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Rodríguez Leal, B., Decrozant-Triquenaux, J., Hardell, J. & Pelcastre, L. (2023). Development of a Laboratory-Scale Test Methodology for Performance Evaluation of Lubricants for Hot Stamping of an Aluminium Alloy. Lubricants, 11(9), Article ID 359.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Laboratory-Scale Test Methodology for Performance Evaluation of Lubricants for Hot Stamping of an Aluminium Alloy
2023 (English)In: Lubricants, E-ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In hot stamping of aluminium, the need for efficient methods to evaluate, compare, and rank lubricants based on their tribological performance is critical in the early stages of selection. Pilot and simulative testing can be costly, time-consuming, and complex, making it inefficient for initial benchmarking. This work aims to develop a test methodology to assess lubricant performance for hot stamping under key operating conditions without fully simulating the forming process. The proposed method distinguishes the impact of temperature on lubricant degradation, friction, wear response, and cleanability. The tests utilised a conventional hot work tool steel and a 6010S aluminium alloy with two commercially available lubricants: a polymeric lubricant and a lubricant containing graphite. The tribological tests involved a reciprocating, sliding flat-on-flat configuration at two temperatures (100 °C and 300 °C). The methodology showed that the graphite-containing lubricant exhibited over a four times lower friction coefficient than the polymer-based lubricant at 10 wt.% concentration and 300 °C. At 100 °C, both lubricants provide lubrication and can be cleaned, but increasing temperature led to a significant decline of both aspects. The observed temperature range where the lubricants degrade was between 120 °C and 170 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
Keywords
aluminium hot stamping, lubricant cleanability, lubricants for hot stamping
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101621 (URN)10.3390/lubricants11090359 (DOI)001071745400001 ()2-s2.0-85172462861 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-0262
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-10-11 (joosat);

CC BY 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-10-11 Created: 2023-10-11 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Macêdo, G., Pelcastre, L. & Hardell, J. (2023). High temperature friction and wear of post-machined additively manufactured tool steel during sliding against AlSi-coated boron steel. Wear, 523, Article ID 204753.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High temperature friction and wear of post-machined additively manufactured tool steel during sliding against AlSi-coated boron steel
2023 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 523, article id 204753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials has achieved the production of virtually fully dense parts, extending the range of potential applications. There is a growing interest in the use of AM to produce forming tools for hot stamping. The possibilities of locally tailoring the die material to tackle wear challenges and producing more complex geometries to improve die cooling are key-features driving that interest. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the tribological behavior of AM materials, particularly at high temperature, as well as the influence surface finishing processes after additive manufacturing. The aim of this study is to investigate the high temperature friction and wear behavior of a tool steel, produced by selective laser melting, within the context of hot forming of AlSi-coated boron steel. A high temperature strip drawing tribometer was used to perform sliding tests at 600 °C and 700 °C. Three different surface finishes were used for the AM samples: ground, milled and shot-blasted. A conventionally produced steel with the same chemical composition and a ground surface finish was used as a reference. At 600 °C, a similar stable coefficient of friction of 0.4 was observed for both materials and all surface topographies. At 700 °C, all tests resulted in a sudden increase in friction up to 0.9 due to local rupture of the AlSi-coating, severe material transfer and ploughing. The wear mechanisms observed for the ground surfaces, both AM and reference tool steel, were a combination of adhesive material transfer and abrasive material removal that promotes material pile-up, resulting in wedge formation on the tool steel surface. The characteristic wedge formation was not common in the milled surface. This is attributed to strain-hardening and topographical features from the finishing process. For the shot-blasted AM surface, deformation and flattening of the large asperities was observed, as well as material transfer. Subsurface deformation associated with high adhesion during sliding was observed, mainly for the ground surfaces. The milled surface resulted in the least amount of tool steel transfer onto the counter body, while the shot-blasted one resulted in the largest amount. AM and reference ground tool steel showed very similar friction and wear behavior in this tribosystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Friction and wear mechanisms, Additively manufactured tool steel, Hot stamping tribology, Surface finishing
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96492 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2023.204753 (DOI)2-s2.0-85151463219 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council Formas
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-14 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-04-14 Created: 2023-04-14 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Pelcastre, L., Weniger, L.-M. & Hardell, J. (2023). On the low temperature tribological behaviour of brake block materials for railway applications under dry and icy conditions. Wear, 523, Article ID 204764.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the low temperature tribological behaviour of brake block materials for railway applications under dry and icy conditions
2023 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 523, article id 204764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Incidents in the Swedish railway have been observed where a significant and sudden loss of brake performance occurs in winter conditions, on trains equipped with composite tread brake blocks (CBB). There is a necessity to establish test methods that can be used for the evaluation of brake materials under well-controlled laboratory conditions, to facilitate an understanding of the friction mechanisms between brake block and steel wheel. This work sought to characterise the tribological behaviour of different CBB materials at room temperature and −15 °C, focusing on understanding the materials response with and without presence of ice in the contact, as well as the effect of temperature on the tribological behaviour. A pearlitic cast iron brake block was used as a reference and four CBB materials were investigated, two organic and two sintered. The sintered CBB showed similar friction coefficient to the reference material and higher than the organic CBB, both at room and at low temperature. This was also seen when ice was formed on the wheel steel counter surface at −15 °C. Higher wear was observed for the sintered CBB compared to the organic CBB. The results suggest that sintered CBB can provide higher friction under winter conditions compared to organic CBB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Composite brake materials, Railway tribology, Sub-zero tribology, Tribotesting
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96326 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2023.204764 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150811879 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-30 (joosat);

