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Publications (10 of 42) Show all publications
Skawina, B., Salama, A. & Greberg, J. (2019). Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine. CIM Journal, 10(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine
2019 (English)In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 10, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) are typically used in underground metal mining opera-tions. Delays or inappropriate use of LHDs can result in production loss. Optimized LHD use is especially crucial in larger mines because longer travel distances increase heat, dust, and gas emissions, which in turn increase ventilation costs. This study, conducted at an existing Swedish sublevel cave underground mine, used discrete event simulation and the AutoMod™ DES tool to determine the ventilation costs related to using too many diesel LHDs in a production area with reduced ore pass availability. When fewer ore passes are available, ventilation costs related to operating LHDs in the production area were found to increase by as much as 200, 224, and 306% for one, three, and six LHDs in operation, respectively.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canada: Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2019
Keywords
Discrete event simulation (DES), Loading operations, Production rate, Ventilation costs, coûts de l’aérage, opérations de chargement, simulation à événements discrets (SED), taux de production
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75482 (URN)10.15834/cimj.2019.12 (DOI)
Projects
Sustainable Intelligent Mining Systems (SIMS)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Yi, C., Johansson, D. & Greberg, J. (2018). Effects of in-situ stresses on the fracturing of rock by blasting. Computers and geotechnics, 104, 321-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of in-situ stresses on the fracturing of rock by blasting
2018 (English)In: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 104, p. 321-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blasting is widely applied in deep rock excavation. The effect of in-situ stresses on the fracturing of rock due to blasting was investigated. A theoretical model was used to explain the effect mechanism of in-situ stresses on crack propagation due to blasting. Four cases with different in-situ stress conditions were numerically investigated. The numerical results indicate that the crack propagation is governed by the blast load in the vicinity of the blasthole while the high in-situ stresses can influence the crack propagation in the far-field. The crack propagation trends towards the direction in which the high initial pressure is applied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Blasting, In-situ stresses, Crack propagation
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering; Centre - Swedish Blasting Research Centre (SWEBREC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67060 (URN)10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.12.004 (DOI)000449125200029 ()2-s2.0-85038407140 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A., Svanberg, J. & Gustafson, A. (2018). The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine. The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(4), 409-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine
2018 (English)In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orepass failure is a well-known problem in deep mines, and the risk of losing an orepass is associated with severe production disturbances. In the near future, one possible scenario in the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) Malmberget mine is to concentrate the mining operation in fewer, but larger, production areas. In this paper we evaluate the effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates using discrete event simulation, by simulating part of the Malmberget mine loading and hauling system under different environmental and operational constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Johannesburg: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
LHDs, orepass loss, production simulation, underground iron ore mining
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68482 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n12a14 (DOI)000432973700011 ()2-s2.0-85048012580 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Astrand, M., Johansson, M. & Greberg, J. (2018). Underground mine scheduling modelled as a flow shop: a review of relevant work and future challenges. Journal of the southern African institute of mining and metallurgy, 118(12), 1265-1276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Underground mine scheduling modelled as a flow shop: a review of relevant work and future challenges
2018 (English)In: Journal of the southern African institute of mining and metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, Vol. 118, no 12, p. 1265-1276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Advanced planning and automation are increasingly important in modern mines. Sophisticated methods for long-term mine planning are often used, and the advent of autonomous machines makes the actual operation more predictable. However, the interface between these two timescales, i.e. the scheduling of the mobile production fleet, often limits the ability to operate mines at maximum profitability. We show how scheduling the production fleet in an underground mine can be modelled as a flow shop. A flow shop is a general abstract process formulation that captures the key properties of a scheduling problem without going into specific details. Thus, the flow shop enables mine scheduling to reap the benefits of scheduling research from other industries. We review recent results from the mining community and the flow shop community, and introduce scheduling methods used in these two fields. This work aims at providing value to researchers from the mining community who want to leverage their skill set, as well as to theoretical researchers by presenting the mining process as a potential application area. Lastly, we discuss the results, and outline some future challenges and opportunities facing the industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Marshalltown, Soth Africa: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
underground mining, scheduling, flow shop, optimization
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72735 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n12a5 (DOI)000453404400005 ()2-s2.0-85062236013 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-30 (inah)

Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Nehring, M. & Greberg, J. (2017). Financial analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining, using simulation and mixed integer programming. The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 117(4), 365-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Financial analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining, using simulation and mixed integer programming
2017 (English)In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper challenges the traditional notion that mine planners need to plan production so as to incur the lowest mining cost. For a given mine configuration, a mine that increases its mining rate will incur increased mining costs. In an environment in which operations are fixated on cost reduction, a proposal that increases costs will not be readily accepted. Such a proposal requires financial justification-the increase in costs might be recuperated by the additional production. This paper evaluates the net present value (NPV) across a range of copper prices for two underground orebodies located at different depths, using a production rate of 300 kt per quarter and a scenario that introduces additional equipment and costs for 450 kt per quarter. The evaluation was based on the changes of NPV for the orebody located at a shallow depth compared with the orebody at a greater depth. Discrete event simulation combined with mixed integer programming was used for analysis. Unlike traditional sensitivity analysis, this study re-optimizes the mine plan for each commodity price at each production rate. The results show that, for the low mining rate at the final copper price, an NPV of A$ 1530.64 million is achieved, whereas an NPV of A$ 1537.59 million is achieved at a higher mining rate. Even though pushing mining rates beyond traditional limits may increase mining costs, this option may be beneficial at certain commodity prices, particularly when prices are elevated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Southern African Institute of Mining, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65151 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n4a8 (DOI)000406200400008 ()2-s2.0-85039842011 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-08-17 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Greberg, J., Salama, A., Gustafson, A. & Skawina, B. (2016). Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation (ed.). Minerals, 6(3), Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation
2016 (English)In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the near surface deposits are being mined out, underground mines will increasingly operate at greater depths. This will increase the challenges related to transporting materials from deeper levels to the surface. For many years, the ore and waste transportation from most deep underground mines has depended on some or all of the following: truck haulage, conveyor belts, shafts, rails, and ore pass systems. In sub-level caving, and where ore passes are used, trains operating on the main lower level transport the ore from ore passes to a crusher, for subsequent hoisting to the surface through the shaft system. In many mines, the use of the ore pass system has led to several problems related to the ore pass availability, causing production disturbances and incurred cost and time for ore pass rehabilitation. These production disturbances have an impact on the mining activities since they increase the operational costs, and lower the mine throughput. A continued dependency on rock mass transportation using ore passes will generate high capital costs for various supporting structures such as rail tracks, shaft extensions, and crushers for every new main level. This study was conducted at an existing underground mine and analyzed the transport of ore from loading areas at the lower levels up to the existing shaft points using trucks without employing ore passes. The results show that, when the costs of extending ore passes to lower levels become too great or ore passes cannot be used for production, haul trucks can be a feasible alternative method for transport of ore and waste up the ramp to the existing crusher located at the previous main level. The use of trucks will avoid installing infrastructure at the next main level and extending the ore passes to lower levels, hence reducing costs.

