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Elenius, L. (2018). Nationella minoriteters symboliska nationsbyggande: Föreställningen om Kvänland och Sápmi som nya former av etnopolitik bland finskspråkiga och samiskspråkiga minoriteter. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 138(3), 480-509
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nationella minoriteters symboliska nationsbyggande: Föreställningen om Kvänland och Sápmi som nya former av etnopolitik bland finskspråkiga och samiskspråkiga minoriteter
2018 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 480-509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sápmi and Kvänland as new forms of ethno-policy among Sámi and Finnish speaking minorities

In the article the creation of two transnational ethnic homelands, Sápmi and Kvenland in northern Scandinavia, is explored from the 1970s to present day. They are created as symbolic nations with their own nation flags, memorial days and anthems. In this respect they resemble other “nations without states” round the world. The aim is to analyse theories on transnational nation building in northern Fennoscandinavia out of these two cases. The investigation demonstrates how the use of history and myths has been used in a competition between Sámi and Finnish speakers about the right to be regarded as an indigenous people. These ethnic groups of people are now politically organised on both national and transnational level, and the Sámi also on global level.

With the global strengthening of indigenous rights, Sámi-speaking groups introduced, in the 1970s, Sápmi as a transnational homeland for the Sámi people in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. After the official recognition of Sámi as an indigenous people, and the launching of Sámi parliaments in the Nordic countries in the 1990s, Finnish speaking minorities organised cross nation-borders in order to also be recognised as an indigenous people. They have deliberately used the Norwegian ethnonym Kven for depicting the united people of Finnish speakers cross nation borders in Sweden, Norway and Finland. Kven is the name of Finnish speaking migrants in northern Norway from at least the 17th century, but it was also used by the Norwegian Vikings in the 9th century for depicting an ancient people or ethnic group of people round the Gulf of Bothnia area.