Funder: Transportstyrelsen

Available from: 2023-04-06 Created: 2023-04-06 Last updated: 2023-06-30Bibliographically approved
Derazkola, H. A., Garcia, E., Murillo-Marrodán, A. & Hardell, J. (2023). The effect of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties and microstructure of super Cr13 martensitic stainless steel. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 24, 3464-3476
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties and microstructure of super Cr13 martensitic stainless steel
2023 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 24, p. 3464-3476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the formability of super Cr13 martensitic stainless steel (MSS) is examined by means of hot tensile tests at different temperatures (900oC-1100oC) and t strain rates (0.01s-1-10s-1). The potential effect of strain rates and temperatures on the mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture surface of super Cr13 MSS were examined. The post-test analysis, which includes hardness measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fracture analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), was carried out. Results show that ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreases with temperature, this way, the highest UTS was obtained at 900oC-10s-1 (187MPa), while the lowest UTS (38MPa) was obtained in the 1100oC-0.01s-1 sample. By contrast the elongation of the material increases with strain rate, since the elongation of the sample at 900oC-10s-1 was near 16% and the elongation of the sample at 1100oC-0.01s-1 was 57%. The XRD and EDS analysis indicated that Cr23C6 and Cr2N are formed inside the microstructure of samples tested between 900oC and 1000oC, and these carbides are dissolved above 1000º C. Temperature affects also retained austenite which increases with temperature. Fractography analysis indicated that the δ-ferrite phase has a primary role in high-temperature rapture. Fracture surface evaluation of samples revealed semi-ductile fracture behaviour below 1000°C and low strain rates, while ductile fracture was detected on the tensile samples at temperatures higher than 1000°C and high strain rates. Furthermore, the ductility of super Cr13 MSS was increased by increasing strain rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Super Cr13, Hot tensile test, Elevated temperature, High strain rate, Microstructure analysis, Fractography
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96493 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.04.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152228610 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 847624
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-07-20 (sofila)

Available from: 2023-04-14 Created: 2023-04-14 Last updated: 2023-07-20Bibliographically approved
Rodiouchkina, M., Lindsjö, H., Berglund, K. & Hardell, J. (2022). Effect of stroke length on friction and wear of self-lubricating polymer composites during dry sliding against stainless steel at high contact pressures. Wear, 502-503, Article ID 204393.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of stroke length on friction and wear of self-lubricating polymer composites during dry sliding against stainless steel at high contact pressures
2022 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 502-503, article id 204393Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increased control of hydropower plants (i.e. shift from water level to primary control) leads to an increased number of load cycles on critical components such as bearings in hydropower turbines. Despite having shorter sliding amplitudes, this may result in a longer accumulated sliding distance that reduce the useful life of the bearings.

