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Publications (10 of 407) Show all publications
Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Laue, J. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology. Engineering, 11(4), 189-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology
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2019 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 189-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Scientific Research Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Badush Dam, Mosul Dam, Flood Retention Dam Dry Dam, Foundation
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73608 (URN)10.4236/eng.2019.114014 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Abdullah, T., Ali, S. S., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq. Water, 11(4), Article ID 690.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for

domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate

along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
hydrogeochemistry; water quality index; domestic use; Halabja Saidsadiq Basin
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73541 (URN)10.3390/w11040690 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065012852 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-10 (inah)

Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Laue, J., Hazim, A., Knutsson, S. & Pusch, R. (2019). Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Environmental science and pollution research international
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
MCDM, Change Detection, RSW, AHP, Landfill siting
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73400 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-05064-7 (DOI)31044377 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065255296 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Laue, J. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 13(3), 151-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 151-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: David Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
Mosul Dam, karst, infiltration, dam foundation, dam failure.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73526 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2019.03.001 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-15 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., Alkaradaghi, K., Hussain, H. M. & Knutsson, S. (2018). Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 12(12), 848-879
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 848-879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The landfill design is necessary to be implemented in various regions to protect public human health and the factors ofenvironment. The suggested design of landfill was performed in the arid areas, where that Babylon Governorate, Iraq was selected as a case study. Babylon overnorate is located in the middle of Iraq. The suggested design for the selected sites for landfill in the arid areas was consisted of the base liner and final cover systems. The HELP 3.95D model was applied on both systems to check if there is any leakage by leachate from the suggested soil layers of landfill base on the water balance in Babylon Governorate for the years 2005-2016. The suggested design of final cover system was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas through storing water that coming from the surface within upper layers that have fine particles and over the top barrier without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation. This is  allowing to the stored water to evaporate from the surface of soil or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during the most months in the study area. The results showed there was no percolation of leachate through the base liner system. The design of final cover system was acted to reduce the runoff on the surface and increase theactual evaporation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: David Publishing Company, 2018
Keywords
Landfill design, arid areas, soil layers, solid waste, HELP model
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72943 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2018.12.003 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-03-08 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
O. Abdullah, T., S. Ali, S., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2018). Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Using VLDA and COP Models in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 12(11), 798-809, Article ID 003.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Using VLDA and COP Models in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
2018 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 798-809, article id 003Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

Groundwater aquifer in the Halabja and Saidsadiq Basin considered being one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims the evaluation of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability with each covered area: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: David Publishing Company, 2018
Keywords
Vulnerability, VLDA, COP, HSB.
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72758 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2018.11.003 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-02-28 (marisr)

Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-02-01 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Sissakian, V., Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Knutsson, S. & Laue, J. (2018). Geological and Geotechnical Study of Badush Dam, Iraq. In: : . Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), WAT2018, Article ID 2546.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geological and Geotechnical Study of Badush Dam, Iraq
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) [Artistic work]
Abstract [en]

Badush Dam is a combined earthfill and concrete buttress dam; uncompleted, it is planned to be a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam, which impounds the Tigris River. Mosul Dam is also an earthfill dam; it is the largest dam in Iraq. The safety of Mosul Dam is a matter of debate since its commissioning in 1986. This is attributed to the geological conditions at the dam site are not suitable due to thick exposures of karstified gypsum rocks, which extend

, deep down, into the foundations. Therefore, Badush Dam was planned and designed to protect the population and present infrastructures downstream of Mosul Dam, if the latter would collapse. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are similar to those at Mosul Dam site, which means; the foundations of the dam, are located on karstified gypsum beds also. Grouting works were planned and designed, and they were partly performed simultaneously with the beginning of the construction of Badush Dam in 1988 and continued until the suspension of the construction in 1991. The constructed parts attained about (30 – 40)% of the work items. The design of the Badush Dam indicates clearly the temporary nature of its use, which is reflected in the thin inclined clay core and other embankment details. The basic design considerations of the dam were to have a dam, which is high enough to contain the full volume of Mosul Dam wave of 10 X 109 m3 when routed through its reservoir, and to limit at the same time the released discharge within the capacity across the downstream reach of the river without causing flooding. In this study, we have presented and discussed the geological and engineering geological conditions; whether Badush Dam can function as a protection dam or can it be remodeled to become a normal storage dam to replace Mosul Dam.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2018
Series
Atiner Conference Paper Series, ISSN 2241-2891
Keywords
Collapse of Dam, Grouting, Karstification
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71086 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-10-19
Knutsson, R., Viklander, P., Knutsson, S. & Laue, J. (2018). How to avoid permafrost while depositing tailings in cold climate. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 153, 86-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to avoid permafrost while depositing tailings in cold climate
2018 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 153, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managing tailings deposition in cold climate requires specific measures not to create permafrost. The risk of generating permafrost due to tailings deposition exists even in regions where permafrost would naturally not occur. Material being frozen during winter might not fully thaw in the following summer due to added height of the tailings on the surface. Such embedded layers of permafrost should be avoided especially close to tailing dams. Main reasons are to prevent impermeable layers in tailings facilities, and to reduce the risk of having implications if such layers thaw during warmer summers causing increase in pore water pressure, reduced effective stress, and increased water content.

This paper presents a numerical study on the effects of tailings deposition in cold regions in relation to the potential formation of permafrost. Various deposition rates, schedules and tailings properties were evaluated. One-dimensional heat conduction analyses were performed with a temperature scenario representing a mine district in northern Sweden. Results show, that the thickness of permafrost layers increase with increased deposition rate and with increased water content. It was also shown that wet and loose tailings must be deposited in short periods during summer to avoid permafrost generation. In the case of dry and dense tailings more time is available for deposition in order not to cause aggradation of permafrost in the deposit.

These findings can help mining operation to set up deposition schedules for tailings facilities in cold climate. For known tailings properties, results can be used to identify periods of the year when, and how much, tailings can be deposited in critical areas of a deposit in order to avoid permafrost formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68963 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.05.009 (DOI)000439349800010 ()2-s2.0-85047628128 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-04 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-08-09Bibliographically approved
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Alkaradaghi, K., Al-Rawabdeh, A. M., Laue, J., Hussain, H. M., . . . Knutsson, S. (2018). Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Sustainability, 10(12), Article ID 4568.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4568Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities

of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health.

The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
landfill; suggested design; cover systems;HELP 3.95Dmodel; arid area; shallowgroundwater
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71877 (URN)10.3390/su10124568 (DOI)000455338100234 ()2-s2.0-85057806229 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;NIvå 2;2018-12-07 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
Abdullah, T., Ali, S., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2018). Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP andTritium Isotopes. Geosciences, 8(7), Article ID 236.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP andTritium Isotopes
2018 (English)In: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwatercontamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that are more vulnerable to pollution is incredibly vital.  The objectives of this paper are to reveal weight modified of DRASTIC model based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process to estimate the proportional likelihood of groundwater resources pollution. Tritium isotopes analysis was chosen and applied as a pollution marker to confirm the result of this adjustment. Based on this modification, vulnerability classes that were achieved for the studied basin were alienated into five classes, including very low, low, medium, high, and very high, with vulnerability index value of (<100, >100–125, >125–150,>150–200, and >200), respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
vulnerability; DRASTIC; AHP; Tritium; Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69971 (URN)10.3390/geosciences8070236 (DOI)000445150300011 ()2-s2.0-85049505050 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-29 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-06-28 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1365-8552

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