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Ali, A. A., Al-Ansari, N., Al-Suhail, Q. & Knutsson, S. (2017). Spatial Measurement of Bed Load Transport in Tigris River. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 7(4), 55-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial Measurement of Bed Load Transport in Tigris River
2017 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 55-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using Helley-Smith sampler, 288 bed load samples were collected from 16 cross sections along 18 km reach length of Tigris River within Baghdad. The spatial distribution of sampling along the reach took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river. The implemented regulation schemes on Tigris River have reduced 44% of water discharges compared to previous period. The spatial variance in topography was effectively scattering the results of the applied twenty bed load formulas. The study results indicated that the complicated geometry of the river reach makes finding a unique representative bed load formula along the study reach rather difficult, and there is no grantee to have good agreement with measurements in the irregular cross sections (meanders, sand bars, etc.). The closest bed load prediction formulas were van Rijn1984. The annual transported quantities of bed load were estimated to be 30 thousand tons (minimum) in 2009 and 50 thousand tons (maximum) in 2013.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Scienpress Ltd, 2017
Keywords
Bed load sampling, spatial bed load, Helley-Smith sampler, meandering river, sand bed, prediction formula, Tigris River.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65753 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 1;2017-10-03 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Ali, A., Al-Ansari, N., Al-Suhail, Q. & Knutsson, S. (2017). Three-Dimensional Morphodynamic Modelling of TigrisRiver in Baghdad. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 11(6), 571-594
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-Dimensional Morphodynamic Modelling of TigrisRiver in Baghdad
2017 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 571-594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180cross sections. A river bed topography map was constructed from these cross sections. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at 16 cross sections, where intensive number of sediment samples was collected to determine riverbed characteristics and sediment transport rate. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (SSIIM (simulation of sediment movements in water intakes with multiblock option)) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the river reach. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed the Tigris River which behaved like an under-fit river, increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity, and the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million ton annually. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of thepotential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
David Publishing Company, 2017
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65660 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2017.06.005 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 1;2017-10-03 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-09-15 Created: 2017-09-15 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Hassan, R., Al-Ansari, N., Ali, S. S., Ali, A. A., Abdullah, T. & Knutsson, S. (2016). Dukan Dam Reservoir Bed Sediment, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Engineering, 8(9), 582-596
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dukan Dam Reservoir Bed Sediment, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 582-596Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Dukan Dam Reservoir (DDR) in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been studiedto determine the characteristics and nature of the reservoir and the deposited sedimentson its bottom surface. This study was achieved by doing a field survey andgrain size analyses of the collected sediment samples at 32 locations representing thewhole reservoir area that had been created when the Lesser Zab River was dammedin 1959. The Dukan Dam, which is a multi-purpose concrete arch dam, was built onthe Lesser Zab River for controlling its flood during high rainfall seasons, irrigationand power generation. The catchment area is 11,690 km2. The surface area of the reservoiris 270 square kilometers and the volume is 6.870 × 106 m3 at normal operationlevel (El. 511.00 m. a.s.l.). The minimum drawdown level is at elevation 469 mabove sea level (a.s.l.). The live storage is 6.14 × 106 m3 while the remainder is deadstorage. The reservoir has a surface area that reaches 270 square kilometers and iscomposed of two sub-reservoirs connected by a narrow channel that has a length of 5kilometers. The relatively bigger reservoir is located in the north and has a triangularshape with a surface area approximately 250 square kilometers. The smaller sub-reservoiris located down south where the dam exists and it has irregular rectangularshape. Thirty-two sediment samples were collected from the bottom of Dukan reservoir.The bed of the reservoir is mainly composed of 15% gravel, 14% sand, 48%silt and 23% clay respectively. Most of the sediments are very fine grained, verypoorly sorted, strongly coarse skewed and mesokurtic.