In this study, the effect of stroke length on the tribological performance of two self-lubricating polymer composites, commonly used for bearings in hydropower turbines, during dry sliding against stainless steel is investigated. The reciprocating tests are carried out under relevant conditions, i.e. high pressures and long sliding distance, corresponding to years of operation of a hydropower turbine. The worn polymer and stainless-steel surfaces are examined using 3D optical surface profilometer and SEM/EDS to study the wear and friction mechanisms.

The results show an increasing wear rate with increased stroke length for both bearing materials, especially when the stroke length is longer than the length of the polymer pin. The thermoset show the same trend for the frictional behaviour and it is attributed to decrease in coverage by transfer layers and solid lubricants at the sliding interface as well as increase in abrasive wear of the stainless steel. Meanwhile, the highest friction is observed at the shortest stroke length for the thermoplastic and the lowest at the intermediate stroke. Surface analysis reveals higher abrasive wear of the stainless-steel counter surface at the longest stroke length for both bearing materials due to lower wear particle entrapment. It can be concluded that changes in sliding amplitude have a significant influence on the tribological performance of the two polymer composites sliding against stainless steel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Sliding amplitude, Sliding wear, Friction, Self-lubricating, Polymer composites, Long duration, Transfer layers, High contact pressure
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90843 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2022.204393 (DOI)000811449900002 ()2-s2.0-85131136798 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-06-01 (joosat);

Available from: 2022-06-01 Created: 2022-06-01 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Rodiouchkina, M., Berglund, K., Forsberg, F., Rodushkin, I. & Hardell, J. (2022). Influence of Counter Surface Roughness and Lay on the Tribological Behaviour of Self-Lubricating Bearing Materials in Dry Sliding Conditions at High Contact Pressures. Lubricants, 10(8), Article ID 167.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Counter Surface Roughness and Lay on the Tribological Behaviour of Self-Lubricating Bearing Materials in Dry Sliding Conditions at High Contact Pressures
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2022 (English)In: Lubricants, E-ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Kaplan turbines, the most critical components are the self-lubricating polymer composite bearings used to control the guide vanes and the turbine blades. Reducing the sliding wear and friction of these bearings can benefit both the economy and the environment, including longer useful life, lower operational costs, and higher efficiency. In this study, the influence of stainless-steel counter surface roughness and lay on the tribological behaviour of three bearing materials used in hydropower applications were investigated using a linear reciprocating flat-on-flat configuration under high contact pressure and low sliding speed. The surface roughness was measured using white light interferometry. SEM and EDS analysis were used to investigate the worn surfaces. Results from this study show that overly smooth surfaces result in higher friction and wear of the counter surface, while rougher surfaces have a negative effect on the wear of the polymers. Highest surface coverage using protective transfer layers is found on the steel surfaces with the perpendicular lay and is accompanied with a lower coefficient of friction compared to the parallel lay. The dominant wear mechanism of the bearing materials changes from delamination wear to abrasive wear between the lowest and the intermediate roughness for steel surfaces with the parallel lay. It can be concluded that counter surface topography has a significant influence on the tribological behaviour of these bearing materials and that the effect differs between the self-lubricating polymer composites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
surface roughness, surface lay, topography, sliding wear, sliding friction, self-lubricating, solid lubricants, polymer composites, transfer layers, high contact pressure
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Machine Elements; Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92847 (URN)10.3390/lubricants10080167 (DOI)000846611600001 ()2-s2.0-85137329756 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Swedish Hydropower Centre (SVC)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-09-09 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-09-09 Created: 2022-09-09 Last updated: 2022-09-20Bibliographically approved
Macêdo, G., Pelcastre, L. & Hardell, J. (2022). Tribological Behavior of Post-Machined Additively Manufactured Tool Steel in Hot Stamping Conditions. In: Mats Oldenburg, Jens Hardell, Daniel Casellas (Ed.), Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel Proceedings: . Paper presented at Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel - CHS2 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tribological Behavior of Post-Machined Additively Manufactured Tool Steel in Hot Stamping Conditions
2022 (English)In: Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel Proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Jens Hardell, Daniel Casellas, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials is a promising process that offers the possibility of novel design and use of advanced materials in mechanical systems and components. A potential application for this process is the production of dies for hot stamping, where tool wear is a common issue. AM opens up the possibility of modifying the die material locally as well as production of more complex geometries, i.e., conformal cooling channels for improved cooling/quenching. Current literature concerning the use of AM materials in hot forming tools is limited and mainly focuses on the resulting microstructure and their mechanical properties. Thus, there is a need to understand the high temperature tribological behavior of AM steel, especially for hot forming applications. In this context, this work aims to investigate the friction and wear performance of tool steel produced by selective laser melting (SLM) and post heat-treated. For that, a high temperature strip drawing tribometer was used to perform sliding tests of the AM tool samples against AlSi-coated boron steel strips at 600°C and 700°C. The sliding speed was 100 mm/s, the total sliding distance was 600 mm, and contact pressure was 10 MPa. Two different surface conditions were used for the AM tool samples: ground and shot-blasted. In general, similar friction behavior was observed between the two AM surface conditions. Both temperatures resulted in a similar stable coefficient of friction of 0.4, however failure of the AlSi-coating at 700°C caused a sudden increase to 0.9. The wear for the ground AM tool steel was characterized by a wedge formation, described as a combination of adhesive and abrasive wear. The surface damage on shot-blasted AM surfaces was deformation, flattening and material transfer. Large abrasion grooves were observed in the tests where the AlSi-coating failed; their wear mechanisms were related to the wedge formation, but greatly increased by the rupture of the coating.

