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Bhattacharjee, S., Lidelöw, S. & Schade, J. (2018). Performance evaluation of a passive house in sub-arctic climate. In: 9th International Cold Climate Conference, Kiruna, Sweden. March 12-15, 2018: Sustainable New and Renovated Buildings in Cold Climate. Paper presented at 9th International Cold Climate Conference, Kiruna, Sweden. March 12-15, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance evaluation of a passive house in sub-arctic climate
2018 (English)In: 9th International Cold Climate Conference, Kiruna, Sweden. March 12-15, 2018: Sustainable New and Renovated Buildings in Cold Climate, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the operational energy use in buildings contributes highly to the total energy used and greenhouse gases emitted in the cold climate regions of Europe, buildings which are more energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive during operation are key to meet sustainability objectives in these regions. Yet, research shows that the practice of passive or low-energy buildings in the sub-arctic climate of northern Sweden is comparatively less than in the southern region. Moreover, previous studies did not explicitly examine the performance of low energy buildings in sub-arctic climate in relation to established building energy efficiency standards. Consequently, knowledge regarding the energy performance of low-energy buildings in such climate is limited. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the performance, in terms of indoor temperature and energy use for heating, domestic hot water and electricity of a new-built passive house titled “Sjunde Huset” in the sub-arctic town of Kiruna. It is Sweden’s northernmost house designed to fulfil the Swedish passive-house criteria of a maximum heat loss factor of 17 W/m2 and a maximum annual energy use of 63 kWh/m2. The implemented passive design strategies include a highly insulated, compact and airtight building envelope with a vestibule, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and renewable energy production through photovoltaic solar cells. The house is connected to district heating and is equipped with energy-efficient appliances to allow low occupant energy use. Ongoing performance evaluation is based on building simulation and measurements of energy and temperature in different zones of the building. Energy performance deviations between occupied and non-occupied zones are explored through internal heat gain evaluations. The indoor temperature is also evaluated to assess the temperature variations throughout the year. The ongoing research further evaluate a comparative simulated and measured energy analysis of heating, hot water and electricity based on both the international passive house standard and the Swedish passive house criteria “Feby 12”.

Keywords
Passive house, sub-arctic climate, performance evaluation, energy efficiency, indoor temperature
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70222 (URN)
Conference
9th International Cold Climate Conference, Kiruna, Sweden. March 12-15, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Shadram, F., Mukkavaara, J., Schade, J. & Sandberg, M. (2018). Trade-off optimization of embodied versus operational carbon impact for insulation and window to wall ratio design choices: A case study. In: : . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings, SEB 2018; Gold Coast; Australia; 24-26 June 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trade-off optimization of embodied versus operational carbon impact for insulation and window to wall ratio design choices: A case study
2018 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72857 (URN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings, SEB 2018; Gold Coast; Australia; 24-26 June 2018
Available from: 2019-02-12 Created: 2019-02-12 Last updated: 2019-02-12
Shadram, F., Johansson, T., Lu, W., Schade, J. & Olofsson, T. (2016). An integrated BIM-based framework for minimizing embodied energy during building design (ed.). Energy and Buildings, 128, 592-604
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated BIM-based framework for minimizing embodied energy during building design
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2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 128, p. 592-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessment of the embodied energy associated with the production and transportation of materials during the design phase of building provides great potential to profoundly affect the building’s energy use and sustainability performance. While Building Information Modeling (BIM) gives opportunities to incorporate sustainability performance indicators in the building design process, it lacks interoperability with the conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools used to analyse the environmental footprints of materials in building design. Additionally, many LCA tools use databases based on industry-average values and thus cannot account for differences in the embodied impacts of specific materials from individual suppliers. To address these issues, this paper presents a framework that supports design decisions and enables assessment of the embodied energy associated with building materials supply chain based on suppliers’ Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The framework also integrates Extract Transform Load (ETL) technology into the BIM to ensure BIM-LCA interoperability, enabling an automated or semi-automated assessment process. The applicability of the framework is tested by developing a prototype and using it in a case study, which shows that a building’s energy use and carbon footprint can be significantly reduced during the design phase by accounting the impact of individual material in the supply chain.