Keywords
Sediment, Dukan Reservoir, Iraq
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36834 (URN)10.4236/eng.2016.89054 (DOI)
Projects
1843127
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-10-05 (marisr)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Ali, A. (2016). Three Dimensional Hydro-Morphological Modeling of Tigris River (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three Dimensional Hydro-Morphological Modeling of Tigris River
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The River Tigris is a major river in Iraq. It divides Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. The climate change within the region and the construction of hydraulic structures upstream of Baghdad has reduced the water discharge of the river by 44%. Despite the fact that huge volumes of sediment have been trapped in the constructed headwater reservoirs, substantial changes have occurred in the topography of the Tigris River within Baghdad City and the number of depositions is increasing. The debris of the destroyed bridges from the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have contributed to the development of these depositions. As a consequence, the ability of the river to carry the peak flood waters has been reduced. This has led to a potential increase of flooding in parts of the city. To predict the maximum flood capacity for the river, the bathymetric survey that was conducted for 50 km of the Tigris River by the Ministry of Water Resources in 2008 has been used with the one-dimensional flow model “HEC-RAS”. Calibration of the model was carried out using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km of the reach, and the water level observations at the Sarai Baghdad gauging station for the last 10 years were used to validate the model. The model showed a significant reduction in the river’s capacity compared with what the river had carried during the floods of 1971 and 1988. This result agrees with previous surveys conducted on the same reach indicating that the ability of the river to convey high water has decreased. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of the Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, as well as cleaning water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan currently in progress and two additional proposed plans was conducted using the ‘HEC-RAS’ model for the 50 km long river reach to investigate whether the designed flooding capacity of the river can be recovered and how much it can be improved. Comparing the historical records of water level and discharge for the last three decades, some improvement of flood capacity was achieved. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their functionalities with the expected drop in water levels due to dredging operations. Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180 cross sections. A riverbed topography map was established from these cross sections. Sediment transport rates and bed composition were investigated by collecting three different types of sediment samples at the quartiles of 16 cross sections along this reach. The Helley-Smith sampler was used to collect 288 bedload samples, a suction pump was used to collect 212 suspended load samples from different depths. The Van Veen grab was used to collect 46 bed material samples. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP at the sampling sections. Bed sediment compositions were investigated by analysing the collected bed material samples. It was noticed that fine sand dominated the riverbed (90.74%). The average median size within the reach was 2.49 phi (0.177mm) whilst the mean size was 2.58 phi (0.16mm). In addition, the sediments were moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic. The size of the bed sediment relatively decreased compared to older investigations due to the decrease of the competence of the river. The bed elevation had increased compared to previous surveys. It was noticed that dredging operations and obstacles (e.g. fallen bridges and islands) disturbed the flow of the river and the sediment characteristics in several sites. Bedload rates were computed using the weights of the collected bedload samples. The spatial distribution of sampling cross sections took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river reach. Twenty bedload predictors were applied to the same reach. The annual transported quantities of the bedload were estimated to be 36 and 50 thousand tons in 2009 and 2013 respectively. The total load discharge rate in the northern reach of the Tigris River was computed using the sediment concentrations of the collected suspended load samples after adding the bedload rate at each of the sampling cross sections. The results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode in the total load with a minimum percentage of 93.5%. The total load ranged from 29.1 to 190.3 kg/s. A total load rating curve of the power function was established. The associated errors from using the proposed rating curve are within reassuring levels and less than the errors produced from most of the other twenty-two total load formulas, which were applied to the same reach. The scattering of the results from the other formulas can be attributed to the spatial variance in the topography of the riverbed. According to the final results obtained, it is recommended to use the proposed procedure for establishing a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment rates for morphologically complicated rivers. The annual transported quantities of the total load were estimated at 2.47 and 4.23 million tons for 2009 and 2013 respectively. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (Simulation of Sediment movements In water Intakes with Multiblock option - SSIIM) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the northern reach of the Tigris River using the findings of the current bathymetric survey of the river. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms, those available in the model. The set of parameters that gave a minimum root mean square error (RMSE) was used for the validation process using another set of field measurements. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity and, on the other hand, the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million tons annually. The locations of depositions are compatible with those of the river in the real world. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of the potential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.Keywords: Flood capacity, Dredging, HEC-RAS, Bathymetric survey, Bed sediment, Bedload, Total load, Helley-Smith sampler, Sediment transport, ADCP, Prediction formulas, 3-D morphodynamic model, Bed changes, SSIIM, underfit river, regulated river, Tigris River, Baghdad.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17461 (URN)37c9c303-a345-4514-b9b5-1399ffdbb5de (Local ID)978-91-7583-567-9 (ISBN)978-91-7583-568-6 (ISBN)37c9c303-a345-4514-b9b5-1399ffdbb5de (Archive number)37c9c303-a345-4514-b9b5-1399ffdbb5de (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20160324 (ammali); Nedanstående person kommer att disputera för avläggande av teknologie doktorsexamen. Namn: Ammar Adel Ali Ämne: Vattenteknik /Water Resources Avhandling: Three Dimensional Hydro-Morphological Modeling of Tigris River Opponent: Professor Robert William Duck, Dean of School of the Environment and Acting Head of the College of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. Ordförande: Professor Sven Knutsson, Avd för geoteknologi, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå. Tid: Onsdag 4 maj 2016, kl 10.00 Plats: F1031, Luleå tekniska universitet

