvement of working conditions, power consumption, perception of the mineworkers, and perception of the mine management. Moreover, perception of the management of mines that are not part of the project consortium but have trialled BEVs is also outlined in this paper.

Keywords
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S), Working conditions in underground mines, Sustainable underground mining
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99435 (URN)
Conference
Bergdagarna 2023, Stockholm, Sweden, March 21-22, 2023
Projects
SIMSNEXGEN SIMS
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 730302, 101003591
Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-08-11Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Astrand, M., Sundqvist, F., Greberg, J., Salama, A. & Ekbeck, P. (2021). Automatic closed-loop scheduling in underground mining using discrete event simulation. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 121(6), 277-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic closed-loop scheduling in underground mining using discrete event simulation
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2021 (English)In: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 2411-9717, Vol. 121, no 6, p. 277-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today's mining operations require fast reporting and rapid rescheduling based on updated information. An automatic mine scheduling system could not only quickly reschedule but also propose alternative solutions. To avoid the financial and physical risks associated with testing such a system directly in operation, it could be first evaluated via discrete event simulation models. This would offer a safe environment to evaluate different operating rules and algorithms. In this study, this is achieved by integrating automatic scheduling software with a discrete event simulation model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2021
Keywords
discrete event simulation, production planning, scheduling system, underground mining
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86824 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/679/2021 (DOI)000684541700002 ()2-s2.0-85113396616 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-09-01 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-08-26 Created: 2021-08-26 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A. & Greberg, J. (2019). Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine. CIM Journal, 10(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine
2019 (English)In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 10, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) are typically used in underground metal mining opera-tions. Delays or inappropriate use of LHDs can result in production loss. Optimized LHD use is especially crucial in larger mines because longer travel distances increase heat, dust, and gas emissions, which in turn increase ventilation costs. This study, conducted at an existing Swedish sublevel cave underground mine, used discrete event simulation and the AutoMod™ DES tool to determine the ventilation costs related to using too many diesel LHDs in a production area with reduced ore pass availability. When fewer ore passes are available, ventilation costs related to operating LHDs in the production area were found to increase by as much as 200, 224, and 306% for one, three, and six LHDs in operation, respectively.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canada: Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2019
Keywords
Discrete event simulation (DES), Loading operations, Production rate, Ventilation costs, coûts de l’aérage, opérations de chargement, simulation à événements discrets (SED), taux de production
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75482 (URN)10.15834/cimj.2019.12 (DOI)
Projects
Sustainable Intelligent Mining Systems (SIMS)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2022-03-15Bibliographically approved
Yi, C., Johansson, D. & Greberg, J. (2018). Effects of in-situ stresses on the fracturing of rock by blasting. Computers and geotechnics, 104, 321-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of in-situ stresses on the fracturing of rock by blasting
2018 (English)In: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 104, p. 321-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blasting is widely applied in deep rock excavation. The effect of in-situ stresses on the fracturing of rock due to blasting was investigated. A theoretical model was used to explain the effect mechanism of in-situ stresses on crack propagation due to blasting. Four cases with different in-situ stress conditions were numerically investigated. The numerical results indicate that the crack propagation is governed by the blast load in the vicinity of the blasthole while the high in-situ stresses can influence the crack propagation in the far-field. The crack propagation trends towards the direction in which the high initial pressure is applied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Blasting, In-situ stresses, Crack propagation
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering; Centre - Swedish Blasting Research Centre (SWEBREC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67060 (URN)10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.12.004 (DOI)000449125200029 ()2-s2.0-85038407140 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2021-10-22Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Salama, A. & Gustafson, A. (2018). The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(4), 409-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 2411-9717, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orepass failure is a well-known problem in deep mines, and the risk of losing an orepass is associated with severe production disturbances. In the near future, one possible scenario in the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) Malmberget mine is to concentrate the mining operation in fewer, but larger, production areas. In this paper we evaluate the effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates using discrete event simulation, by simulating part of the Malmberget mine loading and hauling system under different environmental and operational constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Johannesburg: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
LHDs, orepass loss, production simulation, underground iron ore mining
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68482 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n4a11 (DOI)000432973700011 ()2-s2.0-85048012580 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Astrand, M., Johansson, M. & Greberg, J. (2018). Underground mine scheduling modelled as a flow shop: a review of relevant work and future challenges. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(12), 1265-1276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Underground mine scheduling modelled as a flow shop: a review of relevant work and future challenges
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 2411-9717, Vol. 118, no 12, p. 1265-1276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Advanced planning and automation are increasingly important in modern mines. Sophisticated methods for long-term mine planning are often used, and the advent of autonomous machines makes the actual operation more predictable. However, the interface between these two timescales, i.e. the scheduling of the mobile production fleet, often limits the ability to operate mines at maximum profitability. We show how scheduling the production fleet in an underground mine can be modelled as a flow shop. A flow shop is a general abstract process formulation that captures the key properties of a scheduling problem without going into specific details. Thus, the flow shop enables mine scheduling to reap the benefits of scheduling research from other industries. We review recent results from the mining community and the flow shop community, and introduce scheduling methods used in these two fields. This work aims at providing value to researchers from the mining community who want to leverage their skill set, as well as to theoretical researchers by presenting the mining process as a potential application area. Lastly, we discuss the results, and outline some future challenges and opportunities facing the industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Marshalltown, Soth Africa: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
underground mining, scheduling, flow shop, optimization
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72735 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n12a5 (DOI)000453404400005 ()2-s2.0-85062236013 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-30 (inah)

Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Nehring, M. & Greberg, J. (2017). Financial analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining, using simulation and mixed integer programming. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 117(4), 365-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Financial analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining, using simulation and mixed integer programming
2017 (English)In: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 2411-9717, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper challenges the traditional notion that mine planners need to plan production so as to incur the lowest mining cost. For a given mine configuration, a mine that increases its mining rate will incur increased mining costs. In an environment in which operations are fixated on cost reduction, a proposal that increases costs will not be readily accepted. Such a proposal requires financial justification-the increase in costs might be recuperated by the additional production. This paper evaluates the net present value (NPV) across a range of copper prices for two underground orebodies located at different depths, using a production rate of 300 kt per quarter and a scenario that introduces additional equipment and costs for 450 kt per quarter. The evaluation was based on the changes of NPV for the orebody located at a shallow depth compared with the orebody at a greater depth. Discrete event simulation combined with mixed integer programming was used for analysis. Unlike traditional sensitivity analysis, this study re-optimizes the mine plan for each commodity price at each production rate. The results show that, for the low mining rate at the final copper price, an NPV of A$ 1530.64 million is achieved, whereas an NPV of A$ 1537.59 million is achieved at a higher mining rate. Even though pushing mining rates beyond traditional limits may increase mining costs, this option may be beneficial at certain commodity prices, particularly when prices are elevated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Southern African Institute of Mining, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65151 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n4a8 (DOI)000406200400008 ()2-s2.0-85039842011 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-08-17 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Greberg, J., Salama, A., Gustafson, A. & Skawina, B. (2016). Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation (ed.). Minerals, 6(3), Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation
2016 (English)In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the near surface deposits are being mined out, underground mines will increasingly operate at greater depths. This will increase the challenges related to transporting materials from deeper levels to the surface. For many years, the ore and waste transportation from most deep underground mines has depended on some or all of the following: truck haulage, conveyor belts, shafts, rails, and ore pass systems. In sub-level caving, and where ore passes are used, trains operating on the main lower level transport the ore from ore passes to a crusher, for subsequent hoisting to the surface through the shaft system. In many mines, the use of the ore pass system has led to several problems related to the ore pass availability, causing production disturbances and incurred cost and time for ore pass rehabilitation. These production disturbances have an impact on the mining activities since they increase the operational costs, and lower the mine throughput. A continued dependency on rock mass transportation using ore passes will generate high capital costs for various supporting structures such as rail tracks, shaft extensions, and crushers for every new main level. This study was conducted at an existing underground mine and analyzed the transport of ore from loading areas at the lower levels up to the existing shaft points using trucks without employing ore passes. The results show that, when the costs of extending ore passes to lower levels become too great or ore passes cannot be used for production, haul trucks can be a feasible alternative method for transport of ore and waste up the ramp to the existing crusher located at the previous main level. The use of trucks will avoid installing infrastructure at the next main level and extending the ore passes to lower levels, hence reducing costs.

Keywords
rock mass transportation, sub-level caving, discrete event simulation, ore pass, trucks, haulage system
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13724 (URN)10.3390/min6030065 (DOI)000385481400009 ()2-s2.0-84977104005 (Scopus ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Local ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Archive number)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Gustafson, A., Sundqvist, F., Sjödin, E. & Greberg, J. (2016). Conceptual models for mining at greater depths: Automated bolt rigs and scaling rigs (ed.).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual models for mining at greater depths: Automated bolt rigs and scaling rigs
2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the challenges that underground mines face today is the deepening of the mines. This, together with lower grades of the deposits, makes the mines strive for higher productivity and lower costs. By introducing autonomous vehicles, the operators will be removed from the face, and thus safety for operators will be improved. Since autonomous vehicles are scheduled to operate during breaks, there is a potential for a productivity increase. The goal with this study was to determine if and to which degree autonomous bolt rigs and scaling rigs can improve the productivity in a deep underground mine.The research is based on data collected during 2013 from New Boliden AB’s Kristineberg mine in Sweden. A simulation tool, SimMine, was used for analyzing the effects of operational changes and for simulation of parameters that are difficult to estimate, such as traffic congestions. A number of scenarios were simulated and compared to the base case with focus on productivity.It can be concluded that the simulation scenarios using faster, manually operated vehicles shows a productivity increase, and that the automated vehicles further improved the productivity increase. The largest productivity increase comes however from faster vehicles, and not from the automation itself.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23439 (URN)6f9c857a-472c-405b-8fb2-fc9c3891a761 (Local ID)978-91-7583-519-8 (ISBN)6f9c857a-472c-405b-8fb2-fc9c3891a761 (Archive number)6f9c857a-472c-405b-8fb2-fc9c3891a761 (OAI)
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160129 (anngus)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-16
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2306-9241

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