National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14918 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.07.007 (DOI)000382794200050 ()2-s2.0-84978842557 (Scopus ID)e5af1053-d40e-4e8e-aef4-ceecf553ce53 (Local ID)e5af1053-d40e-4e8e-aef4-ceecf553ce53 (Archive number)e5af1053-d40e-4e8e-aef4-ceecf553ce53 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160815 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Schade, J. & Goldkuhl, L. (2016). Sjunde huset i Kiruna. Husbyggaren (4), 29-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sjunde huset i Kiruna
2016 (Swedish)In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, no 4, p. 29-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2016
Keywords
Passivhus, gröna tak, VA-teknik
National Category
Civil Engineering Construction Management Water Engineering
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management; Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62536 (URN)
Projects
Attract
Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Shadram, F., Sandberg, M., Schade, J. & Olofsson, T. (2014). BIM-based environmental assessment in the building design process (ed.). Paper presented at International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality in Construction and Islamic Architecture : 16/11/2014 - 18/11/2014. Paper presented at International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality in Construction and Islamic Architecture : 16/11/2014 - 18/11/2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BIM-based environmental assessment in the building design process
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today, climate change is an issue of great concern. In addition, the building sector is considered to be one of the major energy users causing considerable amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Although, energy-efficient buildings are built today that use low amount of energy during operation, the embedded energy from construction and production of building material can still be relatively high. This paper focuses on the application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) using Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) to assess the environmental impacts from building materials and production to enable the designers to make environmentally friendlier decisions. Toward this approach, we propose a model which is examined in a case study of a roof structure on a commercial building which was constructed by off-site prefabricated roof-elements. As a result, the feasibility of the proposed model is appreciated in the assessment of the carbon footprint and embodied energy of the building materials and components. The proposed model needs to be further developed regarding the specification of the materials and components to make the information exchange between the BIM model and EPD in the environmental assessment of the building design more practicable.

National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28503 (URN)25149f60-4fa9-49c9-b399-71aa4401ec8d (Local ID)25149f60-4fa9-49c9-b399-71aa4401ec8d (Archive number)25149f60-4fa9-49c9-b399-71aa4401ec8d (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality in Construction and Islamic Architecture : 16/11/2014 - 18/11/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140926 (marsan)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Schade, J., Wallström, P., Olofsson, T. & Lagerqvist, O. (2013). A comparative study of the design and construction process of energy efficient buildings in Germany and Sweden (ed.). Paper presented at . Energy Policy, 58, 28-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of the design and construction process of energy efficient buildings in Germany and Sweden
2013 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reducing the energy consumption of buildings is an important goal for the European Union. However, it is therefore of interest to investigate how different member states address these goals. Countries like Sweden and Germany have developed different strategies for energy conservation within the building sector. A longitudinal comparison between implemented energy conservation key policy instruments in Sweden and Germany and a survey regarding the management of energy requirements in the building process shows that:– No evidence is found that energy consumption is of great importance for producing competitive offers, either for Swedish or German clients.– The Swedish market-driven policy has not been as successful as the German regulation policy in decreasing the energy consumption of new buildings.– Building standards and regulations regarding energy performance affects how professionals are educated and the way energy requirements and demands are managed throughout the building process.In conclusion, the client's demand will govern the development of energy efficient buildings. Therefore, in order to use market-driven policies, the desired parameters must be of concern for the customer to influence the majority of building projects to be more energy efficient than is specified in national standards and regulations.