Keywords
wear mechanisms, hot stamping, tribology, additively manufactured tool steel
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94176 (URN)978-3-95735-150-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel - CHS2 2022
Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2022-11-21 Last updated: 2022-11-21
Torres, H., Caykara, T., Hardell, J., Nurminen, J., Prakash, B. & Ripoll, M. R. (2022). Tribological performance of iron- and nickel-base self-lubricating claddings containing metal sulfides at high temperature. Friction, 10(12), 2069-2085
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tribological performance of iron- and nickel-base self-lubricating claddings containing metal sulfides at high temperature
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2022 (English)In: Friction, ISSN 2223-7690, E-ISSN 2223-7704, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 2069-2085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iron-based coatings with the incorporation of solid lubricants have been prepared by means of laser cladding, in an effort to control friction and decrease tool wear at high temperatures during metal forming applications. The choice of a Fe-based powder has been considered advantageous, as it can lead to decreased costs compared to nickel-based claddings previously studied by the authors, in addition to having a lower environmental impact. In particular, the incorporation of transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 as precursors leads to the encapsulation of silver in Fe-based self-lubricating claddings, resulting in a uniform distribution of the soft metal across the thickness of the coating. Subsequent tribological evaluation of the claddings at high temperatures shows that the addition of lubricious compounds leads to lower friction at room temperature and significantly decreased wear up to 600 °C compared to the unmodified iron-based reference alloy, although higher than similar self-lubricating Ni-based claddings. In order to cast light into these observed differences, the corresponding microstructures, phase composition, and self-lubricating mechanisms have been studied and compared for Fe- and Ni-based claddings having both of them the addition of silver and MoS2. The results suggest a key role of the formation of protective tribolayers on the counter body during high temperature sliding contact. Additional simulation of the phase evolution during solidification reveals that the formation of different chromium- and nickel-based metal sulfides in Fe- and Ni-claddings during laser cladding by the decomposition of MoS2 plays a key role in determining their tribological behaviour at high temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
high temperature, laser cladding, self-lubrication, metal forming, chromium sulphide, MoS
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90691 (URN)10.1007/s40544-021-0578-1 (DOI)000794092700002 ()2-s2.0-85129804095 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-28 (joosat);

Funder: Austrian COMET Programme (Project K2 InTribology, grant no. 872176); M-ERA.NET (project no. 872381 HOTselflub)