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Al-Ansari, N., Ali, A., Al-Suhail, Q. & Knutsson, S. (2015). Flow of River Tigris and its Effect on the Bed Sediment within Baghdad, Iraq Open Engineering (ed.). Paper presented at . Open Engineering (Formerly Central European J. of Engineering), 5, 465-477
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow of River Tigris and its Effect on the Bed Sediment within Baghdad, Iraq Open Engineering
2015 (English)In: Open Engineering (Formerly Central European J. of Engineering), ISSN 2391-5439, Vol. 5, p. 465-477Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

River Tigris is a major river in Iraq. Sediment at the bed of the river within a reach of about 18 km starting at the center of Baghdad upstream was investigated. Sixty five cross sections were surveyed and 46 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. It was noticed that fine sand was dominating the bed (90.74%). The average median size within the reach was 2.49 phi (0.177mm) while the mean size was 2.58 phi (0.16mm). In addition the sediments were moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic. The size of the bed sediment relatively decreased compared to older investigations due to the construction of Adhaim dam on tributary which used to be the main sediment supplier to the Tigris River before entering Baghdad. Furthermore, the discharge of the Tigris River for the period 1983-2013 (715m3/s) had decreased by about 40% and 30% since 1983 compared with the period 1931-1956 (1208 m3/s) and 1956-1980 (1015 m3/s ) respectively. This had decreased the capacity and competence of the river. The bed elevation had increased compared to previous surveys. It was noticed that dredging operations and obstacles (e.g. fallen bridges and islands) disturbed the flow of the river and sediment characteristics in several sites.

National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10034 (URN)10.1515/eng-2015-0054 (DOI)2-s2.0-84951949935 (Scopus ID)8ca82155-c60a-437a-90c7-40fa8be9b843 (Local ID)8ca82155-c60a-437a-90c7-40fa8be9b843 (Archive number)8ca82155-c60a-437a-90c7-40fa8be9b843 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20151009 (nadhir)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Al-Ansari, N., Ali, A. & Knutsson, S. (2015). Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses (ed.). Paper presented at International Conference on Civil and Construction Engineering : 26/01/2015 - 27/01/2015. Paper presented at International Conference on Civil and Construction Engineering : 26/01/2015 - 27/01/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Iraq is located in the Middle East. It covers an areaof 433,970 square kilometres populated by about 32 millioninhabitants. Iraq greatly relies in its water resources on the Tigrisand Euphrates Rivers. Recently, Iraq is suffering from watershortage problems. This is due to external and internal factors. Theformer includes global warming and water resources policies ofneighbouring countries while the latter includes mismanagement ofits water resources.The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 BillionCubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be17.61 and 77 BCM respectively. In addition, future predictionsuggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in2040.To overcome this problem, prudent water management policiesare to be adopted. This includes Strategic Water ManagementVision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of waterlosses, use of non-conventional water resources and research anddevelopment planning.