National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13755 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2013.02.014 (DOI)000319177800004 ()2-s2.0-84877116040 (Scopus ID)d0c0b23c-7023-4255-b824-9451a57fd9c5 (Local ID)d0c0b23c-7023-4255-b824-9451a57fd9c5 (Archive number)d0c0b23c-7023-4255-b824-9451a57fd9c5 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130402 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Schade, J. (2013). A design process perspective on the energy performance of buildings (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A design process perspective on the energy performance of buildings
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

From a sustainable development perspective, buildings should be designed to be as energy-efficient as possible, as the contribution of buildings to total energy consumption has steadily increased, reaching between 20% and 40% in the developed countries. One of the main challenges for achieving this goal is to develop more cost-effective systems and processes for energy renovation and modernising of the building stock of Europe. This challenge is addressed in this thesis. The research presented herein has had the overall purpose to identify and explore obstacles in the design process of constructing more energy-efficient buildings. Three research questions have guided the research work: (1) How can life cycle cost be used to predict the cost benefits of energy efficient buildings?; (2) How can the handling of energy performance requirements in the design process for buildings be improved?; (3) How do client requirements, political governance and regulations affect the design of energy performance in buildings? The research is based on literature reviews, interviews and surveys, as well as case and computational studies. A computational study was performed with three different building types situated in Finland using three different energysaving design concepts for each building. Energy consumption and construction costs were analysed for each case and the financial viability was analysed using the discounted payback method. Individual interviews were carried out to determine to what extent life cycle cost calculations are used in the construction sector and how energy performance is taken into account in model-based design processes for buildings. A decision-making framework and an axiomatic design model for a performance-based design process was then developed and the conceptual model was compared with a real case of low energy design in Sweden. Finally, a survey explored energy conservation strategies in the design of buildings in Germany and Sweden and a longitudinal investigation of key policy instrument regarding energy conservation in Germany and Sweden was conducted to support the main findings of the survey. The main results of the research work show that: * There is no evidence that the design of energy performance is considered differently in the design process for buildings in Sweden and Germany, even if regulations and building codes differ between the two countries. However, the somewhat steeper reduction in space heating in Germany compared with Sweden could be due to the stricter regulation in the building codes in Germany over the last decade. * The transparency of the design and the associated decision-making about energy performance can be improved by using the requirement management model developed, which is based on axiomatic principles and the proposed decision-making framework for evaluating, structuring and detailing the requirements from the conceptual to the detailed design stages. * Energy performance design can give cost benefits over a specific time for a building, as measured by the resulting life cycle costs. In general, life cycle cost analysis can be a tool for evaluating cost benefits over time and provide support for the decision-makers, but the challenges and uncertainties of its use have to be taken into account in the decision-making process. To conclude, the "energy gap" between regulations and what is technologically possible can be reduced to a certain extent by facilitating the energy design process with a performance-based design process and decision-making tools that support the evaluation of life cycle performance. However, it seems that regulation is a more important driver for the development of technology for low energy housing than market forces so the regulatory limit should therefore be set with respect to what is possible and not with respect to current practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-25984 (URN)c0580166-2e3c-4d07-854b-e602b51076c9 (Local ID)978-91-7439-549-5 (ISBN)c0580166-2e3c-4d07-854b-e602b51076c9 (Archive number)c0580166-2e3c-4d07-854b-e602b51076c9 (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2013; 20121121 (jutsch); Disputation Ämne: Byggproduktion/Construction Engineering Opponent: Professor Johnny Kronvall, Strusoft AB/Malmö högskola, Malmö Ordförande: Professor Ove Lagerqvist, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå tekniska universitet Tid: Torsdag den 7 februari 2013, kl 10.30 Plats: F1031, Luleå tekniska universitet