Available from: 2022-05-24 Created: 2022-05-24 Last updated: 2022-11-28Bibliographically approved
Berglund, K., Rodiouchkina, M., Hardell, J., Kalliorinne, K. & Johansson, J. (2021). A novel reciprocating tribometer for friction and wear measurements with high contact pressure and large area contact configurations. Lubricants, 9(12)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel reciprocating tribometer for friction and wear measurements with high contact pressure and large area contact configurations
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2021 (English)In: Lubricants, ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 9, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are many moving machine assemblies with conformal tribological contacts at very high contact pressures, e.g., sliding bearings, propeller shaft bearings and machine guideways. Furthermore, applications such as trunnion and guide vane bearing in Kaplan turbines have very low sliding speeds and oscillatory types of motion. Although there is a vast selection of tribology test rigs available, there is still a lack of test equipment to perform friction and wear tests under high contact pressure, reciprocatory sliding and large area contact. The aim of this work is thus to develop a novel reciprocating tribometer and test method that enables friction and wear tests under low-speed reciprocatory sliding with contact pressures up to 90 MPa in a flat-on-flat contact configuration. First, a thorough description of the test rig design is given. Secondly, the influence of contact pressure and stroke length on the tribological properties of a stainless steel and polymer composite material combination is studied. The significance of considering creep, friction during the stroke and contact temperature is specifically highlighted. The novel tribometer can be used to screen different bearing and shaft material combinations and to evaluate the friction and wear performance of self-lubricating bearings for the specific operating conditions found in Kaplan turbines. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Kaplan turbine, self-lubricating, service life, lubrication, wear
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88660 (URN)10.3390/lubricants9120123 (DOI)000742716800001 ()2-s2.0-85121495531 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-01-04 (johcin)

Available from: 2022-01-04 Created: 2022-01-04 Last updated: 2023-02-28Bibliographically approved
Domitner, J., Silvayeh, Z., Shafiee Sabet, A., Öksüz, K., Pelcastre, L. & Hardell, J. (2021). Characterization of wear and friction between tool steel and aluminum alloys in sheet forming at room temperature. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 64, 774-784
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of wear and friction between tool steel and aluminum alloys in sheet forming at room temperature
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 64, p. 774-784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work investigates the coefficient of friction (COF) at room temperature between tool steel 1.2343 and aluminum alloys EN AW-5182, EN AW-6016 as-delivered (T4) and EN AW-6016 naturally aged (T4*) using a strip drawing tribometer. In order to simulate the contact conditions of industrial sheet metal forming processes, the surfaces of the steel pins and of the aluminum strips were maintained as-delivered, i.e., the pins were wire-cut from a hardened and ground plate and the strips were cut from electrical discharge textured (EDT) and dry-lubricated sheets. Two sliding velocities, 50 mm/s and 250 mm/s, and two nominal contact pressures, 10 N/mm2 and 20 N/mm2, were considered. The sliding distance on each strip was 0.5 m. Each pair of pins was utilized for testing 10 or 20 strips to study the influence of increasing the sliding distance on the COF. Before and after the tribological experiments, surface topographies of selected pins and strips were analyzed using 3D optical surface profilometry, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Strain hardening due to plastic surface deformation of the strips was investigated using an automated hardness tester. In general, an increasing trend of the COF was observed with increasing sliding distance. The mean COF obtained for each of the tests was in the range of 0.09−0.17; however, it was considerably higher if aluminum was transferred from the strip to the pins. Moreover, moist pin surfaces were identified to increase the COF, as the originally dry lubricant became pasty and sticky which promoted entrapment of abraded aluminum particles. Slightly higher strain hardening of alloy EN AW-5182 compared to alloy EN AW-6016 caused less flattening of the strip asperities and more severe wear of the pin surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Coefficient of friction, COF, Sheet metal forming, Aluminum alloy, Tool steel, Galling, Contact pressure, Sliding velocity, Strip drawing tribometer
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83081 (URN)10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.02.007 (DOI)000642073600002 ()2-s2.0-85101105716 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-02-26 (alebob);

Finansiär: Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union

Available from: 2021-02-26 Created: 2021-02-26 Last updated: 2022-06-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1162-4671

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