The relation between the concepts of state, nation, ethnicity and nationalism have been investigated in theories of ”nations without states”. The article demonstrates how ethnicity and nation are problematic notions to use when nations are created cross state borders. Since the nation-state has been the political form of modernity it has forced the minorities to use the nation as a model for meeting ethno-political demands. Ethno-policy has, in an increasing way, been carried out in a global and new democratic context with enlarged minority rights. It has made ethnic forms of organizing change. Ethnicity has more and more become means for putting forward political demands in ethnic form, being embedded in mediated forms. The interplay between ethnic, national and transnational identifications therefore differ from the earlier national identity and run parallel to each other.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2018
Keywords
Scandinavia, national minorities, transnationalism, ethno-policy, myth.
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72482 (URN)
Projects
Recalling the Past, Silvermuseet
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2018). Were the “Kainulaiset” in the Kalix River valley Finnish or Swedish-speakers?: A reinterpretation of ethnonyms in Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia area from the Viking Age and onwards. Acta Borealia (2), 1-33
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Were the “Kainulaiset” in the Kalix River valley Finnish or Swedish-speakers?: A reinterpretation of ethnonyms in Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia area from the Viking Age and onwards
2018 (English)In: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, no 2, p. 1-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Norwegian ethnonym Kven and the Finnish ethnonym Kainulainen occurred at latest in the first millennium AD. A tacit truth held today is that the ethnonyms represent the same ancient Finnish-speaking group, only named differently by Norwegians and Finns. The aim of the article is to find out whether the ethnonyms have been used to designate different groups of people. The Finnish-speakers in the nearby Tornedalen has called the lower part of the Kalix River in northernmost Sweden the Kainuu River and the upper part Kaalas River after the original Sámi name of the river. According to theories on ethnicity they called the lower part the Kainuu River [Fin. Kainuunväylä] because they wanted to mark out the Swedish speakers of different ethnicity, who they called Kainulaiset. The latter mainly settled the lower part of the river in the Middle Ages and Finnish-speakers the upper part. The article reveals that the Sámi variety Gainolâš was used by the Sámi for depicting dominant majority populations of different ethnicity, especially Scandinavians, but sometimes also Finns. It also argues that Finnish settlers in southern Finland and the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia used Kainulainen for depicting Swedish settlers when the two language groups first encountered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Ethnonym, Kainulainen, ethnicity, nationalism, Sámi, Finn, Kven
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72470 (URN)10.1080/08003831.2018.1536183 (DOI)000452061000003 ()2-s2.0-85055702490 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Recalling the Past, Silvermuseet, Arjeplog
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M11-0361:1
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2017). Ethnopolitical mobilisation in the North Calotte area. In: Kari Alenius & Matti Enbuske (Ed.), The Barents and the Baltic Sea region : contacts, influences and social change (pp. 1-18). Rovaniemi: Pohjois-Suomen historiallinen yhdistys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnopolitical mobilisation in the North Calotte area
2017 (English)In: The Barents and the Baltic Sea region : contacts, influences and social change / [ed] Kari Alenius & Matti Enbuske, Rovaniemi: Pohjois-Suomen historiallinen yhdistys , 2017, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rovaniemi: Pohjois-Suomen historiallinen yhdistys, 2017
Series
Studia Historica Septentrionalia ; 77
National Category
Humanities and the Arts History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63012 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L., Allard, C. & Sandström, C. (Eds.). (2017). Indigenous Rights in Moders Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context. New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indigenous Rights in Moders Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context
2017 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This book examines the diverse use of Indigenous customary rights in modern landscapes from a multidisciplinary perspective. Divided into two parts, the first deals explicitly with Sámi customary rights in relation to nature conservation in the Nordic countries and Russia from a legal and historical perspective. The authors investigate how longstanding Sámi customary territorial rights have been reassessed in the context of new kinds of legislation regarding Indigenous people. They also look at the ideas behind the historical models of nature conservation. The second part deals with the ideas and implementation of new kinds of postcolonial models of nature conservation. The case of the Sámi is compared with other Indigenous people internationally with cases from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India. The work investigates how the governance of protected areas has been influenced by the principles of equality and positive discrimination, and how it has affected the possibilities of establishing adaptive co-management arrangements for specific areas. How the legal situation of Indigenous peoples has been recognised in an international context is also investigated. The volume provides a multidisciplinary analysis of how the customary livelihood of Indigenous people has adapted to modern industrialised landscapes and also how postcolonial approaches have contributed to global changes of Indigenous rights and nature conservation models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2017. p. 236
National Category
Social Sciences Humanities Law (excluding Law and Society) History
Research subject
History; Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62745 (URN)9781472464927 (ISBN)9781317059684 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2016). Bergqvist, Olof. In: editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius (Ed.), Mats-Olov Olsson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 1, A-M (pp. 88-90). Paper presented at . Oslo: Pax Forlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bergqvist, Olof
2016 (English)In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 1, A-M / [ed] editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 88-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61203 (URN)978-82-530-3858-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-12-21 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2016). Conceptions of ethnicity and nature conservation in reindeer herding areas in Sweden and Finland. In: Lars Elenius, Christina Allard, Camilla Sandström (Ed.), Indigenous Rights in Modern Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context (pp. 25-41). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptions of ethnicity and nature conservation in reindeer herding areas in Sweden and Finland
2016 (English)In: Indigenous Rights in Modern Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context / [ed] Lars Elenius, Christina Allard, Camilla Sandström, New York: Routledge , 2016, p. 25-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2016
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62801 (URN)10.4324/9781315607559 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020372866 (Scopus ID)9781472464927 (ISBN)9781317059684 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2016). Grape, Pehr Olof. In: editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius (Ed.), Mats-Olov Olsson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 1, A-M (pp. 279). Paper presented at . Oslo: Pax Forlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grape, Pehr Olof
2016 (English)In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 1, A-M / [ed] editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 279-Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61209 (URN)978-82-530-3858-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-12-21 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2016). History. In: editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius (Ed.), Mats-Olov Olsson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 1, A-M (pp. 295-303). Paper presented at . Oslo: Pax Forlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>History
2016 (English)In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 1, A-M / [ed] editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 295-303Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61211 (URN)978-82-530-3858-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2016). Indtroduction. In: Lars Elenius, Christina Allard, Camilla Sandström (Ed.), Indigenous Rights in Modern Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context (pp. 1-5). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indtroduction
2016 (English)In: Indigenous Rights in Modern Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context / [ed] Lars Elenius, Christina Allard, Camilla Sandström, New York: Routledge , 2016, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2016
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62796 (URN)9781472464927 (ISBN)9781317059684 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Elenius, L. (2016). Introduction. In: Lars Elenius, Christina Allard, Camilla Sandström (Ed.), Indigenous Rights in Modern Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context (pp. 1-5). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction
2016 (English)In: Indigenous Rights in Modern Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context / [ed] Lars Elenius, Christina Allard, Camilla Sandström, New York: Routledge , 2016, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2016
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64376 (URN)10.4324/9781315607559 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020370311 (Scopus ID)9781472464927 (ISBN)9781317059684 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7114-4605

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