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Alanne, K., Schade, J., Martinac, I., Saari, A. J., Jokisalo, J. & Kalamees, T. (2013). Economic viability of energy-efficiency measures in educational buildings in Finland (ed.). Paper presented at . Advances in Building Energy Research, 7(1), 120-127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic viability of energy-efficiency measures in educational buildings in Finland
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2013 (English)In: Advances in Building Energy Research, ISSN 1751-2549, E-ISSN 1756-2201, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The economic viability of novel energy-efficient design concepts has been evaluated in Finnish educational buildings. The total energy consumption of representative target buildings with each design concept has been found using the whole-building simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4.0, and the financial viability has been assessed using the discounted payback period method. Different thermal insulation and air tightness properties of the building envelope, and different ventilation's heat recovery efficiency assumptions and heat distribution options have been investigated. The results suggest that a prudent attitude should be taken toward the investments in ultra-low-energy designs. Total energy-saving potential of 25-32% can be obtained. The payback periods varied from 15 to more than 40 years. The results can be generalized in cold climates and techno-economic conditions similar to Finland

National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9158 (URN)10.1080/17512549.2013.809272 (DOI)2-s2.0-84882650828 (Scopus ID)7b95bb15-8b91-4837-b076-bca17d28198b (Local ID)7b95bb15-8b91-4837-b076-bca17d28198b (Archive number)7b95bb15-8b91-4837-b076-bca17d28198b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130814 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Jansson, G., Schade, J. & Olofsson, T. (2013). Requirements management for the design of energy efficient buildings (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), 18, 321-337
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements management for the design of energy efficient buildings
2013 (English)In: Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), ISSN 1874-4753, E-ISSN 1874-4753, Vol. 18, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Buildings are designed to fulfil the multiple and, often, contradictory requirements of users, clients and society. Energy aspects are often not considered before the detailed design phase and a systematic way of analysing the energy performance of solutions throughout the design phase is lacking. A suggested framework, based on engineering design theories of requirements management, was applied to a case study of the design of an energy-efficient building in a real construction project. The case study provided qualitative insights into how the proposed framework can contribute to a more structured requirements management of a construction project with a focus on the energy-efficient design of buildings. It can be seen that the proposed framework for requirements management of energy performance provides a structure for designers to consider and apply energy performance criteria in the early design stages and visualize the consequences of alternative design solutions for clients, engineers, contractors and suppliers. The use of a requirements structure enables the transparency of different design alternatives against the established functional requirements of energy performance for the stakeholders in the design process. The use of BIM to support the proposed requirements framework needs to be studied further and connected to national and international construction classification schemas and ontology frameworks.

National Category
Building Technologies Construction Management
Research subject
Timber Structures; Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-16034 (URN)f9dd6949-1e02-49a1-96a1-458fe3e26e15 (Local ID)f9dd6949-1e02-49a1-96a1-458fe3e26e15 (Archive number)f9dd6949-1e02-49a1-96a1-458fe3e26e15 (OAI)
Projects
Attract - Attraktiva, hållbara livsmiljöer i kallt klimat
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130930 (gusjan)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Schade, J., Olofsson, T. & Schreyer, M. (2011). Decision-making in a model-based design process (ed.). Paper presented at . Construction Management and Economics, 29(4), 371-382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision-making in a model-based design process
2011 (English)In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 371-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decisions early in the design process have a big impact on the life cycle performance of a building. The outcome of a construction project can be improved if different design options can rapidly be analysed to assist the client and design team in making informed decisions in the design process. A model-based design approach can facilitate the decision-making process if the design alternatives' performances can be evaluated and compared. A decision-making framework using a performance-based design process in the early design phase is proposed. It is developed to support decision-makers to take informed decisions regarding the life cycle performance of a building. A scenario is developed in order to demonstrate the proposed framework of evaluating the different design alternatives' energy performance. The framework is applicable to decision-making in a structured design process, where design alternatives consisting of both objective and subjective evaluation criteria can be evaluated.

Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Building manufacturing engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggproduktionsteknik
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11619 (URN)10.1080/01446193.2011.552510 (DOI)2-s2.0-79958105780 (Scopus ID)aa0f8f21-b8d6-48f1-b948-2175a4515957 (Local ID)aa0f8f21-b8d6-48f1-b948-2175a4515957 (Archive number)aa0f8f21-b8d6-48f1-b948-2175a4515957 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20110607 (jutsch)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2402-1845

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