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Abdullah, T., Ali, S., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2020). Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10, Article ID 100276.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
2020 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, article id 100276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Vulnerability, VLDA, COP, Halabja-Saidsadiq basin (HSB), Iraq
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76166 (URN)10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100276 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072644933 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-10-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Laue, J. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology. Engineering, 11(4), 189-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology
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2019 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 189-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Scientific Research Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Badush Dam, Mosul Dam, Flood Retention Dam Dry Dam, Foundation
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73608 (URN)10.4236/eng.2019.114014 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Pusch, R., Kasbohm, J., Knutsson, S., Hoang-Minh, T. & Nguyen-Thanh, L. (2019). Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 237-272
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 237-272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As for isolation of high-level radioactive waste by use of smectite clay it serves very well also for hindering radionuclides from low- and intermediate-level waste to contaminate groundwater. It can be used for minimizing groundwater flow through and along waste packages and for providing them with ductile embedment for eliminating the risk of damage caused by displacements in host rock or concrete vaults. The clay can have the form of liners placed and compacted on site over vaults constructed on the ground surface, or consist of compacted blocks of clay granules that are tightly placed around waste packages in underground drifts and rooms. In either case the initially incompletely water saturated clay will swell in conjunction with water uptake until tight contact with the confining medium has been established. The clay seals must be sufficiently dense to fulfill criteria set with respect to hydraulic conductivity and swelling capacity, paying due attention to the salt content in the porewater. Their physical and chemical stabilities must be acceptable in short- and long-term perspectives, which is a few hundred years for most low-level wastes up to tens of thousands of years for long-lived waste. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Low-level radioactive waste (LLW), smectite clay, radionuclides, underground disposal of radioactive waste, mineralogy of clays
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75712 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Al-Jabban, W., Laue, J., Knutsson, S. & Al-Ansari, N. (2019). Effect of Disintegration Times of the Homogeneity of Soil prior to Treatment. Applied Sciences, 9(22), Article ID 4791.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Disintegration Times of the Homogeneity of Soil prior to Treatment
2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 22, article id 4791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the effect of various disintegration times on the homogeneity of pre-treated natural soil before mixing with cementitious binders. Various disintegration times were applied, ranging from 10 s to 120 s. Four different soils were used with different characteristics from high, medium and low plasticity properties. Visual and sieving assessment were used to evaluate the best disintegration times to allow for a uniform distribution of water content and small-sized particles that would produce a uniform distribution of the binder around the soil particles. Results showed that a proper mixing time to homogenize and disintegrate the soil prior to treatment depended on several factors: soil type, water content and plasticity properties. For high plasticity soil, the disintegration time should be kept as short as possible. Increasing the disintegration time ha negative effects on the uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles. The homogenizing and disintegration time were less important for low plasticity soils with low water content than for medium to high plasticity soils. The findings could assist various construction projects that deal with soil improvement through preparation of soil before adding a cementitious binder to ensure uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles and obtain uniform soil–binder mixtures

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
soil, homogenize, disaggregate, prior to treatment, time
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76657 (URN)10.3390/app9224791 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-11-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-11-09 Created: 2019-11-09 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Abdullah, T., Ali, S. S., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq. Water, 11(4), Article ID 690.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
hydrogeochemistry, water quality index, domestic use, Halabja Saidsadiq Basin
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73541 (URN)10.3390/w11040690 (DOI)000473105700060 ()2-s2.0-85065012852 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-10 (inah)

Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Laue, J., Hazim, A., Knutsson, S. & Pusch, R. (2019). Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Environmental science and pollution research international
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
MCDM, Change Detection, RSW, AHP, Landfill siting
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73400 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-05064-7 (DOI)31044377 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065255296 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Laue, J. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 13(3), 151-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 151-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: David Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
Mosul Dam, karst, infiltration, dam foundation, dam failure.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73526 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2019.03.001 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-15 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Sissakian, V., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., Knutsson, S. & Pusch, R. (2019). Siting of Landfills for Hazardous Waste in Iraq from a Geological Perspective. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 295-311
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Siting of Landfills for Hazardous Waste in Iraq from a Geological Perspective
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 295-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iraq has been involved with two major wars in 1991 and 2003 (Gulf war I and II), which resulted in leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable amount of the military waste contains depleted uranium (DU), which is a by-product of the enrichment of natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. DU used during the second Gulf war is more than 1100 to 2000 tons. This has serious effects on humans in Iraq and the environment. There is no national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. To protect humans and the environment, three locations for disposals were suggested according to the geological conditions. These locations fulfill the requirements so that radioactive waste does not affect human life and the environment. To use these sites there should be proper design for the landfills so that it can perform for long period of time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Landfill, Hazardous Waste, depleted uranium (DU), geological factor for siting, Iraq
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75723 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Ali, A. A., Al-Ansari, N., Al-Suhail, Q. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Spatial total load rating curve for a large river: A Case study of the Tigris River at Baghdad. International Journal of River Basin Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial total load rating curve for a large river: A Case study of the Tigris River at Baghdad
2019 (English)In: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The Tigris River in Baghdad is a large sand-bed river, supply-limited because of the implementation of a water flow regulation scheme comprising a series of reservoirs and barrages.  The significant reduction in the water discharge has affected the hydraulic performance of the river and turned it into an under-fit river of complicated morphology where many islands and bank deposits have been showed up across an 18km reach in addition to the essential sinuosity. Measuring sediment load at individual cross-sections in the river gives misleading estimates and the corresponding sediment rating curve has a locally limited using. A spatially sediment rating by investigating sediment loads over the complicated reach is required to overcome the local limitations. Sediment transport rates have been investigated at 16 cross-sections along the study reach by collecting suspended load, bed load and bed material samples. Velocity profiles were measured at the sampling stations using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The measurement results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode of transport (93.5%). However, bedloads were considered in determining the total loads. A spatial total load rating curve in the form of a power function was established and examined against the sediment measurements. Twenty-two previously published total load formulae where applied at the same sections and of these the Colby1964 formula gave the closest fit to the measured loads. Based on the results from this study a recommended procedure is established for using a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment transport rates for similar morphologically complicated rivers. Average annual transport rates during the period 2009-13 was estimated at 3.21 million tons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Sediment sampling, Total sediment load, Sediment rating curve, Spatial variation, Supply-limited, Under-fit river, Tigris River
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75479 (URN)10.1080/15715124.2019.1653305 (DOI)000482070100001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-09-13
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., Alkaradaghi, K., Hussain, H. M. & Knutsson, S. (2018). Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 12(12), 848-879
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 848-879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The landfill design is necessary to be implemented in various regions to protect public human health and the factors ofenvironment. The suggested design of landfill was performed in the arid areas, where that Babylon Governorate, Iraq was selected as a case study. Babylon overnorate is located in the middle of Iraq. The suggested design for the selected sites for landfill in the arid areas was consisted of the base liner and final cover systems. The HELP 3.95D model was applied on both systems to check if there is any leakage by leachate from the suggested soil layers of landfill base on the water balance in Babylon Governorate for the years 2005-2016. The suggested design of final cover system was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas through storing water that coming from the surface within upper layers that have fine particles and over the top barrier without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation. This is  allowing to the stored water to evaporate from the surface of soil or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during the most months in the study area. The results showed there was no percolation of leachate through the base liner system. The design of final cover system was acted to reduce the runoff on the surface and increase theactual evaporation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: David Publishing Company, 2018
Keywords
Landfill design, arid areas, soil layers, solid waste, HELP model
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72943 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2018.12.003 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-03-08 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1365-8552

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