National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39590 (URN)e696df04-e826-4385-8a5b-aa0c0ef06eb7 (Local ID)e696df04-e826-4385-8a5b-aa0c0ef06eb7 (Archive number)e696df04-e826-4385-8a5b-aa0c0ef06eb7 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Civil and Construction Engineering : 26/01/2015 - 27/01/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20140815 (nadhir)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Ali, A., Al-Suhail, Q., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2014). Evaluation of dredging operations for Tigris river within Baghdad, Iraq (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6(4), 202-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of dredging operations for Tigris river within Baghdad, Iraq
2014 (English)In: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans were performed using HEC-RAS program for a 50km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

Abstract [en]

River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans was performed using the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS) for a 50 km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14226 (URN)10.4236/jwarp.2014.64026 (DOI)d941bf38-26ad-4413-905f-4c200ba73426 (Local ID)d941bf38-26ad-4413-905f-4c200ba73426 (Archive number)d941bf38-26ad-4413-905f-4c200ba73426 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140212 (nadhir)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Al-Ansari, N., Ali, A. & Knutsson, S. (2014). Present conditions and future challenges of water resources problems in Iraq (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6(12), 1066-1098
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Present conditions and future challenges of water resources problems in Iraq
2014 (English)In: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 1066-1098Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iraq is part of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region). It greatly relies in its water re-sources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Iraq was considered rich in its water resources till 1970s. After that problems due to water scarcity aroused. Recently, it is expected that water shortage problems will be more serious. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77BCM respec-tively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040.To overcome this problem, prudent water management plan is to be adopted. It should include Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4708 (URN)10.4236/jwarp.2014.612102 (DOI)2b0ddd49-ee05-4c4f-9966-b02d3983e6d4 (Local ID)2b0ddd49-ee05-4c4f-9966-b02d3983e6d4 (Archive number)2b0ddd49-ee05-4c4f-9966-b02d3983e6d4 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140723 (nadhir)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Ali, A. A. (2013). Morphology of Tigris River inside Baghdad City (ed.). (Licentiate dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphology of Tigris River inside Baghdad City
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tigris and Euphrates rivers represent the artery of life in Iraq. Tigris River rises from Turkey and flows toward the southeast to enter Iraq. It drains a catchment area of 473 100 km² of which about 58% lies in Iraq. In this study the reach, about 50 km long, of the river inside Baghdad was been studied. It starts at Al-Muthana Bridge and ends at Tigris-Diyala River confluence. Generally, the river reach is part of an alluvial plain, single channel and meandering. The bed material of the river is composed mainly of fine sand and small portion of silt and clay. Other significant features of the reach are the growing islands and bank depositions. Recently water resources of Iraq are negatively affected by climatic changes and the huge water projects in the riparian countries. As a result, the flow of Tigris River at Baghdad city has significantly decreased where the average monthly flow is 520 m³/s for the period 2000-2012 which represents about 50% reduction compared to previous periods. The estimated trend for the average monthly discharges is a reduction of 5.4 % during the last 23 years. Low flow and low water levels have enhanced the water to erode the banks below its protected part. This might affect the future stability of the banks. The drop of the river discharge together with debris from the last wars in 1991 and 2003 enhanced the growing of islands in the river. In this research, changes in the morphology of Tigris River within Baghdad are to be investigated and the causes will be highlighted in order to take the right measures to restore the river system. This is a first step toward studying the hydrological characteristics of the reach. One-dimensional gradually varied flow model, using HEC-RAS, was applied to examine the flood capacity and the possibilities of inundation of the banks. The geometry of the river was represented by the findings from the river survey of 2008. Additional data about the locations and dimensions of the bridges were supplied to the model. The average monthly discharge at Sarai Baghdad for the years 2000-2012 was assumed as the base flow. A range of different scenarios were examined by increasing the discharges in order to determine the critical discharge that may cause inundation. Model calibration was achieved by adjusting the Manning’s roughness coefficient for