Keywords
rock mass transportation, sub-level caving, discrete event simulation, ore pass, trucks, haulage system, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13724 (URN)10.3390/min6030065 (DOI)000385481400009 ()2-s2.0-84977104005 (Scopus ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Local ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Archive number)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Gustafson, A., Sundqvist, F., Sjödin, E. & Greberg, J. (2016). Conceptual models for mining at greater depths: Automated bolt rigs and scaling rigs (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual models for mining at greater depths: Automated bolt rigs and scaling rigs
2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the challenges that underground mines face today is the deepening of the mines. This, together with lower grades of the deposits, makes the mines strive for higher productivity and lower costs. By introducing autonomous vehicles, the operators will be removed from the face, and thus safety for operators will be improved. Since autonomous vehicles are scheduled to operate during breaks, there is a potential for a productivity increase. The goal with this study was to determine if and to which degree autonomous bolt rigs and scaling rigs can improve the productivity in a deep underground mine.The research is based on data collected during 2013 from New Boliden AB’s Kristineberg mine in Sweden. A simulation tool, SimMine, was used for analyzing the effects of operational changes and for simulation of parameters that are difficult to estimate, such as traffic congestions. A number of scenarios were simulated and compared to the base case with focus on productivity.It can be concluded that the simulation scenarios using faster, manually operated vehicles shows a productivity increase, and that the automated vehicles further improved the productivity increase. The largest productivity increase comes however from faster vehicles, and not from the automation itself.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23439 (URN)6f9c857a-472c-405b-8fb2-fc9c3891a761 (Local ID)978-91-7583-519-8 (ISBN)6f9c857a-472c-405b-8fb2-fc9c3891a761 (Archive number)6f9c857a-472c-405b-8fb2-fc9c3891a761 (OAI)
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160129 (anngus)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-16
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Salama, A. & Novikov, E. (2016). Evaluation of near to face sorting plant in an underground mine: A case study from Kristineberg mine (ed.). In: (Ed.), 2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World, Phoenix, United States, 21 - 24 February 2016. Paper presented at SME Annual Conference & Expo : 21/02/2016 - 24/02/2016 (pp. 379-383). New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of near to face sorting plant in an underground mine: A case study from Kristineberg mine
2016 (English)In: 2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World, Phoenix, United States, 21 - 24 February 2016, New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration, 2016, p. 379-383Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mining of ore bodies that are located at great depths enforces long distances to move the excavated rock masses to the surface. The excavated rock mass contains not only ore that can be economically extracted from the face but also waste, which is usually discarded several steps further downstream in the process. As a result large amount of rock masses are transported to the surface, influencing the costs at which the ore is produced. Reducing the amount of waste being transported to the surface by introducing near to face sorting plant would improve the in many cases strained transport system in the deep mine. In this study, one of Boliden’s cut and fill mines was analysed with respect to the challenges related to mass movement and increasing mining depth. The study aims to evaluate the use of the new near to face sorting system in the operating underground mine. Discrete event simulation was used to study and analyse the mass movement with and without the near to face sorting plant. The paper shows how the underground mass movement system and the production were influenced when a near to face sorting equipment was added into the current system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration, 2016
Keywords
Deep underground mining, Cut and fill mining, Transportation system, Near to face sorting, Discrete Event Simulation, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28116 (URN)2-s2.0-84988353587 (Scopus ID)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (Local ID)9781510825659 (ISBN)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (Archive number)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (OAI)
Conference
SME Annual Conference & Expo : 21/02/2016 - 24/02/2016
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20151013 (barska)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Jonsson, K. & Salama, A. (2016). Ore pass loss mitigation approach in Malmberget mine (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016). Paper presented at Conference & Exibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016 (pp. 617-622). Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ore pass loss mitigation approach in Malmberget mine
2016 (English)In: Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016), Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2016, p. 617-622Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today’s underground mass mining the ore pass is an important part of the infrastructure, since it connects two or more of the mine levels and used for conveying or storing large amounts of material. One of the main risks related to an ore pass is when operational or structural failure occurs thus leading to long-term loss of functionality. Developing or rehabilitating an ore pass when major failure has occurred is a time-consuming and expensive operation, and the risk of a long-term ore pass loss motivates the development of alternative transportation strategies in order to ensure the continuation of smooth operations in large underground systems. The study presented in this paper has been done at the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) Malmberget mine in Sweden, where the iron ore deposits are being extracted using sublevel caving. The study analyses the transportation system in one of the mine’s ore bodies using discrete event simulation (DES) with a focus on maintaining ore transportation in the event of the loss of an ore pass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2016
Keywords
Underground mining, Transportation system, Discrete Event Simulation, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32525 (URN)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (Local ID)9781925100433 (ISBN)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (Archive number)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (OAI)
Conference
Conference & Exibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note
Godkänd; 2016; 20151013 (barska)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Greberg, J. & Sundqvist, F. (2016). Project: Optimized Medium Range Mine Operation Scheduling. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Optimized Medium Range Mine Operation Scheduling
2016 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Scheduling of mine operations is complicated by the large variations of input parameters, which in,addition is constantly changing, leading to a tedious task which demands managing of severalhundred of activities per week. Scheduling and planning tools exist for single processes alone, but notool has been constructed to coordinate all processes and including real-time information. Such asolution would have a large implication for in-mine resource and production optimization throughtimely management of real-time delays mitigating the risk of unplanned stops in production throughearly rescheduling, yielding lower operation costs due to better utilisation of resources.The need for a more flexible solution for medium range scheduling has been sought after from themining industry for long, although the technology for receiving real-time information and handlingthereof has not previously existed. However, today, many mines have installed mine-wide Wi-Finetworks, for the first time enabling real-time 3D visualisation and communication with all in-mineprocesses and personnel. This project aims to build and demonstrate a working prototype of a tool,designed to coordinate real-time information and actions of mining processes, to optimize thescheduling of resources used in mining.It is estimated that optimized scheduling would increase safety for humans involved in theoperations through decreased traffic in heavily used areas. Also, it would decrease energyconsumption (for e.g. trucks and ventilation) and related emissions per produced ton, as well asdecrease the man-hours per ton through optimal use of resources.

Keywords
Mining, Production scheduling, Simulation
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36281 (URN)d9320f06-7e1e-4c69-a7c1-f9446944e972 (Local ID)d9320f06-7e1e-4c69-a7c1-f9446944e972 (Archive number)d9320f06-7e1e-4c69-a7c1-f9446944e972 (OAI)
Note

Status: Ongoing; Period: 11/11/2015 → 15/09/2017; Project-ID: RFSR-CT-2006-00031

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2306-9241

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