an observed water surface profile along the lowest part of the reach. The associated error with the computed water surface profiles was in order 0.026m. Additional water level observations at Sarai Baghdad were used for verification purposes. It was found that the discharges higher than 2700 m3/s could cause partial inundation in some areas in the northern part of the reach and these areas extend to approximately 9 km for discharges greater than 3500 m3/s. The southern part of the reach is still safe from inundation for discharges below 3500 m3/s. The slope of water surface profile varies from 6.03 to 10 cm/km for discharges between 400 and 4000 m3/s respectively. In this study, a field survey was conducted between May, 2012 and January, 2013. It involved the installation of 25 bench marks, surveying the upper river banks (from the crest of the stony protection to the water surface) and 250 cross sections. Three kinds of samples were collected at this stage work: (i) river bed material, (ii) suspended load samples and (iii) bed loads samples. Hydraulic measurements were conducted and included water surface elevations, water depths at sampling points, water discharges and transversal velocities. Water temperature and other environmental measurements were also conducted. Particle size distribution, specific gravity and concentration of suspended sediment were executed in the laboratory for the collected samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013. p. 116
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-25995 (URN)c0e9bffe-9889-4f2d-8485-01beadc53ff0 (Local ID)978-91-7439-664-5 (ISBN)978-91-7439-665-2 (ISBN)c0e9bffe-9889-4f2d-8485-01beadc53ff0 (Archive number)c0e9bffe-9889-4f2d-8485-01beadc53ff0 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130514 (ammali); Tillkännagivande licentiatseminarium 2013-05-22 Nedanstående person kommer att hålla licentiatseminarium för avläggande av teknologie licentiatexamen. Namn: Ammar Adel Ali Ämne: Geoteknik/Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Uppsats: Morphology of Tigris River inside Baghdad City Examinator: Professor Sven Knutsson, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: Dr. PhD Govand H. M. Sherwani, G. D. of Scholarships, Ministry of Higher Education – KRG, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq Tid: Tisdag den 18 juni 2013 kl 10.00 Plats: F1031, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Ali, A., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2012). Impact of Growing Islands on the Flood Capacity of Tigris River in Baghdad City (ed.). Paper presented at International Conference on Scour and Erosion : 27/08/2012 - 31/08/2012. Paper presented at International Conference on Scour and Erosion : 27/08/2012 - 31/08/2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Growing Islands on the Flood Capacity of Tigris River in Baghdad City
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Growing islands became noticeable phenomena in the channel of River Tigris within Baghdad City during recent years.Despite the fact that large amount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs on the River Tigris and its tributaries thenumber of islands are increasing with time. This is due to the debris of destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003.As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass ood waves. This fact caused ooding parts of majorcities like Baghdad. Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in dierent occasions (1976, 1991 and 2008). In1977 the survey was conducted by Geohydraulique and in 1991 by University of Technology - Baghdad (extended forthe previous study). The last survey was conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources extending 48 kilometersfrom Al-Muthana Bridge till the conuence with Diyala River at intervals having horizontal spacing of 250m. The datawas used to predict the maximum ood capacity for the river using HEC-RAS through performed a one- dimensionalhydraulic model for the ow. The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past ten years.This value was introduced in the model. Then dierent scenarios were applied by increasing the discharge in orderto nd out the critical discharge that can cause inundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had beeninundated and the water level was recorded. The primary runs for the model showed a signicant reduction in thecurrent river capacity in comparison with what the river had used to hold during oods of 1971 and 1988. The threesurveys that had been conducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the river to passwater had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of the river cross sections were very clear.

Keywords
Tigris River, Baghdad, Islands, Flood capacity, Civil engineering and architecture - Water engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Vattenteknik
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40373 (URN)f75f8f85-b3f9-4cbe-a13c-c428648e1fdc (Local ID)f75f8f85-b3f9-4cbe-a13c-c428648e1fdc (Archive number)f75f8f85-b3f9-4cbe-a13c-c428648e1fdc (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Scour and Erosion : 27/08/2012 - 31/08/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120412 (nadhir)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5670-7254

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